Abstract

We report on a frequency-stabilized narrow-linewidth continuous-fiber erbium-doped ring fiber laser in which the operating wavelength is defined by an overlay filter. The oscillating frequency is stabilized by a side-of-fringe locking technique, and longitudinal mode hops are inhibited by phase-sensitive detection of the signal rejected from an intracavity all-fiber étalon. With this frequency-stabilization scheme resolution-limited linewidths of 68 kHz with a root mean square frequency jitter of 10 kHz are measured. The oscillating frequency is continuously tunable over 3 GHz.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. D. Vieira and L. F. Mollenauer, “Single-frequency, single knob tuning of a cw color center laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 195–201 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. Wyatt and W. J. Devlin, “10 kHz linewidth 1.55 μm In-GaAsP external cavity laser with 55-nm tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 19, 110–112 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  3. K. Iwatsuki, H. Okamura, and M. Saruwatani, “Wavelength tunable single-frequency and single-polarisation Er-doped fiber ring laser with 1.4 kHz linewidth,” Electron. Lett. 26, 2033–2035 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  4. N. Park, J. W. Dawson, and K. Vahala, “All fiber, low threshold, widely tunable single-frequency, erbium-doped fiber ring laser with a tandem fiber Fabry–Pérot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2369–2371 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, and W. H. Glenn, “Standing-wave monomode erbium fibre laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 613–614 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. L. Zyskind, V. Mizrahi, D. J. Digiovanni, and J. W. Sulhoff, “Short single frequency erbium doped fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1385–1387 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, and R. Kayshap, “Coupled-cavity erbium fiber lasers incorporating fiber grating reflectors,” Opt. Lett. 18, 2023–2025 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. A. Gloag, K. MacCallion, W. Johnstone, and N. Langford, “Tunable, single-frequency erbium fiber laser using an overlay bandpass filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3263–3265 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Gloag, K. MacCallion, W. Johnstone, and N. Langford, “Tunable erbium fiber laser using a novel overlay bandpass filter,” Opt. Lett. 19, 801–803 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. C. S. Adams, “Narrow linewidth operation of a Ti:sapphire laser: applications in high resolution spectroscopy,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Strathclyde, Strathclyde, UK, 1993).
  11. A. Gloag, K. McCallion, W. Johnstone, and N. Langford, “Tunable single frequency operation of an erbium-doped fiber laser incorporating a novel continuous fiber filter,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper CThJ4; “Frequency-stabilized single-mode erbium-fiber laser,” in Conference on Lasers of Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CMB5; C.-Y. Yue, G. W. Schinn, J. W. Y. Lit, and J. Zhang, “Single-mode EFL using an all-fiber subresonator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper WK7.
    [Crossref]

1995 (1)

A. Gloag, K. MacCallion, W. Johnstone, and N. Langford, “Tunable, single-frequency erbium fiber laser using an overlay bandpass filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3263–3265 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

J. L. Zyskind, V. Mizrahi, D. J. Digiovanni, and J. W. Sulhoff, “Short single frequency erbium doped fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1385–1387 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

N. Park, J. W. Dawson, and K. Vahala, “All fiber, low threshold, widely tunable single-frequency, erbium-doped fiber ring laser with a tandem fiber Fabry–Pérot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2369–2371 (1991).
[Crossref]

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, and W. H. Glenn, “Standing-wave monomode erbium fibre laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 613–614 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

K. Iwatsuki, H. Okamura, and M. Saruwatani, “Wavelength tunable single-frequency and single-polarisation Er-doped fiber ring laser with 1.4 kHz linewidth,” Electron. Lett. 26, 2033–2035 (1990).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

N. D. Vieira and L. F. Mollenauer, “Single-frequency, single knob tuning of a cw color center laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 195–201 (1985).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

R. Wyatt and W. J. Devlin, “10 kHz linewidth 1.55 μm In-GaAsP external cavity laser with 55-nm tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 19, 110–112 (1983).
[Crossref]

Adams, C. S.

C. S. Adams, “Narrow linewidth operation of a Ti:sapphire laser: applications in high resolution spectroscopy,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Strathclyde, Strathclyde, UK, 1993).

Ball, G. A.

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, and W. H. Glenn, “Standing-wave monomode erbium fibre laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 613–614 (1991).
[Crossref]

Chernikov, S. V.

Dawson, J. W.

N. Park, J. W. Dawson, and K. Vahala, “All fiber, low threshold, widely tunable single-frequency, erbium-doped fiber ring laser with a tandem fiber Fabry–Pérot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2369–2371 (1991).
[Crossref]

Devlin, W. J.

R. Wyatt and W. J. Devlin, “10 kHz linewidth 1.55 μm In-GaAsP external cavity laser with 55-nm tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 19, 110–112 (1983).
[Crossref]

Digiovanni, D. J.

J. L. Zyskind, V. Mizrahi, D. J. Digiovanni, and J. W. Sulhoff, “Short single frequency erbium doped fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1385–1387 (1992).
[Crossref]

Glenn, W. H.

