Abstract

To describe 19 possible types of conical light-induced scattering in photorefractive crystals, we propose and develop a phenomenological approach based on two different phase-matching conditions for scattered and pump waves. An application of the phenomenological method to birefringent crystals allows for complete description of polarization and geometrical properties of conical scattering. The efficiency of the proposed technique is demonstrated when it is applied in the interpretation of complicated scattering patterns observed in LiNbO3:Cu. We also systematize the existing data on conical scattering.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Magnusson and T. K. Gaylord, “Laser scattering induced holograms in lithium niobate,” Appl. Opt. 13, 1545–1548 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Odoulov, K. Belabaev, and I. Kiseleva, “Degenerate stimulated parametric scattering in LiTaO3,” Opt. Lett. 10, 31–33 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. D. Ewbank, P. Yeh, and J. Feinberg, “Photorefractive conical diffraction in BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 59, 423–428 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. A. Rupp and F. W. Dress, “Light-induced scattering in photorefractive crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 39, 223–229 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. A. Temple and C. Warde, “Anisotropic scattering in photorefractive crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 337–341 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Odoulov, “Anisotropic scattering in photorefractive crystals: comment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1333–1334 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. N. Kiseleva, V. V. Obuchovskii, and S. G. Odoulov, “Parametric scattering of the holographic type in class 3m crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 28, 1673–1676 (1986).
  8. S. Odoulov, B. Sturman, L. Holtmann, and E. Krätzig, “Nonlinear scattering in BaTiO3 induced by two orthogonally polarized waves,” Appl. Phys. B 52, 317–322 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Odoulov, B. Sturman, L. Holtmann, and E. Krätzig, “Parametric conical scattering of two orthogonally polarized waves in BaTiO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1648–1653 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Novikov, S. Odoulov, R. Jungen, and T. Tschudi, “Spatial subharmonic generation in BaTiO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1654–1660 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. G. Odulov and B. I. Sturman, “Parametric polarization scattering of light in photorefractive BaTiO3,” Sov. Phys. JETP 75, 241–249 (1992).
  12. M. Horowitz and B. Fisher, “Parametric scattering with constructive and destructive light patterns induced by two mutually incoherent beams in photorefractive crystals,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1082–1084 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Goulkov, S. Odoulov, U. van Olfen, and E. Krätzig, “A new light-induced scattering process in photorefractive BaTiO3,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (B) 172, K37–K40 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Sturman, M. Goulkov, and S. Odoulov, “Polarization-degenerate parametric light scattering in photorefractive crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 193–199 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Yu. Goulkov, S. G. Odoulov, and B. I. Sturman, “Polarization-anisotropic scattering lines in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 223–228 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. I. Sturman and V. M. Fridkin, The Photovoltaic and Photorefractive Effects in Noncentrosymmetric Materials (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1992).
  17. P. Günter and J.-P. Huignard, eds., Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I and II, Vols. 61 and 62 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988 and 1989).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. P. Petrov, S. I. Stepanov, and A. V. Khomenko, Photorefractive Crystals in Coherent Optical Systems, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).
    [CrossRef]
  19. I. F. Kanaev and V. K. Malinovskii, “Mechanism of light scattering in photorefractive media,” Autometrija (Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 1991), Vol. 4, pp. 37–48.
  20. K. Nakagava and T. Minemoto, “Conical diffraction induced by two extraordinary waves,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1639–1643 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. R. Montgomery, M. P. Gallagher, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, G. L. Wood, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Cooperative photorefractive beam fanning in BaSrKNaNb5O15,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B. 11, 1694–1699 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. V. Ilenkov, S. G. Odoulov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Phase-matched light-induced scattering, mirrorless self-generation, and oscillation of nearly retropropagating waves in LiNbO3:Fe in ‘forbidden’ interaction geometry,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 509–512 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. G. Belabaev, I. N. Kiseleva, V. V. Obuchovskii, S. G. Odoulov, and R. A. Taratuta, “New parametric holographic-type scattering of light in lithium tantalate crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 28, 321–322 (1986).
  24. G. Zhang, Q. X. Li, P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano, “Degenerate stimulated parametric scattering in LiTaO3:Fe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 882–885 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  25. I. N. Kiseleva, V. V. Obukhovskii, S. G. Odoulov, and O. I. Oleinik, “Photoinduced light dispersion in crystals with biharmonic pump,” Ukr. Phys. J. 31, 1682–1686 (1986).
  26. Similar linear effects are also known in other photosensitive materials; see, e.g., J. M. Moran and I. P. Kaminov, “Properties of holographical gratings photoinduced in PMMA,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1964 (1973); M. R. B. Forshaw, “Explanation of the two-ring diffraction phenomenon observed by Moran and Kaminov,” Appl. Opt. 13, 2 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. M. Goulkov, G. Jäkel, E. Krätzig, S. Odoulov, and R. Schulz, “Influence of different impurities on light-induced scattering in doped LiNbO3 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 4, 314–317 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  28. It dominates when the pump waves propagate in the plane normal to the polar axis; see, e.g., Ref. 14.
  29. In spite of a large body of convincing evidence of a one-to-one correspondence between the light rings and lines and the phase-matching conditions, some authors still try to connect these light singularities with hypothetical anisotropic scattering centers; see Ref. 19.

