Abstract

Multiline upconversion luminescence ranging from 375 to 635 nm was studied in Yb:Tb:YSGG crystal, a possible candidate for a tunable upconversion laser material. This luminescence was attributed to the transitions starting from the 5D3 and 5D4 excited levels of Tb. Two sequential steps in the upconversion were determined: at the first step Yb–Tb cooperative upconversion and cooperative absorption populate level 5D4, and at the second step interaction of excited Yb and Tb (in the 5D4 state) ions populates level 5D3. At 500-mW Ti:sapphire pumping, the excited-state concentration of Tb ions exceeded 2% of Yb excited-state concentration.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. W. Lenth and R. M. Macfarlane, “Upconversion lasers,” Opt. Photon. News 3(3), 8–15 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Auzel, “Compteur quantique par transfert d’energie entre deux ions de terres reres dans un tungstate mixte et dans un verre,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris B 262, 1016–1019 (1966);“Compteur quantique par transfert d’energie entre de Yb3+ a Tm3+ dans un tungstate mixte et dans verre germanate,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris B 263, 819–821 (1966).
  3. V. V. Ovsyankin and P. P. Feofilov, “Mechanism of summation of electronic excitations in activated crystals,” JETP Lett. 3, 322–323 (1966); “Cooperative sensitization of luminescence in crystals activated with rare earth ions,” JETP Lett. 4, 317–318 (1966).
  4. T. Kushida, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Fiz. 37, 273–373 (1973).
  5. T. Miyakawa and D. L. Dexter, “Cooperative and stepwise excitation of luminescence trivalent rare earth ions in Yb-sensitized crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 1, 70–80 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. D. Livanova, I. G. Saitkulov, and A. L. Stolov, “Summation processes for quanta in CaF2 and SrF2 single crystals activated with Tb3+ and Yb3+,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 11, 750–754 (1969).
  7. F. M. Ostermayer and L. G. Van Uitert, “Cooperative energy transfer from Yb3+ to Tb3+ in YF3,” Phys. Rev. B 1, 4208–4212 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. I. Bilak, G. M. Zverev, G. O. Karapetyan, and A. M. Onishchenko, “Excitation energy transfer between trivalent rare-earth ions stimulated by a radiation field,” JETP Lett. 14, 199–201 (1971).
  9. F. Varsanyi and G. H. Dieke, “Ion-pair resonance mechanism of energy transfer in rare earth crystal fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 442–443 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. L. Dexter, “Cooperative optical absorption in solids,” Phys. Rev. 126, 1962–1967 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Altarelli and D. L. Dexter, “Cooperative energy transfer and photon absorption,” Opt. Commun. 2, 36–38 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. L. Dexter, “Possibility of luminescence quantum yields greater than unity,” Phys. Rev. 108, 630–633 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Ion concentrations were determined in the laboratory directed by E. V. Zharikov (General Physics Institute, Moscow, Russia), where the crystal was grown.
  14. A. I. Burstein, “Concentration quenching of noncoherent excitation in solutions,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 27, 579–606 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. V. Zharikov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence and lasing properties of an yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with chromium and erbium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 635–639 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Pryzhkovyi mekhanizm nelineinogo tyshenia luminestsentsii” (“Hopping mechanism of nonlinear luminescence quenching”), preprint IOFAN number 13 (preprint of the General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 1993), (in Russian).
  17. M. A. Noginov, H. P. Jenssen, and A. Cassanho, “Upconversion in Cr:LiSGaF and Cr:LiSAF,” OSA in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 376–380.
  18. V. Ostroumov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Meyn, G. Huber, and M. A. Noginov, “Concentration quenching and upconversion of Nd ions in LaSc3(BO3)4 and GdVO4 crystals,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 24 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 206–208.

1992 (1)

W. Lenth and R. M. Macfarlane, “Upconversion lasers,” Opt. Photon. News 3(3), 8–15 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence and lasing properties of an yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with chromium and erbium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 635–639 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

A. I. Burstein, “Concentration quenching of noncoherent excitation in solutions,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 27, 579–606 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

T. Kushida, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Fiz. 37, 273–373 (1973).

1971 (1)

V. I. Bilak, G. M. Zverev, G. O. Karapetyan, and A. M. Onishchenko, “Excitation energy transfer between trivalent rare-earth ions stimulated by a radiation field,” JETP Lett. 14, 199–201 (1971).

