Abstract

A planar three-waveguide nonlinear directional coupler (NLDC) is analyzed by the use of a coupled-mode approach based on the singular perturbation technique. The self-consistent first-order coupled-mode equations are derived in an analytically closed form, which demonstrates that the power transfer in three-waveguide NLDC is described by linear-coupling terms and nonlinear self-modulation terms. The optical switching characteristics predicted by the coupled-mode theory are discussed and shown to be in good agreement with those obtained from a numerical analysis with the finite-difference beam-propagation method.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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