Abstract

We present a theoretical study of the main characteristics of two-color photoionization spectra obtained when atoms are subjected to an intense radiation pulse containing the fundamental of an infrared laser and one of its higher harmonics. The frequency of the latter is chosen to be high enough that the atom can be ionized by a single photon. The calculation is performed by numerical integration of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a (three-dimensional) hydrogen atom. We present the general properties of the spectra and angular distributions as well as the possible occurrence of interferences between the laser-assisted process and above-threshold ionization. Our results indicate that such interference effects, which can lead to partial coherent control of the photoionization process, can be observed at moderate laser intensities within the reach of currently operated laser and harmonic sources.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Chen and D. S. Elliott, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1737 (1990); H. G. Muller, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. W. Schumacher, and A. Zavriyev, J. Phys. B 23, 2761 (1990); D. W. Schumacher, F. Weihe, H. G. Muller, and P. H. Bucksbaum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1344 (1994); S. Watanabe, K. Kondo, Y. Nabekawa, A. Sagisaka, and Y. Kobayashi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2692 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Szöke, K. C. Kulander, and J. N. Bardsley, J. Phys. B. 24, 3165 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. M. Potvliege and P. H. G. Smith, J. Phys. B 24, L641 (1991); 25, 2501 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. J. Schafer and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8026 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Dörr, R. M. Potvliege, D. Proulx, and R. Shakeshaft, Phys. Rev. A 44, 574 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Véniard, R. Taïeb, and A. Maquet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4161 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. L'Huillier, P. Salières, and Ph. Balcou, presented at International Research Workshop on the Generation and Application of Ultra-short X-Ray Pulses, Salamanca, Spain, March 1994; Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry and A. L'Huillier, Z. Phys. D. 34, 107 (1995); R. Haight and P. F. Seidler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 517 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. I. Freund, Opt. Commun. 8, 401 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Dörr and R. Shakeshaft, Phys. Rev. A 36, 421 (1987); A. Bugacov, B. Piraux, M. Pont, and R. Shakeshaft, Phys. Rev. A 45, 3041 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. Leone, S. Bivona, R. Burlon, and G. Ferrante, Phys. Rev. A 38, 5642 (1988); S. Bivona, R. Burlon, and C. Leone, Phys. Rev. A 45, 3268 (1992); 48, R3441 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. Rza̧żewski, L. Wang, and J. W. Haus, Phys. Rev. A 40, 3453 (1989); L. Wang, J. W. Haus, and K. Rza̧żewski, Phys. Rev. A 42, 6784 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Shapiro and P. Brumer, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 13, 187 (1994); earlier references include M. Shapiro, J. W. Hepburn, and P. Brumer, Chem. Phys. Lett. 149, 451 (1988); S. M. Park, S.-P. Lu, and R. J. Gordon, J. Chem. Phys. 94, 8622 (1991); a recent theoretical reference is E. Charron, A. Giusti-Suzor, and F. H. Mies, Phys. Rev. A. 49, R641 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and J. L. Krause, in Atoms in Strong Fields, M. Gavrila, ed., Adv. Atom. Molec. Opt. Phys. Suppl. 1, 247 (1992).
  15. P. Antoine, B. Piraux, and A. Maquet, Phys. Rev. A 51, R1750 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. J. Schafer, Comp. Phys. Commun. 63, 427 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Cionga, V. Florescu, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, Phys. Rev. A 47, 1830 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. Weingartshofer, J. Holmes, J. Sabbagh, and S. Chin, J. Phys. B 16, 1805 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Two recent references include M. Dörr, D. Feldmann, R. M. Potvliege, H. Rottke, R. Shakeshaft, K. H. Welge, and B. Wolff-Rottke, J. Phys. B 25, L275 (1992); W. Nicklich, H. Kumpfmüller, H. Walther, X. Tang, H. Xu, and P. Lambropoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3455 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

