Abstract

Pulse propagation experiments are performed with coherent picosecond laser pulses in resonance with the donor bound A-exciton (I2) state in CdS. Using bandwidth-limited time-resolved spectroscopy, we investigate the intensity of the transmitted laser pulse as a function of monochromator energy position and time. This method permits the determination of both the amplitude and the phase of the complex electric-field amplitude. Studying the dependence of pulse propagation on the input intensity, for small-area pulses we found at the rear of the sample the spectral hole formation and beating characteristic of a 0π pulse. At large pulse areas close to 2π the pulse propagates nearly unperturbed, showing no oscillatory reshaping or significant absorption losses. This provides clear evidence for self-induced transparency at an excitonic state in solids. Our interpretation is substantiated by an analysis within the framework of the combined Maxwell and optical Bloch equations.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Itoh, P. Lavallard, J. Reydellet, and C. Benoit á la Guillaume, “Time of flight of excitonic polaritons in CdSe,” Solid State Commun. 37, 925 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Fröhlich, A. Kulik, B. Uebbing, A. Mysyrowicz, V. Langer, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Coherent propagation and quantum beats of quadrupole polaritons in Cu2O,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2343 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. S. Kim, J. Shah, D. A. B. Miller, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, and L. Pfeiffer, “Femtosecond pulse distortion in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B. 48, 17902 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Aaviksoo, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Observation of optical precursors at pulse propagation in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. A. 44, R5353 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Mishina and Y. Masumoto, “Coherent propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in a monoclinic ZnP2 single crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2785 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Göbel, “Light propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. 183, 457 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Goll and H. Haken, “Self-induced transparency of excitons and the dispersion law of steady-state exciton–photon pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 18, 2241 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Binder, Y. Z. Hu, A. Knorr, M. Lindberg, and S. W. Koch, “Many-body theory of coherent optical effects in semiconductors,” in Coherent Optical Interactions in Semiconductors, R. T. Phillips, ed., Vol. 330 of NATO ASI Ser. B (Plenum, New York, 1994), p. 63.
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. S. Dneprovskii, V. N. Chumash, and E. V. Zimenko, “Coherent interaction of picosecond frequency-tunable light pulses with excitons in a semiconductor,” Appl. Phys. 25, 157 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. T. Cundiff, A. Knorr, J. Feldmann, S. W. Koch, E. O. Göbel, and H. Nickel, “Rabi flopping in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1178 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. A. Harten, A. Knorr, J. P. Sokoloff, F. Brownde de Colstoun, S. G. Lee, R. Jin, E. M. Wright, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Propagation-induced escape from adiabatic following in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 852 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. G. Thomas and J. J. Hopfield, “Optical properties of bound exciton complexes in cadmium sulfide,” Phys. Rev. 128, 2135 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two-Level Atoms (Dover, New York, 1987).
  15. M. Jütte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Coherent exciton-photon interaction and pulse propagation effects of bound exciton states in CdS,” Phys. Status Solidi B 188, 327 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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  17. R. Trebino and D. J. Kane, “Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort pulses: frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1101 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. D. Crisp, “Propagation of small-area pulses of coherent light through a resonant medium,” Phys. Rev. A 1, 1604 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. Askary and P. Y. Yu, “Exciton–polariton bottleneck and the thermalization of polariton luminescence in CdS and CdSe,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 6643 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. H. Henry and K. Nassau, “Lifetimes of bound excitons in CdS,” Phys. Rev. B 1, 1628 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. D. Macomber, The Dynamics of Spectroscopic Transitions (Wiley, New York, 1976).