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, and W. H. Glenn, “Standing-wave monomode erbium fibre laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 613–614 (1991).
[Crossref]

Gloag, A.

A. Gloag, K. MacCallion, W. Johnstone, and N. Langford, “Tunable, single-frequency erbium fiber laser using an overlay bandpass filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3263–3265 (1995).
[Crossref]

A. Gloag, K. MacCallion, W. Johnstone, and N. Langford, “Tunable erbium fiber laser using a novel overlay bandpass filter,” Opt. Lett. 19, 801–803 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gloag, K. McCallion, W. Johnstone, and N. Langford, “Tunable single frequency operation of an erbium-doped fiber laser incorporating a novel continuous fiber filter,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper CThJ4; “Frequency-stabilized single-mode erbium-fiber laser,” in Conference on Lasers of Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CMB5; C.-Y. Yue, G. W. Schinn, J. W. Y. Lit, and J. Zhang, “Single-mode EFL using an all-fiber subresonator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper WK7.
[Crossref]

Iwatsuki, K.

K. Iwatsuki, H. Okamura, and M. Saruwatani, “Wavelength tunable single-frequency and single-polarisation Er-doped fiber ring laser with 1.4 kHz linewidth,” Electron. Lett. 26, 2033–2035 (1990).
[Crossref]

Johnstone, W.

A. Gloag, K. MacCallion, W. Johnstone, and N. Langford, “Tunable, single-frequency erbium fiber laser using an overlay bandpass filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3263–3265 (1995).
[Crossref]

A. Gloag, K. MacCallion, W. Johnstone, and N. Langford, “Tunable erbium fiber laser using a novel overlay bandpass filter,” Opt. Lett. 19, 801–803 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gloag, K. McCallion, W. Johnstone, and N. Langford, “Tunable single frequency operation of an erbium-doped fiber laser incorporating a novel continuous fiber filter,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper CThJ4; “Frequency-stabilized single-mode erbium-fiber laser,” in Conference on Lasers of Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CMB5; C.-Y. Yue, G. W. Schinn, J. W. Y. Lit, and J. Zhang, “Single-mode EFL using an all-fiber subresonator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper WK7.
[Crossref]

Kayshap, R.

Langford, N.

A. Gloag, K. MacCallion, W. Johnstone, and N. Langford, “Tunable, single-frequency erbium fiber laser using an overlay bandpass filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3263–3265 (1995).
[Crossref]

A. Gloag, K. MacCallion, W. Johnstone, and N. Langford, “Tunable erbium fiber laser using a novel overlay bandpass filter,” Opt. Lett. 19, 801–803 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gloag, K. McCallion, W. Johnstone, and N. Langford, “Tunable single frequency operation of an erbium-doped fiber laser incorporating a novel continuous fiber filter,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper CThJ4; “Frequency-stabilized single-mode erbium-fiber laser,” in Conference on Lasers of Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CMB5; C.-Y. Yue, G. W. Schinn, J. W. Y. Lit, and J. Zhang, “Single-mode EFL using an all-fiber subresonator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper WK7.
[Crossref]

MacCallion, K.

A. Gloag, K. MacCallion, W. Johnstone, and N. Langford, “Tunable, single-frequency erbium fiber laser using an overlay bandpass filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3263–3265 (1995).
[Crossref]

A. Gloag, K. MacCallion, W. Johnstone, and N. Langford, “Tunable erbium fiber laser using a novel overlay bandpass filter,” Opt. Lett. 19, 801–803 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCallion, K.

A. Gloag, K. McCallion, W. Johnstone, and N. Langford, “Tunable single frequency operation of an erbium-doped fiber laser incorporating a novel continuous fiber filter,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper CThJ4; “Frequency-stabilized single-mode erbium-fiber laser,” in Conference on Lasers of Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CMB5; C.-Y. Yue, G. W. Schinn, J. W. Y. Lit, and J. Zhang, “Single-mode EFL using an all-fiber subresonator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper WK7.
[Crossref]

Mizrahi, V.

J. L. Zyskind, V. Mizrahi, D. J. Digiovanni, and J. W. Sulhoff, “Short single frequency erbium doped fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1385–1387 (1992).
[Crossref]

Mollenauer, L. F.

N. D. Vieira and L. F. Mollenauer, “Single-frequency, single knob tuning of a cw color center laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 195–201 (1985).
[Crossref]

Morey, W. W.

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, and W. H. Glenn, “Standing-wave monomode erbium fibre laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 613–614 (1991).
[Crossref]

Okamura, H.

K. Iwatsuki, H. Okamura, and M. Saruwatani, “Wavelength tunable single-frequency and single-polarisation Er-doped fiber ring laser with 1.4 kHz linewidth,” Electron. Lett. 26, 2033–2035 (1990).
[Crossref]

Park, N.

N. Park, J. W. Dawson, and K. Vahala, “All fiber, low threshold, widely tunable single-frequency, erbium-doped fiber ring laser with a tandem fiber Fabry–Pérot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2369–2371 (1991).
[Crossref]

Saruwatani, M.