1995 (1)

M. Goulkov, G. Jäkel, E. Krätzig, S. Odoulov, and R. Schulz, “Influence of different impurities on light-induced scattering in doped LiNbO3 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 4, 314–317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

K. Nakagava and T. Minemoto, “Conical diffraction induced by two extraordinary waves,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1639–1643 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Montgomery, M. P. Gallagher, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, G. L. Wood, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Cooperative photorefractive beam fanning in BaSrKNaNb5O15,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B. 11, 1694–1699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

B. Sturman, M. Goulkov, and S. Odoulov, “Polarization-degenerate parametric light scattering in photorefractive crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 193–199 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Yu. Goulkov, S. G. Odoulov, and B. I. Sturman, “Polarization-anisotropic scattering lines in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 223–228 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (6)

A. V. Ilenkov, S. G. Odoulov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Phase-matched light-induced scattering, mirrorless self-generation, and oscillation of nearly retropropagating waves in LiNbO3:Fe in ‘forbidden’ interaction geometry,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 509–512 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Goulkov, S. Odoulov, U. van Olfen, and E. Krätzig, “A new light-induced scattering process in photorefractive BaTiO3,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (B) 172, K37–K40 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Odulov and B. I. Sturman, “Parametric polarization scattering of light in photorefractive BaTiO3,” Sov. Phys. JETP 75, 241–249 (1992).

M. Horowitz and B. Fisher, “Parametric scattering with constructive and destructive light patterns induced by two mutually incoherent beams in photorefractive crystals,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1082–1084 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Novikov, S. Odoulov, R. Jungen, and T. Tschudi, “Spatial subharmonic generation in BaTiO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1654–1660 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Odoulov, B. Sturman, L. Holtmann, and E. Krätzig, “Parametric conical scattering of two orthogonally polarized waves in BaTiO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1648–1653 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. Odoulov, B. Sturman, L. Holtmann, and E. Krätzig, “Nonlinear scattering in BaTiO3 induced by two orthogonally polarized waves,” Appl. Phys. B 52, 317–322 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

1986 (6)

I. N. Kiseleva, V. V. Obukhovskii, S. G. Odoulov, and O. I. Oleinik, “Photoinduced light dispersion in crystals with biharmonic pump,” Ukr. Phys. J. 31, 1682–1686 (1986).

D. A. Temple and C. Warde, “Anisotropic scattering in photorefractive crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 337–341 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Ewbank, P. Yeh, and J. Feinberg, “Photorefractive conical diffraction in BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 59, 423–428 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Rupp and F. W. Dress, “Light-induced scattering in photorefractive crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 39, 223–229 (1986).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Kiseleva, V. V. Obuchovskii, and S. G. Odoulov, “Parametric scattering of the holographic type in class 3m crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 28, 1673–1676 (1986).

K. G. Belabaev, I. N. Kiseleva, V. V. Obuchovskii, S. G. Odoulov, and R. A. Taratuta, “New parametric holographic-type scattering of light in lithium tantalate crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 28, 321–322 (1986).

1985 (1)

1974 (1)

1973 (1)

Alfano, R. R.