1970 (3)

F. M. Ostermayer and L. G. Van Uitert, “Cooperative energy transfer from Yb3+ to Tb3+ in YF3,” Phys. Rev. B 1, 4208–4212 (1970).
[CrossRef]

T. Miyakawa and D. L. Dexter, “Cooperative and stepwise excitation of luminescence trivalent rare earth ions in Yb-sensitized crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 1, 70–80 (1970).
[CrossRef]

M. Altarelli and D. L. Dexter, “Cooperative energy transfer and photon absorption,” Opt. Commun. 2, 36–38 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

L. D. Livanova, I. G. Saitkulov, and A. L. Stolov, “Summation processes for quanta in CaF2 and SrF2 single crystals activated with Tb3+ and Yb3+,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 11, 750–754 (1969).

1966 (2)

F. Auzel, “Compteur quantique par transfert d’energie entre deux ions de terres reres dans un tungstate mixte et dans un verre,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris B 262, 1016–1019 (1966);“Compteur quantique par transfert d’energie entre de Yb3+ a Tm3+ dans un tungstate mixte et dans verre germanate,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris B 263, 819–821 (1966).

V. V. Ovsyankin and P. P. Feofilov, “Mechanism of summation of electronic excitations in activated crystals,” JETP Lett. 3, 322–323 (1966); “Cooperative sensitization of luminescence in crystals activated with rare earth ions,” JETP Lett. 4, 317–318 (1966).

1962 (1)

D. L. Dexter, “Cooperative optical absorption in solids,” Phys. Rev. 126, 1962–1967 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

F. Varsanyi and G. H. Dieke, “Ion-pair resonance mechanism of energy transfer in rare earth crystal fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 442–443 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

D. L. Dexter, “Possibility of luminescence quantum yields greater than unity,” Phys. Rev. 108, 630–633 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Altarelli, M.

M. Altarelli and D. L. Dexter, “Cooperative energy transfer and photon absorption,” Opt. Commun. 2, 36–38 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, “Compteur quantique par transfert d’energie entre deux ions de terres reres dans un tungstate mixte et dans un verre,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris B 262, 1016–1019 (1966);“Compteur quantique par transfert d’energie entre de Yb3+ a Tm3+ dans un tungstate mixte et dans verre germanate,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris B 263, 819–821 (1966).

Bilak, V. I.

V. I. Bilak, G. M. Zverev, G. O. Karapetyan, and A. M. Onishchenko, “Excitation energy transfer between trivalent rare-earth ions stimulated by a radiation field,” JETP Lett. 14, 199–201 (1971).

Burstein, A. I.

A. I. Burstein, “Concentration quenching of noncoherent excitation in solutions,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 27, 579–606 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cassanho, A.

M. A. Noginov, H. P. Jenssen, and A. Cassanho, “Upconversion in Cr:LiSGaF and Cr:LiSAF,” OSA in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 376–380.

Dexter, D. L.

M. Altarelli and D. L. Dexter, “Cooperative energy transfer and photon absorption,” Opt. Commun. 2, 36–38 (1970).
[CrossRef]

T. Miyakawa and D. L. Dexter, “Cooperative and stepwise excitation of luminescence trivalent rare earth ions in Yb-sensitized crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 1, 70–80 (1970).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Dexter, “Cooperative optical absorption in solids,” Phys. Rev. 126, 1962–1967 (1962).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Dexter, “Possibility of luminescence quantum yields greater than unity,” Phys. Rev. 108, 630–633 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Dieke, G. H.

F. Varsanyi and G. H. Dieke, “Ion-pair resonance mechanism of energy transfer in rare earth crystal fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 442–443 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Feofilov, P. P.

V. V. Ovsyankin and P. P. Feofilov, “Mechanism of summation of electronic excitations in activated crystals,” JETP Lett. 3, 322–323 (1966); “Cooperative sensitization of luminescence in crystals activated with rare earth ions,” JETP Lett. 4, 317–318 (1966).

Huber, G.

V. Ostroumov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Meyn, G. Huber, and M. A. Noginov, “Concentration quenching and upconversion of Nd ions in LaSc3(BO3)4 and GdVO4 crystals,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 24 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 206–208.

Il’ichev, N. N.

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence and lasing properties of an yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with chromium and erbium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 635–639 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, T.

V. Ostroumov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Meyn, G. Huber, and M. A. Noginov, “Concentration quenching and upconversion of Nd ions in LaSc3(BO3)4 and GdVO4 crystals,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 24 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 206–208.