1995 (2)

T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Göbel, “Light propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jütte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Coherent exciton-photon interaction and pulse propagation effects of bound exciton states in CdS,” Phys. Status Solidi B 188, 327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. T. Cundiff, A. Knorr, J. Feldmann, S. W. Koch, E. O. Göbel, and H. Nickel, “Rabi flopping in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1178 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (3)

R. Trebino and D. J. Kane, “Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort pulses: frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1101 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Mishina and Y. Masumoto, “Coherent propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in a monoclinic ZnP2 single crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2785 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, D. A. B. Miller, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, and L. Pfeiffer, “Femtosecond pulse distortion in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B. 48, 17902 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

P. A. Harten, A. Knorr, J. P. Sokoloff, F. Brownde de Colstoun, S. G. Lee, R. Jin, E. M. Wright, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Propagation-induced escape from adiabatic following in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 852 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

J. Aaviksoo, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Observation of optical precursors at pulse propagation in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. A. 44, R5353 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fröhlich, A. Kulik, B. Uebbing, A. Mysyrowicz, V. Langer, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Coherent propagation and quantum beats of quadrupole polaritons in Cu2O,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

F. Askary and P. Y. Yu, “Exciton–polariton bottleneck and the thermalization of polariton luminescence in CdS and CdSe,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 6643 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

V. S. Dneprovskii, V. N. Chumash, and E. V. Zimenko, “Coherent interaction of picosecond frequency-tunable light pulses with excitons in a semiconductor,” Appl. Phys. 25, 157 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. Itoh, P. Lavallard, J. Reydellet, and C. Benoit á la Guillaume, “Time of flight of excitonic polaritons in CdSe,” Solid State Commun. 37, 925 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

J. Goll and H. Haken, “Self-induced transparency of excitons and the dispersion law of steady-state exciton–photon pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 18, 2241 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1970 (2)

C. H. Henry and K. Nassau, “Lifetimes of bound excitons in CdS,” Phys. Rev. B 1, 1628 (1970).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Crisp, “Propagation of small-area pulses of coherent light through a resonant medium,” Phys. Rev. A 1, 1604 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. 183, 457 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

D. G. Thomas and J. J. Hopfield, “Optical properties of bound exciton complexes in cadmium sulfide,” Phys. Rev. 128, 2135 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Aaviksoo, J.

J. Aaviksoo, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Observation of optical precursors at pulse propagation in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. A. 44, R5353 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, L.

L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two-Level Atoms (Dover, New York, 1987).

Anthony, C.

T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Göbel, “Light propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Askary, F.

F. Askary and P. Y. Yu, “Exciton–polariton bottleneck and the thermalization of polariton luminescence in CdS and CdSe,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 6643 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Benoit á la Guillaume, C.

T. Itoh, P. Lavallard, J. Reydellet, and C. Benoit á la Guillaume, “Time of flight of excitonic polaritons in CdSe,” Solid State Commun. 37, 925 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Binder, R.

R. Binder, Y. Z. Hu, A. Knorr, M. Lindberg, and S. W. Koch, “Many-body theory of coherent optical effects in semiconductors,” in Coherent Optical Interactions in Semiconductors, R. T. Phillips, ed., Vol. 330 of NATO ASI Ser. B (Plenum, New York, 1994), p. 63.
[CrossRef]

Brownde de Colstoun, F.

P. A. Harten, A. Knorr, J. P. Sokoloff, F. Brownde de Colstoun, S. G. Lee, R. Jin, E. M. Wright, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Propagation-induced escape from adiabatic following in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 852 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chumash, V. N.

V. S. Dneprovskii, V. N. Chumash, and E. V. Zimenko, “Coherent interaction of picosecond frequency-tunable light pulses with excitons in a semiconductor,” Appl. Phys. 25, 157 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Crisp, M. D.

M. D. Crisp, “Propagation of small-area pulses of coherent light through a resonant medium,” Phys. Rev. A 1, 1604 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Göbel, “Light propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Cundiff, A. Knorr, J. Feldmann, S. W. Koch, E. O. Göbel, and H. Nickel, “Rabi flopping in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1178 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Damen, T. C.

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, D. A. B. Miller, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, and L. Pfeiffer, “Femtosecond pulse distortion in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B. 48, 17902 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dneprovskii, V. S.

V. S. Dneprovskii, V. N. Chumash, and E. V. Zimenko, “Coherent interaction of picosecond frequency-tunable light pulses with excitons in a semiconductor,” Appl. Phys. 25, 157 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Eberly, J. H.