V. Véniard, R. Taïeb, and A. Maquet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4161 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Antoine, B. Piraux, and A. Maquet, Phys. Rev. A 51, R1750 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

M. Shapiro and P. Brumer, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 13, 187 (1994); earlier references include M. Shapiro, J. W. Hepburn, and P. Brumer, Chem. Phys. Lett. 149, 451 (1988); S. M. Park, S.-P. Lu, and R. J. Gordon, J. Chem. Phys. 94, 8622 (1991); a recent theoretical reference is E. Charron, A. Giusti-Suzor, and F. H. Mies, Phys. Rev. A. 49, R641 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. L'Huillier, P. Salières, and Ph. Balcou, presented at International Research Workshop on the Generation and Application of Ultra-short X-Ray Pulses, Salamanca, Spain, March 1994; Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry and A. L'Huillier, Z. Phys. D. 34, 107 (1995); R. Haight and P. F. Seidler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 517 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

A. Cionga, V. Florescu, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, Phys. Rev. A 47, 1830 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (3)

Two recent references include M. Dörr, D. Feldmann, R. M. Potvliege, H. Rottke, R. Shakeshaft, K. H. Welge, and B. Wolff-Rottke, J. Phys. B 25, L275 (1992); W. Nicklich, H. Kumpfmüller, H. Walther, X. Tang, H. Xu, and P. Lambropoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3455 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Schafer and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8026 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and J. L. Krause, in Atoms in Strong Fields, M. Gavrila, ed., Adv. Atom. Molec. Opt. Phys. Suppl. 1, 247 (1992).

1991 (4)

K. J. Schafer, Comp. Phys. Commun. 63, 427 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Dörr, R. M. Potvliege, D. Proulx, and R. Shakeshaft, Phys. Rev. A 44, 574 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Szöke, K. C. Kulander, and J. N. Bardsley, J. Phys. B. 24, 3165 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Potvliege and P. H. G. Smith, J. Phys. B 24, L641 (1991); 25, 2501 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

C. Chen and D. S. Elliott, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1737 (1990); H. G. Muller, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. W. Schumacher, and A. Zavriyev, J. Phys. B 23, 2761 (1990); D. W. Schumacher, F. Weihe, H. G. Muller, and P. H. Bucksbaum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1344 (1994); S. Watanabe, K. Kondo, Y. Nabekawa, A. Sagisaka, and Y. Kobayashi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2692 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

K. Rza̧żewski, L. Wang, and J. W. Haus, Phys. Rev. A 40, 3453 (1989); L. Wang, J. W. Haus, and K. Rza̧żewski, Phys. Rev. A 42, 6784 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

C. Leone, S. Bivona, R. Burlon, and G. Ferrante, Phys. Rev. A 38, 5642 (1988); S. Bivona, R. Burlon, and C. Leone, Phys. Rev. A 45, 3268 (1992); 48, R3441 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

M. Dörr and R. Shakeshaft, Phys. Rev. A 36, 421 (1987); A. Bugacov, B. Piraux, M. Pont, and R. Shakeshaft, Phys. Rev. A 45, 3041 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

A. Weingartshofer, J. Holmes, J. Sabbagh, and S. Chin, J. Phys. B 16, 1805 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

I. Freund, Opt. Commun. 8, 401 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antoine, P.

P. Antoine, B. Piraux, and A. Maquet, Phys. Rev. A 51, R1750 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Antonetti, A.

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, Ph.

A. L'Huillier, P. Salières, and Ph. Balcou, presented at International Research Workshop on the Generation and Application of Ultra-short X-Ray Pulses, Salamanca, Spain, March 1994; Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry and A. L'Huillier, Z. Phys. D. 34, 107 (1995); R. Haight and P. F. Seidler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 517 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bardsley, J. N.

A. Szöke, K. C. Kulander, and J. N. Bardsley, J. Phys. B. 24, 3165 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bivona, S.