Jenssen, H. P.

M. A. Noginov, H. P. Jenssen, and A. Cassanho, “Upconversion in Cr:LiSGaF and Cr:LiSAF,” OSA in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 376–380.

Kalitin, S. P.

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence and lasing properties of an yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with chromium and erbium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 635–639 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Karapetyan, G. O.

V. I. Bilak, G. M. Zverev, G. O. Karapetyan, and A. M. Onishchenko, “Excitation energy transfer between trivalent rare-earth ions stimulated by a radiation field,” JETP Lett. 14, 199–201 (1971).

Kushida, T.

T. Kushida, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Fiz. 37, 273–373 (1973).

Laptev, V. V.

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence and lasing properties of an yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with chromium and erbium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 635–639 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lenth, W.

W. Lenth and R. M. Macfarlane, “Upconversion lasers,” Opt. Photon. News 3(3), 8–15 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Livanova, L. D.

L. D. Livanova, I. G. Saitkulov, and A. L. Stolov, “Summation processes for quanta in CaF2 and SrF2 single crystals activated with Tb3+ and Yb3+,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 11, 750–754 (1969).

Macfarlane, R. M.

W. Lenth and R. M. Macfarlane, “Upconversion lasers,” Opt. Photon. News 3(3), 8–15 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Malyutin, A. A.

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence and lasing properties of an yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with chromium and erbium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 635–639 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Meyn, J.-P.

V. Ostroumov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Meyn, G. Huber, and M. A. Noginov, “Concentration quenching and upconversion of Nd ions in LaSc3(BO3)4 and GdVO4 crystals,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 24 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 206–208.

Miyakawa, T.

T. Miyakawa and D. L. Dexter, “Cooperative and stepwise excitation of luminescence trivalent rare earth ions in Yb-sensitized crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 1, 70–80 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Noginov, M. A.

V. Ostroumov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Meyn, G. Huber, and M. A. Noginov, “Concentration quenching and upconversion of Nd ions in LaSc3(BO3)4 and GdVO4 crystals,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 24 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 206–208.

M. A. Noginov, H. P. Jenssen, and A. Cassanho, “Upconversion in Cr:LiSGaF and Cr:LiSAF,” OSA in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 376–380.

D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Pryzhkovyi mekhanizm nelineinogo tyshenia luminestsentsii” (“Hopping mechanism of nonlinear luminescence quenching”), preprint IOFAN number 13 (preprint of the General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 1993), (in Russian).

Onishchenko, A. M.

V. I. Bilak, G. M. Zverev, G. O. Karapetyan, and A. M. Onishchenko, “Excitation energy transfer between trivalent rare-earth ions stimulated by a radiation field,” JETP Lett. 14, 199–201 (1971).

Osiko, V. V.

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence and lasing properties of an yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with chromium and erbium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 635–639 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ostermayer, F. M.

F. M. Ostermayer and L. G. Van Uitert, “Cooperative energy transfer from Yb3+ to Tb3+ in YF3,” Phys. Rev. B 1, 4208–4212 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ostroumov, V.

V. Ostroumov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Meyn, G. Huber, and M. A. Noginov, “Concentration quenching and upconversion of Nd ions in LaSc3(BO3)4 and GdVO4 crystals,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 24 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 206–208.

Ovsyankin, V. V.

V. V. Ovsyankin and P. P. Feofilov, “Mechanism of summation of electronic excitations in activated crystals,” JETP Lett. 3, 322–323 (1966); “Cooperative sensitization of luminescence in crystals activated with rare earth ions,” JETP Lett. 4, 317–318 (1966).

Pashinin, P. P.

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence and lasing properties of an yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with chromium and erbium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 635–639 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Prokhorov, A. M.

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence and lasing properties of an yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with chromium and erbium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 635–639 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Saidov, Z. S.

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence and lasing properties of an yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with chromium and erbium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 635–639 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Saitkulov, I. G.

L. D. Livanova, I. G. Saitkulov, and A. L. Stolov, “Summation processes for quanta in CaF2 and SrF2 single crystals activated with Tb3+ and Yb3+,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 11, 750–754 (1969).

Shcherbakov, I. A.