L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two-Level Atoms (Dover, New York, 1987).

Feldmann, J.

T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Göbel, “Light propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Cundiff, A. Knorr, J. Feldmann, S. W. Koch, E. O. Göbel, and H. Nickel, “Rabi flopping in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1178 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fröhlich, D.

D. Fröhlich, A. Kulik, B. Uebbing, A. Mysyrowicz, V. Langer, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Coherent propagation and quantum beats of quadrupole polaritons in Cu2O,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, H. M.

P. A. Harten, A. Knorr, J. P. Sokoloff, F. Brownde de Colstoun, S. G. Lee, R. Jin, E. M. Wright, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Propagation-induced escape from adiabatic following in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 852 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Göbel, E. O.

T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Göbel, “Light propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Cundiff, A. Knorr, J. Feldmann, S. W. Koch, E. O. Göbel, and H. Nickel, “Rabi flopping in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1178 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goll, J.

J. Goll and H. Haken, “Self-induced transparency of excitons and the dispersion law of steady-state exciton–photon pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 18, 2241 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, E. L.

S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. 183, 457 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Haken, H.

J. Goll and H. Haken, “Self-induced transparency of excitons and the dispersion law of steady-state exciton–photon pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 18, 2241 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Harten, P. A.

P. A. Harten, A. Knorr, J. P. Sokoloff, F. Brownde de Colstoun, S. G. Lee, R. Jin, E. M. Wright, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Propagation-induced escape from adiabatic following in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 852 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henry, C. H.

C. H. Henry and K. Nassau, “Lifetimes of bound excitons in CdS,” Phys. Rev. B 1, 1628 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Hopfield, J. J.

D. G. Thomas and J. J. Hopfield, “Optical properties of bound exciton complexes in cadmium sulfide,” Phys. Rev. 128, 2135 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y. Z.

R. Binder, Y. Z. Hu, A. Knorr, M. Lindberg, and S. W. Koch, “Many-body theory of coherent optical effects in semiconductors,” in Coherent Optical Interactions in Semiconductors, R. T. Phillips, ed., Vol. 330 of NATO ASI Ser. B (Plenum, New York, 1994), p. 63.
[CrossRef]

Itoh, T.

T. Itoh, P. Lavallard, J. Reydellet, and C. Benoit á la Guillaume, “Time of flight of excitonic polaritons in CdSe,” Solid State Commun. 37, 925 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Jin, R.

P. A. Harten, A. Knorr, J. P. Sokoloff, F. Brownde de Colstoun, S. G. Lee, R. Jin, E. M. Wright, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Propagation-induced escape from adiabatic following in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 852 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jütte, M.

M. Jütte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Coherent exciton-photon interaction and pulse propagation effects of bound exciton states in CdS,” Phys. Status Solidi B 188, 327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kane, D. J.

Khitrova, G.

P. A. Harten, A. Knorr, J. P. Sokoloff, F. Brownde de Colstoun, S. G. Lee, R. Jin, E. M. Wright, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Propagation-induced escape from adiabatic following in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 852 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. S.

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, D. A. B. Miller, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, and L. Pfeiffer, “Femtosecond pulse distortion in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B. 48, 17902 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Knorr, A.

T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Göbel, “Light propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Cundiff, A. Knorr, J. Feldmann, S. W. Koch, E. O. Göbel, and H. Nickel, “Rabi flopping in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1178 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Harten, A. Knorr, J. P. Sokoloff, F. Brownde de Colstoun, S. G. Lee, R. Jin, E. M. Wright, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Propagation-induced escape from adiabatic following in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 852 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Binder, Y. Z. Hu, A. Knorr, M. Lindberg, and S. W. Koch, “Many-body theory of coherent optical effects in semiconductors,” in Coherent Optical Interactions in Semiconductors, R. T. Phillips, ed., Vol. 330 of NATO ASI Ser. B (Plenum, New York, 1994), p. 63.
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Göbel, “Light propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, S. W.