K. Iwatsuki, H. Okamura, and M. Saruwatani, “Wavelength tunable single-frequency and single-polarisation Er-doped fiber ring laser with 1.4 kHz linewidth,” Electron. Lett. 26, 2033–2035 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sulhoff, J. W.

J. L. Zyskind, V. Mizrahi, D. J. Digiovanni, and J. W. Sulhoff, “Short single frequency erbium doped fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1385–1387 (1992).
[Crossref]

Taylor, J. R.

Vahala, K.

N. Park, J. W. Dawson, and K. Vahala, “All fiber, low threshold, widely tunable single-frequency, erbium-doped fiber ring laser with a tandem fiber Fabry–Pérot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2369–2371 (1991).
[Crossref]

Vieira, N. D.

N. D. Vieira and L. F. Mollenauer, “Single-frequency, single knob tuning of a cw color center laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 195–201 (1985).
[Crossref]

Wyatt, R.

R. Wyatt and W. J. Devlin, “10 kHz linewidth 1.55 μm In-GaAsP external cavity laser with 55-nm tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 19, 110–112 (1983).
[Crossref]

Zyskind, J. L.

J. L. Zyskind, V. Mizrahi, D. J. Digiovanni, and J. W. Sulhoff, “Short single frequency erbium doped fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1385–1387 (1992).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

N. Park, J. W. Dawson, and K. Vahala, “All fiber, low threshold, widely tunable single-frequency, erbium-doped fiber ring laser with a tandem fiber Fabry–Pérot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2369–2371 (1991).
[Crossref]

A. Gloag, K. MacCallion, W. Johnstone, and N. Langford, “Tunable, single-frequency erbium fiber laser using an overlay bandpass filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3263–3265 (1995).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (3)

R. Wyatt and W. J. Devlin, “10 kHz linewidth 1.55 μm In-GaAsP external cavity laser with 55-nm tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 19, 110–112 (1983).
[Crossref]

K. Iwatsuki, H. Okamura, and M. Saruwatani, “Wavelength tunable single-frequency and single-polarisation Er-doped fiber ring laser with 1.4 kHz linewidth,” Electron. Lett. 26, 2033–2035 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. L. Zyskind, V. Mizrahi, D. J. Digiovanni, and J. W. Sulhoff, “Short single frequency erbium doped fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1385–1387 (1992).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. D. Vieira and L. F. Mollenauer, “Single-frequency, single knob tuning of a cw color center laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 195–201 (1985).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, and W. H. Glenn, “Standing-wave monomode erbium fibre laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 613–614 (1991).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (2)

C. S. Adams, “Narrow linewidth operation of a Ti:sapphire laser: applications in high resolution spectroscopy,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Strathclyde, Strathclyde, UK, 1993).

A. Gloag, K. McCallion, W. Johnstone, and N. Langford, “Tunable single frequency operation of an erbium-doped fiber laser incorporating a novel continuous fiber filter,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper CThJ4; “Frequency-stabilized single-mode erbium-fiber laser,” in Conference on Lasers of Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CMB5; C.-Y. Yue, G. W. Schinn, J. W. Y. Lit, and J. Zhang, “Single-mode EFL using an all-fiber subresonator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper WK7.
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Erbium ring fiber laser: PD’s, pump laser diodes; WDM’s, wavelength division multiplexers; EDF, erbium-doped fiber; F, overlay filter; PC, polarization controllers; LS, length-stabilization unit; OC, output coupler; I, optical isolator; AC, angled end. X denotes the position where the fiber étalon is introduced into the cavity (see Section 3).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the all-fiber equivalent étalon.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the fiber resonator containing the equivalent étalon.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intensity responses of the light as measured at points I and O of Fig. 3 as a function of the main cavity phase change. The dashed curve corresponds to the signal at I, and the solid curve to the signal at O.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Signal rejected from the resonator as a function of the subcavity phase change.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Intensity fringes associated with the 250-m ring interferometer as a function of the applied voltage.

Equations (8)

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E I E in = a 1 a 3 exp ( i ϕ 31 ) 1 b 1 b 2 exp ( i ϕ s ) a 1 a 2 b 3 exp ( i ϕ m ) ,
E O E in = [ b 1 b 2 ( 1 δ 1 ) ] a 3 exp ( i ϕ 31 ) 1 b 1 b 2 exp ( i ϕ s ) a 1 a 2 b 3 exp ( i ϕ m ) ,
a j = i k j 1 / 2 ( 1 δ j ) 1 / 2 ( j = 1 , 2 , 3 ) ,
b j = ( 1 k j ) 1 / 2 ( 1 δ j ) 1 / 2 ( j = 1 , 2 , 3 ) ,
ϕ j = 2 π l j n v c ( j = m , s , 31 ) .
T = 2 π / γ ,
γ = 2 cos 1 × { 2 b 1 b 2 exp ( α l s ) [ 1 b 1 b 2 exp ( α l s ) ] 2 2 b 1 b 2 exp ( α l s ) } ,
b j = ( 1 k j ) 1 / 2 ( 1 δ j ) 1 / 2 ( j = 1 , 2 ) ,

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