Belabaev, K.

Belabaev, K. G.

K. G. Belabaev, I. N. Kiseleva, V. V. Obuchovskii, S. G. Odoulov, and R. A. Taratuta, “New parametric holographic-type scattering of light in lithium tantalate crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 28, 321–322 (1986).

Dress, F. W.

R. A. Rupp and F. W. Dress, “Light-induced scattering in photorefractive crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 39, 223–229 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ewbank, M. D.

M. D. Ewbank, P. Yeh, and J. Feinberg, “Photorefractive conical diffraction in BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 59, 423–428 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

M. D. Ewbank, P. Yeh, and J. Feinberg, “Photorefractive conical diffraction in BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 59, 423–428 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, B.

Fridkin, V. M.

B. I. Sturman and V. M. Fridkin, The Photovoltaic and Photorefractive Effects in Noncentrosymmetric Materials (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1992).

Gallagher, M. P.

S. R. Montgomery, M. P. Gallagher, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, G. L. Wood, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Cooperative photorefractive beam fanning in BaSrKNaNb5O15,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B. 11, 1694–1699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Goulkov, M.

M. Goulkov, G. Jäkel, E. Krätzig, S. Odoulov, and R. Schulz, “Influence of different impurities on light-induced scattering in doped LiNbO3 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 4, 314–317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Sturman, M. Goulkov, and S. Odoulov, “Polarization-degenerate parametric light scattering in photorefractive crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 193–199 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Goulkov, S. Odoulov, U. van Olfen, and E. Krätzig, “A new light-induced scattering process in photorefractive BaTiO3,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (B) 172, K37–K40 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Goulkov, M. Yu.

M. Yu. Goulkov, S. G. Odoulov, and B. I. Sturman, “Polarization-anisotropic scattering lines in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 223–228 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ho, P. P.

Holtmann, L.

S. Odoulov, B. Sturman, L. Holtmann, and E. Krätzig, “Parametric conical scattering of two orthogonally polarized waves in BaTiO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1648–1653 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Odoulov, B. Sturman, L. Holtmann, and E. Krätzig, “Nonlinear scattering in BaTiO3 induced by two orthogonally polarized waves,” Appl. Phys. B 52, 317–322 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Horowitz, M.

Ilenkov, A. V.

A. V. Ilenkov, S. G. Odoulov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Phase-matched light-induced scattering, mirrorless self-generation, and oscillation of nearly retropropagating waves in LiNbO3:Fe in ‘forbidden’ interaction geometry,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 509–512 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jäkel, G.

M. Goulkov, G. Jäkel, E. Krätzig, S. Odoulov, and R. Schulz, “Influence of different impurities on light-induced scattering in doped LiNbO3 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 4, 314–317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jungen, R.

Kaminov, I. P.

Kanaev, I. F.

I. F. Kanaev and V. K. Malinovskii, “Mechanism of light scattering in photorefractive media,” Autometrija (Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 1991), Vol. 4, pp. 37–48.

Khomenko, A. V.

M. P. Petrov, S. I. Stepanov, and A. V. Khomenko, Photorefractive Crystals in Coherent Optical Systems, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Kiseleva, I.

Kiseleva, I. N.

I. N. Kiseleva, V. V. Obuchovskii, and S. G. Odoulov, “Parametric scattering of the holographic type in class 3m crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 28, 1673–1676 (1986).

K. G. Belabaev, I. N. Kiseleva, V. V. Obuchovskii, S. G. Odoulov, and R. A. Taratuta, “New parametric holographic-type scattering of light in lithium tantalate crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 28, 321–322 (1986).

I. N. Kiseleva, V. V. Obukhovskii, S. G. Odoulov, and O. I. Oleinik, “Photoinduced light dispersion in crystals with biharmonic pump,” Ukr. Phys. J. 31, 1682–1686 (1986).

Krätzig, E.