T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Göbel, “Light propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Cundiff, A. Knorr, J. Feldmann, S. W. Koch, E. O. Göbel, and H. Nickel, “Rabi flopping in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1178 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Harten, A. Knorr, J. P. Sokoloff, F. Brownde de Colstoun, S. G. Lee, R. Jin, E. M. Wright, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Propagation-induced escape from adiabatic following in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 852 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Binder, Y. Z. Hu, A. Knorr, M. Lindberg, and S. W. Koch, “Many-body theory of coherent optical effects in semiconductors,” in Coherent Optical Interactions in Semiconductors, R. T. Phillips, ed., Vol. 330 of NATO ASI Ser. B (Plenum, New York, 1994), p. 63.
[CrossRef]

Kuhl, J.

J. Aaviksoo, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Observation of optical precursors at pulse propagation in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. A. 44, R5353 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulik, A.

D. Fröhlich, A. Kulik, B. Uebbing, A. Mysyrowicz, V. Langer, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Coherent propagation and quantum beats of quadrupole polaritons in Cu2O,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Langer, V.

D. Fröhlich, A. Kulik, B. Uebbing, A. Mysyrowicz, V. Langer, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Coherent propagation and quantum beats of quadrupole polaritons in Cu2O,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lavallard, P.

T. Itoh, P. Lavallard, J. Reydellet, and C. Benoit á la Guillaume, “Time of flight of excitonic polaritons in CdSe,” Solid State Commun. 37, 925 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. G.

P. A. Harten, A. Knorr, J. P. Sokoloff, F. Brownde de Colstoun, S. G. Lee, R. Jin, E. M. Wright, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Propagation-induced escape from adiabatic following in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 852 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindberg, M.

R. Binder, Y. Z. Hu, A. Knorr, M. Lindberg, and S. W. Koch, “Many-body theory of coherent optical effects in semiconductors,” in Coherent Optical Interactions in Semiconductors, R. T. Phillips, ed., Vol. 330 of NATO ASI Ser. B (Plenum, New York, 1994), p. 63.
[CrossRef]

Macomber, J. D.

J. D. Macomber, The Dynamics of Spectroscopic Transitions (Wiley, New York, 1976).

Masumoto, Y.

T. Mishina and Y. Masumoto, “Coherent propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in a monoclinic ZnP2 single crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2785 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCall, S. L.

S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. 183, 457 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, D. A. B. Miller, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, and L. Pfeiffer, “Femtosecond pulse distortion in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B. 48, 17902 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mishina, T.

T. Mishina and Y. Masumoto, “Coherent propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in a monoclinic ZnP2 single crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2785 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

D. Fröhlich, A. Kulik, B. Uebbing, A. Mysyrowicz, V. Langer, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Coherent propagation and quantum beats of quadrupole polaritons in Cu2O,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nassau, K.

C. H. Henry and K. Nassau, “Lifetimes of bound excitons in CdS,” Phys. Rev. B 1, 1628 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Nickel, H.

S. T. Cundiff, A. Knorr, J. Feldmann, S. W. Koch, E. O. Göbel, and H. Nickel, “Rabi flopping in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1178 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peyghambarian, N.

P. A. Harten, A. Knorr, J. P. Sokoloff, F. Brownde de Colstoun, S. G. Lee, R. Jin, E. M. Wright, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Propagation-induced escape from adiabatic following in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 852 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, L.

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, D. A. B. Miller, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, and L. Pfeiffer, “Femtosecond pulse distortion in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B. 48, 17902 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ploog, K.

J. Aaviksoo, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Observation of optical precursors at pulse propagation in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. A. 44, R5353 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reydellet, J.

T. Itoh, P. Lavallard, J. Reydellet, and C. Benoit á la Guillaume, “Time of flight of excitonic polaritons in CdSe,” Solid State Commun. 37, 925 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schäfer, W.

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, D. A. B. Miller, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, and L. Pfeiffer, “Femtosecond pulse distortion in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B. 48, 17902 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schulze, A.

T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Göbel, “Light propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, J.

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, D. A. B. Miller, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, and L. Pfeiffer, “Femtosecond pulse distortion in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B. 48, 17902 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sokoloff, J. P.