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence and lasing properties of an yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with chromium and erbium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 635–639 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Pryzhkovyi mekhanizm nelineinogo tyshenia luminestsentsii” (“Hopping mechanism of nonlinear luminescence quenching”), preprint IOFAN number 13 (preprint of the General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 1993), (in Russian).

Smirnov, V. A.

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence and lasing properties of an yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with chromium and erbium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 635–639 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Pryzhkovyi mekhanizm nelineinogo tyshenia luminestsentsii” (“Hopping mechanism of nonlinear luminescence quenching”), preprint IOFAN number 13 (preprint of the General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 1993), (in Russian).

Stolov, A. L.

L. D. Livanova, I. G. Saitkulov, and A. L. Stolov, “Summation processes for quanta in CaF2 and SrF2 single crystals activated with Tb3+ and Yb3+,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 11, 750–754 (1969).

Umyskov, A. F.

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence and lasing properties of an yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with chromium and erbium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 635–639 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Van Uitert, L. G.

F. M. Ostermayer and L. G. Van Uitert, “Cooperative energy transfer from Yb3+ to Tb3+ in YF3,” Phys. Rev. B 1, 4208–4212 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Varsanyi, F.

F. Varsanyi and G. H. Dieke, “Ion-pair resonance mechanism of energy transfer in rare earth crystal fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 442–443 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Zharikov, E. V.

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence and lasing properties of an yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with chromium and erbium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 635–639 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ion concentrations were determined in the laboratory directed by E. V. Zharikov (General Physics Institute, Moscow, Russia), where the crystal was grown.

Zubenko, D. A.

D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Pryzhkovyi mekhanizm nelineinogo tyshenia luminestsentsii” (“Hopping mechanism of nonlinear luminescence quenching”), preprint IOFAN number 13 (preprint of the General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 1993), (in Russian).

Zverev, G. M.

V. I. Bilak, G. M. Zverev, G. O. Karapetyan, and A. M. Onishchenko, “Excitation energy transfer between trivalent rare-earth ions stimulated by a radiation field,” JETP Lett. 14, 199–201 (1971).

C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris B (1)

F. Auzel, “Compteur quantique par transfert d’energie entre deux ions de terres reres dans un tungstate mixte et dans un verre,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris B 262, 1016–1019 (1966);“Compteur quantique par transfert d’energie entre de Yb3+ a Tm3+ dans un tungstate mixte et dans verre germanate,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris B 263, 819–821 (1966).

Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Fiz. (1)

T. Kushida, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Fiz. 37, 273–373 (1973).

JETP Lett. (2)

V. V. Ovsyankin and P. P. Feofilov, “Mechanism of summation of electronic excitations in activated crystals,” JETP Lett. 3, 322–323 (1966); “Cooperative sensitization of luminescence in crystals activated with rare earth ions,” JETP Lett. 4, 317–318 (1966).

V. I. Bilak, G. M. Zverev, G. O. Karapetyan, and A. M. Onishchenko, “Excitation energy transfer between trivalent rare-earth ions stimulated by a radiation field,” JETP Lett. 14, 199–201 (1971).

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Altarelli and D. L. Dexter, “Cooperative energy transfer and photon absorption,” Opt. Commun. 2, 36–38 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Photon. News (1)

W. Lenth and R. M. Macfarlane, “Upconversion lasers,” Opt. Photon. News 3(3), 8–15 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (2)

D. L. Dexter, “Possibility of luminescence quantum yields greater than unity,” Phys. Rev. 108, 630–633 (1957).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Dexter, “Cooperative optical absorption in solids,” Phys. Rev. 126, 1962–1967 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

F. M. Ostermayer and L. G. Van Uitert, “Cooperative energy transfer from Yb3+ to Tb3+ in YF3,” Phys. Rev. B 1, 4208–4212 (1970).
[CrossRef]

T. Miyakawa and D. L. Dexter, “Cooperative and stepwise excitation of luminescence trivalent rare earth ions in Yb-sensitized crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 1, 70–80 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

F. Varsanyi and G. H. Dieke, “Ion-pair resonance mechanism of energy transfer in rare earth crystal fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 442–443 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. V. Zharikov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, A. A. Malyutin, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Z. S. Saidov, V. A. Smirnov, A. F. Umyskov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectral, luminescence and lasing properties of an yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal activated with chromium and erbium,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 635–639 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Solid State (1)

L. D. Livanova, I. G. Saitkulov, and A. L. Stolov, “Summation processes for quanta in CaF2 and SrF2 single crystals activated with Tb3+ and Yb3+,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 11, 750–754 (1969).