C. Leone, S. Bivona, R. Burlon, and G. Ferrante, Phys. Rev. A 38, 5642 (1988); S. Bivona, R. Burlon, and C. Leone, Phys. Rev. A 45, 3268 (1992); 48, R3441 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breger, P.

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brumer, P.

M. Shapiro and P. Brumer, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 13, 187 (1994); earlier references include M. Shapiro, J. W. Hepburn, and P. Brumer, Chem. Phys. Lett. 149, 451 (1988); S. M. Park, S.-P. Lu, and R. J. Gordon, J. Chem. Phys. 94, 8622 (1991); a recent theoretical reference is E. Charron, A. Giusti-Suzor, and F. H. Mies, Phys. Rev. A. 49, R641 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burlon, R.

C. Leone, S. Bivona, R. Burlon, and G. Ferrante, Phys. Rev. A 38, 5642 (1988); S. Bivona, R. Burlon, and C. Leone, Phys. Rev. A 45, 3268 (1992); 48, R3441 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

C. Chen and D. S. Elliott, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1737 (1990); H. G. Muller, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. W. Schumacher, and A. Zavriyev, J. Phys. B 23, 2761 (1990); D. W. Schumacher, F. Weihe, H. G. Muller, and P. H. Bucksbaum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1344 (1994); S. Watanabe, K. Kondo, Y. Nabekawa, A. Sagisaka, and Y. Kobayashi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2692 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, S.

A. Weingartshofer, J. Holmes, J. Sabbagh, and S. Chin, J. Phys. B 16, 1805 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Cionga, A.

A. Cionga, V. Florescu, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, Phys. Rev. A 47, 1830 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Constantinescu, R. C.

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darack, S.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dörr, M.

Two recent references include M. Dörr, D. Feldmann, R. M. Potvliege, H. Rottke, R. Shakeshaft, K. H. Welge, and B. Wolff-Rottke, J. Phys. B 25, L275 (1992); W. Nicklich, H. Kumpfmüller, H. Walther, X. Tang, H. Xu, and P. Lambropoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3455 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dörr, R. M. Potvliege, D. Proulx, and R. Shakeshaft, Phys. Rev. A 44, 574 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Dörr and R. Shakeshaft, Phys. Rev. A 36, 421 (1987); A. Bugacov, B. Piraux, M. Pont, and R. Shakeshaft, Phys. Rev. A 45, 3041 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elliott, D. S.

C. Chen and D. S. Elliott, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1737 (1990); H. G. Muller, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. W. Schumacher, and A. Zavriyev, J. Phys. B 23, 2761 (1990); D. W. Schumacher, F. Weihe, H. G. Muller, and P. H. Bucksbaum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1344 (1994); S. Watanabe, K. Kondo, Y. Nabekawa, A. Sagisaka, and Y. Kobayashi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2692 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldmann, D.

Two recent references include M. Dörr, D. Feldmann, R. M. Potvliege, H. Rottke, R. Shakeshaft, K. H. Welge, and B. Wolff-Rottke, J. Phys. B 25, L275 (1992); W. Nicklich, H. Kumpfmüller, H. Walther, X. Tang, H. Xu, and P. Lambropoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3455 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrante, G.

C. Leone, S. Bivona, R. Burlon, and G. Ferrante, Phys. Rev. A 38, 5642 (1988); S. Bivona, R. Burlon, and C. Leone, Phys. Rev. A 45, 3268 (1992); 48, R3441 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Florescu, V.

A. Cionga, V. Florescu, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, Phys. Rev. A 47, 1830 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freeman, R. R.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freund, I.

I. Freund, Opt. Commun. 8, 401 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Geusic, M. E.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grillon, G.

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haus, J. W.

K. Rza̧żewski, L. Wang, and J. W. Haus, Phys. Rev. A 40, 3453 (1989); L. Wang, J. W. Haus, and K. Rza̧żewski, Phys. Rev. A 42, 6784 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holmes, J.