P. A. Harten, A. Knorr, J. P. Sokoloff, F. Brownde de Colstoun, S. G. Lee, R. Jin, E. M. Wright, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Propagation-induced escape from adiabatic following in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 852 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolz, H.

M. Jütte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Coherent exciton-photon interaction and pulse propagation effects of bound exciton states in CdS,” Phys. Status Solidi B 188, 327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Fröhlich, A. Kulik, B. Uebbing, A. Mysyrowicz, V. Langer, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Coherent propagation and quantum beats of quadrupole polaritons in Cu2O,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. Stolz, Time-Resolved Light Scattering from Excitons, Vol. 130 of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Stroucken, T.

T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Göbel, “Light propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, D. G.

D. G. Thomas and J. J. Hopfield, “Optical properties of bound exciton complexes in cadmium sulfide,” Phys. Rev. 128, 2135 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, P.

T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Göbel, “Light propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trebino, R.

Uebbing, B.

D. Fröhlich, A. Kulik, B. Uebbing, A. Mysyrowicz, V. Langer, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Coherent propagation and quantum beats of quadrupole polaritons in Cu2O,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

von der Osten, W.

M. Jütte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Coherent exciton-photon interaction and pulse propagation effects of bound exciton states in CdS,” Phys. Status Solidi B 188, 327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Fröhlich, A. Kulik, B. Uebbing, A. Mysyrowicz, V. Langer, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Coherent propagation and quantum beats of quadrupole polaritons in Cu2O,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wright, E. M.

P. A. Harten, A. Knorr, J. P. Sokoloff, F. Brownde de Colstoun, S. G. Lee, R. Jin, E. M. Wright, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Propagation-induced escape from adiabatic following in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 852 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, P. Y.

F. Askary and P. Y. Yu, “Exciton–polariton bottleneck and the thermalization of polariton luminescence in CdS and CdSe,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 6643 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Zimenko, E. V.

V. S. Dneprovskii, V. N. Chumash, and E. V. Zimenko, “Coherent interaction of picosecond frequency-tunable light pulses with excitons in a semiconductor,” Appl. Phys. 25, 157 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. (1)

V. S. Dneprovskii, V. N. Chumash, and E. V. Zimenko, “Coherent interaction of picosecond frequency-tunable light pulses with excitons in a semiconductor,” Appl. Phys. 25, 157 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Phys. Rev. (2)

D. G. Thomas and J. J. Hopfield, “Optical properties of bound exciton complexes in cadmium sulfide,” Phys. Rev. 128, 2135 (1962).
[CrossRef]

S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. 183, 457 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

J. Goll and H. Haken, “Self-induced transparency of excitons and the dispersion law of steady-state exciton–photon pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 18, 2241 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Crisp, “Propagation of small-area pulses of coherent light through a resonant medium,” Phys. Rev. A 1, 1604 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A. (1)

J. Aaviksoo, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Observation of optical precursors at pulse propagation in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. A. 44, R5353 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

F. Askary and P. Y. Yu, “Exciton–polariton bottleneck and the thermalization of polariton luminescence in CdS and CdSe,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 6643 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Henry and K. Nassau, “Lifetimes of bound excitons in CdS,” Phys. Rev. B 1, 1628 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B. (1)

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, D. A. B. Miller, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, and L. Pfeiffer, “Femtosecond pulse distortion in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B. 48, 17902 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

T. Mishina and Y. Masumoto, “Coherent propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in a monoclinic ZnP2 single crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2785 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Göbel, “Light propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fröhlich, A. Kulik, B. Uebbing, A. Mysyrowicz, V. Langer, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Coherent propagation and quantum beats of quadrupole polaritons in Cu2O,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, A. Knorr, J. Feldmann, S. W. Koch, E. O. Göbel, and H. Nickel, “Rabi flopping in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1178 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Harten, A. Knorr, J. P. Sokoloff, F. Brownde de Colstoun, S. G. Lee, R. Jin, E. M. Wright, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Propagation-induced escape from adiabatic following in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 852 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