M. Goulkov, G. Jäkel, E. Krätzig, S. Odoulov, and R. Schulz, “Influence of different impurities on light-induced scattering in doped LiNbO3 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 4, 314–317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Goulkov, S. Odoulov, U. van Olfen, and E. Krätzig, “A new light-induced scattering process in photorefractive BaTiO3,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (B) 172, K37–K40 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Odoulov, B. Sturman, L. Holtmann, and E. Krätzig, “Parametric conical scattering of two orthogonally polarized waves in BaTiO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1648–1653 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Odoulov, B. Sturman, L. Holtmann, and E. Krätzig, “Nonlinear scattering in BaTiO3 induced by two orthogonally polarized waves,” Appl. Phys. B 52, 317–322 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q. X.

Magnusson, R.

Malinovskii, V. K.

I. F. Kanaev and V. K. Malinovskii, “Mechanism of light scattering in photorefractive media,” Autometrija (Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 1991), Vol. 4, pp. 37–48.

Minemoto, T.

Montgomery, S. R.

S. R. Montgomery, M. P. Gallagher, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, G. L. Wood, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Cooperative photorefractive beam fanning in BaSrKNaNb5O15,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B. 11, 1694–1699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moran, J. M.

Nakagava, K.

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

S. R. Montgomery, M. P. Gallagher, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, G. L. Wood, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Cooperative photorefractive beam fanning in BaSrKNaNb5O15,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B. 11, 1694–1699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Novikov, A.

Obuchovskii, V. V.

I. N. Kiseleva, V. V. Obuchovskii, and S. G. Odoulov, “Parametric scattering of the holographic type in class 3m crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 28, 1673–1676 (1986).

K. G. Belabaev, I. N. Kiseleva, V. V. Obuchovskii, S. G. Odoulov, and R. A. Taratuta, “New parametric holographic-type scattering of light in lithium tantalate crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 28, 321–322 (1986).

Obukhovskii, V. V.

I. N. Kiseleva, V. V. Obukhovskii, S. G. Odoulov, and O. I. Oleinik, “Photoinduced light dispersion in crystals with biharmonic pump,” Ukr. Phys. J. 31, 1682–1686 (1986).

Odoulov, S.

M. Goulkov, G. Jäkel, E. Krätzig, S. Odoulov, and R. Schulz, “Influence of different impurities on light-induced scattering in doped LiNbO3 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 4, 314–317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Sturman, M. Goulkov, and S. Odoulov, “Polarization-degenerate parametric light scattering in photorefractive crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 193–199 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Novikov, S. Odoulov, R. Jungen, and T. Tschudi, “Spatial subharmonic generation in BaTiO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1654–1660 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Odoulov, B. Sturman, L. Holtmann, and E. Krätzig, “Parametric conical scattering of two orthogonally polarized waves in BaTiO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1648–1653 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Goulkov, S. Odoulov, U. van Olfen, and E. Krätzig, “A new light-induced scattering process in photorefractive BaTiO3,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (B) 172, K37–K40 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Odoulov, B. Sturman, L. Holtmann, and E. Krätzig, “Nonlinear scattering in BaTiO3 induced by two orthogonally polarized waves,” Appl. Phys. B 52, 317–322 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Odoulov, “Anisotropic scattering in photorefractive crystals: comment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1333–1334 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. Odoulov, K. Belabaev, and I. Kiseleva, “Degenerate stimulated parametric scattering in LiTaO3,” Opt. Lett. 10, 31–33 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Odoulov, S. G.

M. Yu. Goulkov, S. G. Odoulov, and B. I. Sturman, “Polarization-anisotropic scattering lines in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 223–228 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Ilenkov, S. G. Odoulov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Phase-matched light-induced scattering, mirrorless self-generation, and oscillation of nearly retropropagating waves in LiNbO3:Fe in ‘forbidden’ interaction geometry,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 509–512 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Kiseleva, V. V. Obukhovskii, S. G. Odoulov, and O. I. Oleinik, “Photoinduced light dispersion in crystals with biharmonic pump,” Ukr. Phys. J. 31, 1682–1686 (1986).

K. G. Belabaev, I. N. Kiseleva, V. V. Obuchovskii, S. G. Odoulov, and R. A. Taratuta, “New parametric holographic-type scattering of light in lithium tantalate crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 28, 321–322 (1986).

I. N. Kiseleva, V. V. Obuchovskii, and S. G. Odoulov, “Parametric scattering of the holographic type in class 3m crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 28, 1673–1676 (1986).

Odulov, S. G.