A. Weingartshofer, J. Holmes, J. Sabbagh, and S. Chin, J. Phys. B 16, 1805 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Krause, J. L.

K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and J. L. Krause, in Atoms in Strong Fields, M. Gavrila, ed., Adv. Atom. Molec. Opt. Phys. Suppl. 1, 247 (1992).

Kulander, K. C.

K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and J. L. Krause, in Atoms in Strong Fields, M. Gavrila, ed., Adv. Atom. Molec. Opt. Phys. Suppl. 1, 247 (1992).

K. J. Schafer and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8026 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szöke, K. C. Kulander, and J. N. Bardsley, J. Phys. B. 24, 3165 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Leone, C.

C. Leone, S. Bivona, R. Burlon, and G. Ferrante, Phys. Rev. A 38, 5642 (1988); S. Bivona, R. Burlon, and C. Leone, Phys. Rev. A 45, 3268 (1992); 48, R3441 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L'Huillier, A.

A. L'Huillier, P. Salières, and Ph. Balcou, presented at International Research Workshop on the Generation and Application of Ultra-short X-Ray Pulses, Salamanca, Spain, March 1994; Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry and A. L'Huillier, Z. Phys. D. 34, 107 (1995); R. Haight and P. F. Seidler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 517 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Maquet, A.

V. Véniard, R. Taïeb, and A. Maquet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4161 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Antoine, B. Piraux, and A. Maquet, Phys. Rev. A 51, R1750 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Cionga, V. Florescu, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, Phys. Rev. A 47, 1830 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milchberg, H.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, H. G.

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piraux, B.

P. Antoine, B. Piraux, and A. Maquet, Phys. Rev. A 51, R1750 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Potvliege, R. M.

Two recent references include M. Dörr, D. Feldmann, R. M. Potvliege, H. Rottke, R. Shakeshaft, K. H. Welge, and B. Wolff-Rottke, J. Phys. B 25, L275 (1992); W. Nicklich, H. Kumpfmüller, H. Walther, X. Tang, H. Xu, and P. Lambropoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3455 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Potvliege and P. H. G. Smith, J. Phys. B 24, L641 (1991); 25, 2501 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Dörr, R. M. Potvliege, D. Proulx, and R. Shakeshaft, Phys. Rev. A 44, 574 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Proulx, D.

M. Dörr, R. M. Potvliege, D. Proulx, and R. Shakeshaft, Phys. Rev. A 44, 574 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rottke, H.

Two recent references include M. Dörr, D. Feldmann, R. M. Potvliege, H. Rottke, R. Shakeshaft, K. H. Welge, and B. Wolff-Rottke, J. Phys. B 25, L275 (1992); W. Nicklich, H. Kumpfmüller, H. Walther, X. Tang, H. Xu, and P. Lambropoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3455 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rza¸zewski, K.

K. Rza̧żewski, L. Wang, and J. W. Haus, Phys. Rev. A 40, 3453 (1989); L. Wang, J. W. Haus, and K. Rza̧żewski, Phys. Rev. A 42, 6784 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sabbagh, J.

A. Weingartshofer, J. Holmes, J. Sabbagh, and S. Chin, J. Phys. B 16, 1805 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Salières, P.

A. L'Huillier, P. Salières, and Ph. Balcou, presented at International Research Workshop on the Generation and Application of Ultra-short X-Ray Pulses, Salamanca, Spain, March 1994; Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry and A. L'Huillier, Z. Phys. D. 34, 107 (1995); R. Haight and P. F. Seidler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 517 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, K. J.

K. J. Schafer and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8026 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and J. L. Krause, in Atoms in Strong Fields, M. Gavrila, ed., Adv. Atom. Molec. Opt. Phys. Suppl. 1, 247 (1992).

K. J. Schafer, Comp. Phys. Commun. 63, 427 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schins, J. M.

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schumacher, D.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shakeshaft, R.