M. Jütte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Coherent exciton-photon interaction and pulse propagation effects of bound exciton states in CdS,” Phys. Status Solidi B 188, 327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

T. Itoh, P. Lavallard, J. Reydellet, and C. Benoit á la Guillaume, “Time of flight of excitonic polaritons in CdSe,” Solid State Commun. 37, 925 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

R. Binder, Y. Z. Hu, A. Knorr, M. Lindberg, and S. W. Koch, “Many-body theory of coherent optical effects in semiconductors,” in Coherent Optical Interactions in Semiconductors, R. T. Phillips, ed., Vol. 330 of NATO ASI Ser. B (Plenum, New York, 1994), p. 63.
[CrossRef]

H. Stolz, Time-Resolved Light Scattering from Excitons, Vol. 130 of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two-Level Atoms (Dover, New York, 1987).

J. D. Macomber, The Dynamics of Spectroscopic Transitions (Wiley, New York, 1976).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Pulse intensity as a function of monochromator energy position (ћωS) and time transmitted through the CdS sample (d = 80 μm). The pulse is exactly in resonance with the I2 bound exciton line at E0 = 2.54645 eV (see the arrows). Monochromator bandwidth γS = 0.30 meV. Top: experimental data at T = 2 K measured transform limited with the streak camera. Estimated input pulse area, θ(0) ≃ π/300. Bottom: calculation by the model discussed in the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time dependence of the field amplitude | E ( t ) | and the phase Φ(t) for the incident (incid.) and the transmitted (trans.) laser pulses. The curves are reconstructed from the experimental data in Fig. 1 with Eq. (1). The incident amplitude is reduced by a factor of 2 relative to the transmitted amplitude.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time behavior (left) and corresponding spectra (right) of the transmitted laser pulse measured for various input pulse areas θ(0) (in units of π). T = 2 K. The monochromator energy position ћωS coincides with the exciton line at E0 = 2.54645 eV. The monochromator bandwidths are γS = 0.3 meV and γS = 0.1 meV, respectively. The 4-ps time delay of the laser pulse at large θ(0) is marked by the dashed double lines.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Modeled pulse propagation in a two-level system for large (θ = 2π) and small (θ = 0.2π) input pulse areas. Left: time-dependent absolute value of the electric-field amplitude at different propagation distances. The pulse delay becomes obvious from the lines of constant time. Right: corresponding spectra of the transmitted laser pulse calculated for a monochromator bandwidth γS = 0.1 meV. In the calculation the phase relaxation time and the inhomogeneous linewidth were T2 = 60 ps and ΔEinh = 0.07 meV, respectively. The other parameters were taken from the 0π-pulse experiment.

Equations (9)

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R ( ω S , t ) = | F ( 0 ) ( Ω ) exp ( i Ω t ) E ( t ) exp ( i ω S t + i Ω t ) d t d Ω | 2 .
F ( 0 ) ( Ω ) = [ 2 sin ( γ S t / 2 ) γ S t L ( t ) ] exp ( i Ω t ) d t , L ( t ) = { 1 | t | / T 0 | t | T 0 0 | t | T 0 ,
E ( z = d , t ) = E 0 ( z = 0 , ω ) × exp [ i ω c 0 n b d i α 0 d i / T + ( ω ω 0 ) ] exp ( i ω t ) d ω .
E = E 0 exp ( i Φ ) = E 0 cos ( Φ ) i E 0 sin ( Φ ) = E r i E i .
( z + n b c 0 t ) E r = ω N μ 2 c 0 n b 0 + g ( ω 0 ω max ) v ( ω 0 ) d ω 0 ,
( z + n b c 0 t ) E i = ω N μ 2 c 0 n b 0 + g ( ω 0 ω max ) u ( ω 0 ) d ω 0 .
u ˙ = ( ω 0 ω ) v + μ ћ E i w u T 2 ,
v ˙ = + ( ω 0 ω ) u + μ ћ E r w v T 2 ,
w ˙ = μ ћ ( E r v + E i u ) w w eq T 1 ,

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