S. G. Odulov and B. I. Sturman, “Parametric polarization scattering of light in photorefractive BaTiO3,” Sov. Phys. JETP 75, 241–249 (1992).

Oleinik, O. I.

I. N. Kiseleva, V. V. Obukhovskii, S. G. Odoulov, and O. I. Oleinik, “Photoinduced light dispersion in crystals with biharmonic pump,” Ukr. Phys. J. 31, 1682–1686 (1986).

Petrov, M. P.

M. P. Petrov, S. I. Stepanov, and A. V. Khomenko, Photorefractive Crystals in Coherent Optical Systems, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Rupp, R. A.

R. A. Rupp and F. W. Dress, “Light-induced scattering in photorefractive crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 39, 223–229 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G. J.

S. R. Montgomery, M. P. Gallagher, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, G. L. Wood, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Cooperative photorefractive beam fanning in BaSrKNaNb5O15,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B. 11, 1694–1699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, R.

M. Goulkov, G. Jäkel, E. Krätzig, S. Odoulov, and R. Schulz, “Influence of different impurities on light-induced scattering in doped LiNbO3 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 4, 314–317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, E. J.

S. R. Montgomery, M. P. Gallagher, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, G. L. Wood, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Cooperative photorefractive beam fanning in BaSrKNaNb5O15,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B. 11, 1694–1699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Soskin, M. S.

A. V. Ilenkov, S. G. Odoulov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Phase-matched light-induced scattering, mirrorless self-generation, and oscillation of nearly retropropagating waves in LiNbO3:Fe in ‘forbidden’ interaction geometry,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 509–512 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, S. I.

M. P. Petrov, S. I. Stepanov, and A. V. Khomenko, Photorefractive Crystals in Coherent Optical Systems, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Sturman, B.

B. Sturman, M. Goulkov, and S. Odoulov, “Polarization-degenerate parametric light scattering in photorefractive crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 193–199 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Odoulov, B. Sturman, L. Holtmann, and E. Krätzig, “Parametric conical scattering of two orthogonally polarized waves in BaTiO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1648–1653 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Odoulov, B. Sturman, L. Holtmann, and E. Krätzig, “Nonlinear scattering in BaTiO3 induced by two orthogonally polarized waves,” Appl. Phys. B 52, 317–322 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sturman, B. I.

M. Yu. Goulkov, S. G. Odoulov, and B. I. Sturman, “Polarization-anisotropic scattering lines in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 223–228 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Odulov and B. I. Sturman, “Parametric polarization scattering of light in photorefractive BaTiO3,” Sov. Phys. JETP 75, 241–249 (1992).

B. I. Sturman and V. M. Fridkin, The Photovoltaic and Photorefractive Effects in Noncentrosymmetric Materials (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1992).

Taratuta, R. A.

K. G. Belabaev, I. N. Kiseleva, V. V. Obuchovskii, S. G. Odoulov, and R. A. Taratuta, “New parametric holographic-type scattering of light in lithium tantalate crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 28, 321–322 (1986).

Temple, D. A.

Tschudi, T.

van Olfen, U.

M. Goulkov, S. Odoulov, U. van Olfen, and E. Krätzig, “A new light-induced scattering process in photorefractive BaTiO3,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (B) 172, K37–K40 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vasnetsov, M. V.

A. V. Ilenkov, S. G. Odoulov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Phase-matched light-induced scattering, mirrorless self-generation, and oscillation of nearly retropropagating waves in LiNbO3:Fe in ‘forbidden’ interaction geometry,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 509–512 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Warde, C.

Wood, G. L.

S. R. Montgomery, M. P. Gallagher, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, G. L. Wood, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Cooperative photorefractive beam fanning in BaSrKNaNb5O15,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B. 11, 1694–1699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

M. D. Ewbank, P. Yeh, and J. Feinberg, “Photorefractive conical diffraction in BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 59, 423–428 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (5)