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

A. I. Burstein, “Concentration quenching of noncoherent excitation in solutions,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 27, 579–606 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

Ion concentrations were determined in the laboratory directed by E. V. Zharikov (General Physics Institute, Moscow, Russia), where the crystal was grown.

D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Pryzhkovyi mekhanizm nelineinogo tyshenia luminestsentsii” (“Hopping mechanism of nonlinear luminescence quenching”), preprint IOFAN number 13 (preprint of the General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 1993), (in Russian).

M. A. Noginov, H. P. Jenssen, and A. Cassanho, “Upconversion in Cr:LiSGaF and Cr:LiSAF,” OSA in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 376–380.

V. Ostroumov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Meyn, G. Huber, and M. A. Noginov, “Concentration quenching and upconversion of Nd ions in LaSc3(BO3)4 and GdVO4 crystals,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 24 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 206–208.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of energy upconversion and cross relaxation: (a) stepwise upconversion, (b) cooperative upconversion, (c) cooperative absorption, (d) cooperative cross relaxation, (e) simultaneous (cooperative) energy transfer and emission of a photon.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy diagram and energy transfer processes in a Yb:Tb:YSGG laser crystal: 1, pumping; 2, cooperative energy transfer upconversion; 3, second step of upconversion; 4, radiation relaxation; 5, multiphonon relaxation; 6, cooperative cross relaxation; 7, cooperative absorption.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a, Absorption spectrum of Yb in YSGG. The Yb concentration is 1 × 1021 cm−3. b, 1, Excitation spectrum of the Tb 5D4 level in Yb:Tb:YSGG; 2, Ti:sapphire laser tuning curve (the same for b and c). c, Excitation spectrum of the Tb 3D3 level in Yb:Tb:YSGG. The thickness of the crystal is 1.8 mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission spectrum of Yb(1 × 1021 cm−3):Tb(3 × 1020 cm−3):YSGG. The thickness of the crystal is 1.8 mm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Room-temperature upconversion luminescence in Yb:Tb:YSGG under Ti:sapphire excitation (λ = 936 nm): a, absorbed pumping density ≈ 5 × 1020 cm−3 s−1; b, absorbed pumping density ≈ 5 × 1021 cm−3 s−1.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of the luminescence intensity on the pump power: 1, Yb luminescence; 2, Tb luminescence from level 5D4; 3, Tb luminescence from level 5D3.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Decay of Yb luminescence in Yb:Tb:YSGG at weak pumping (trace 1) and at strong pumping (8 × 103 W/cm2; trace 2).

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d m d t = K m W m m β m N 2 , d n d t = K n + 2 β m N 2 W n n ,
n ( pump via Yb ) = K n / W n .
n ( pump via Tb ) = 2 β N 2 ( W m + 2 β N 2 ) K m W n .
β N 2 = W m 2 n ( pump via Yb ) K m n ( pump via Tb ) K n 1 .
β N 2 β N 2 + W m = n ( pump via Tb ) K n 2 n ( pump via Yb ) K m .
β N 2 β N 2 + W m = I ( pump via Tb ) R ( Yb ) abs 2 I ( pump via Yb ) R ( Tb ) abs ,
J / J 0 1.1.
m = m ( 0 ) exp [ ( W m + β N 2 ) t ] , n = C 1 exp [ ( W m + β N 2 ) t ] + C 2 exp ( W n t ) ,
C 1 = 2 β N 2 m ( 0 ) W n ( W m + β N 2 ) , C 2 = n ( 0 ) 2 β N 2 m ( 0 ) W n ( W m + β N 2 ) ,
J 1 W n + 2 β N 2 m ( 0 ) W n ( W m + β N 2 ) n ( 0 ) .
J 0 1 / W n .
m ( 0 ) n ( 0 ) = 1 2 ( J J 0 1 ) ( β N 2 W m + β N 2 ) 1 .
N Tb ( 488 ) = P ( 488 ) Q ( 488 ) l k abs ( 488 ) τ D 5 4 = 7.4 × 10 11
N Tb ( 929 ) = N Tb ( 488 ) I ( 929 ) I ( 488 ) = 1.0 × 10 13 .
N Yb ( 929 ) = P ( 929 ) Q ( 929 ) { 1 exp [ k abs (929) ] } τ Yb = 4.8 × 10 14 ,

Metrics