R. A. Rupp and F. W. Dress, “Light-induced scattering in photorefractive crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 39, 223–229 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. Odoulov, B. Sturman, L. Holtmann, and E. Krätzig, “Nonlinear scattering in BaTiO3 induced by two orthogonally polarized waves,” Appl. Phys. B 52, 317–322 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. Sturman, M. Goulkov, and S. Odoulov, “Polarization-degenerate parametric light scattering in photorefractive crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 193–199 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Yu. Goulkov, S. G. Odoulov, and B. I. Sturman, “Polarization-anisotropic scattering lines in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 223–228 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Ilenkov, S. G. Odoulov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Phase-matched light-induced scattering, mirrorless self-generation, and oscillation of nearly retropropagating waves in LiNbO3:Fe in ‘forbidden’ interaction geometry,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 509–512 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am B. (1)

S. R. Montgomery, M. P. Gallagher, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, G. L. Wood, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Cooperative photorefractive beam fanning in BaSrKNaNb5O15,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B. 11, 1694–1699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (6)

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. D. Ewbank, P. Yeh, and J. Feinberg, “Photorefractive conical diffraction in BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 59, 423–428 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

M. Goulkov, G. Jäkel, E. Krätzig, S. Odoulov, and R. Schulz, “Influence of different impurities on light-induced scattering in doped LiNbO3 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 4, 314–317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Stat. Sol. (B) (1)

M. Goulkov, S. Odoulov, U. van Olfen, and E. Krätzig, “A new light-induced scattering process in photorefractive BaTiO3,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (B) 172, K37–K40 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

S. G. Odulov and B. I. Sturman, “Parametric polarization scattering of light in photorefractive BaTiO3,” Sov. Phys. JETP 75, 241–249 (1992).

Sov. Phys. Solid State (2)

K. G. Belabaev, I. N. Kiseleva, V. V. Obuchovskii, S. G. Odoulov, and R. A. Taratuta, “New parametric holographic-type scattering of light in lithium tantalate crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 28, 321–322 (1986).

I. N. Kiseleva, V. V. Obuchovskii, and S. G. Odoulov, “Parametric scattering of the holographic type in class 3m crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 28, 1673–1676 (1986).

Ukr. Phys. J. (1)

I. N. Kiseleva, V. V. Obukhovskii, S. G. Odoulov, and O. I. Oleinik, “Photoinduced light dispersion in crystals with biharmonic pump,” Ukr. Phys. J. 31, 1682–1686 (1986).

Other (6)

It dominates when the pump waves propagate in the plane normal to the polar axis; see, e.g., Ref. 14.

In spite of a large body of convincing evidence of a one-to-one correspondence between the light rings and lines and the phase-matching conditions, some authors still try to connect these light singularities with hypothetical anisotropic scattering centers; see Ref. 19.

B. I. Sturman and V. M. Fridkin, The Photovoltaic and Photorefractive Effects in Noncentrosymmetric Materials (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1992).

P. Günter and J.-P. Huignard, eds., Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I and II, Vols. 61 and 62 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988 and 1989).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Petrov, S. I. Stepanov, and A. V. Khomenko, Photorefractive Crystals in Coherent Optical Systems, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).
[CrossRef]

I. F. Kanaev and V. K. Malinovskii, “Mechanism of light scattering in photorefractive media,” Autometrija (Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 1991), Vol. 4, pp. 37–48.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Wave-vector diagrams for parametric processes. (a) A : oeoo; (b) A : oeoe; (c) B : eeoe and B : eeeo; (d) B : oeeo. The cone axes are shown as dashed lines.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic representation of the grating vectors for parametric processes. (a) A : oeoo; (b) B : oeeo, Points α, β, γ, and δ mark the tips of the corresponding wave vectors.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic representation of the experimental setup and the scattering pattern.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scattering patterns observed on a viewing screen for two different exposure times. The over-exposed photograph (a) emphasizes the weak lines I2 (see the text and Fig. 3), and photograph (b) shows the structure of the strong rings overlapping with the wide-angle background. To improve the picture quality, we have blocked the transmitted pump beams and four bright light dots with small dark disks.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Possible Elementary Processes of Parametric Scattering and Their Observations for A and B Processes

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Table 2 Scattering Angles for the Elementary A and B Processes

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k α + k β = k γ + k δ ,
k α k β = k δ k γ .
K s = k γ k β k α k δ , K p = k γ k α k β k δ ,
K s = k γ k β k δ k α ; K p = k γ k α ; K f = k α k β k δ k γ ; K d = k δ k β .

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