Two recent references include M. Dörr, D. Feldmann, R. M. Potvliege, H. Rottke, R. Shakeshaft, K. H. Welge, and B. Wolff-Rottke, J. Phys. B 25, L275 (1992); W. Nicklich, H. Kumpfmüller, H. Walther, X. Tang, H. Xu, and P. Lambropoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3455 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dörr, R. M. Potvliege, D. Proulx, and R. Shakeshaft, Phys. Rev. A 44, 574 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Dörr and R. Shakeshaft, Phys. Rev. A 36, 421 (1987); A. Bugacov, B. Piraux, M. Pont, and R. Shakeshaft, Phys. Rev. A 45, 3041 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shapiro, M.

M. Shapiro and P. Brumer, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 13, 187 (1994); earlier references include M. Shapiro, J. W. Hepburn, and P. Brumer, Chem. Phys. Lett. 149, 451 (1988); S. M. Park, S.-P. Lu, and R. J. Gordon, J. Chem. Phys. 94, 8622 (1991); a recent theoretical reference is E. Charron, A. Giusti-Suzor, and F. H. Mies, Phys. Rev. A. 49, R641 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. H. G.

R. M. Potvliege and P. H. G. Smith, J. Phys. B 24, L641 (1991); 25, 2501 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Szöke, A.

A. Szöke, K. C. Kulander, and J. N. Bardsley, J. Phys. B. 24, 3165 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Taïeb, R.

V. Véniard, R. Taïeb, and A. Maquet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4161 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Cionga, V. Florescu, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, Phys. Rev. A 47, 1830 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Véniard, V.

V. Véniard, R. Taïeb, and A. Maquet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4161 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

K. Rza̧żewski, L. Wang, and J. W. Haus, Phys. Rev. A 40, 3453 (1989); L. Wang, J. W. Haus, and K. Rza̧żewski, Phys. Rev. A 42, 6784 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weingartshofer, A.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy diagrams schematically representing photoionization processes involving (a) single-photon ionization through the absorption of one high-frequency photon (here the 13th harmonic of an IR laser), (b) multiphoton ATI, (c) LASPI in the simultaneous presence of the IR laser and of its 13th harmonic. The shift (≈Up) of the ionization threshold in the presence of the (strong) laser is indicated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effect of the laser intensity on two-color photoelectron spectra for radiation pulses containing the fundamental frequency of a Ti:sapphire laser, ωL = 1.55 eV, and its 13th harmonic with a fixed intensity IH = 3 × 108 W/cm2. (a) IL = 0 (single-photon ionization), (b) IL = 5 × 1011 W/cm2, (c) IL = 3 × 1012 W/cm2, (d) IL = 8 × 1012 W/cm2, (e) IL = 1.75 × 1013 W/cm2, (f) IL = 2 × 1013 W/cm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effect of the presence of the 13th harmonic of a Ti:sapphire laser on the photoelectron spectrum. (a) IL = 1013 W/cm2. Thick curve, IH = 3 × 108 W/cm2; thin curve, IH = 0 (ATI spectrum). The position (ponderomotive shift included) of the single photon ionization peak is indicated by the arrow. (b) Same as (a), with IL = 2 × 1013 W/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Phase dependence of two-color photoelectron spectra for radiation pulses containing the fundamental frequency of a Ti:sapphire laser ωL = 1.55 eV; IL = 1.75 × 1013 W/cm2, and its 13th harmonic with a fixed intensity IH = 3 × 108 W/cm2. △, ATI (IH = 0); ⃝, ϕ = 0°; ⃞, ϕ = 45°; +, ϕ = 90°; ×, ϕ = 135°; ⃟, ϕ = 180°.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Heights of selected peaks in the photoelectron spectra as a function of the relative phase of the two radiation fields, ωL = 1.55 eV, IL = 1.75 × 1013 W/cm2, and its 13 harmonic IH = 3 × 108 W/cm2. ⃝, E−3; ⃟, E−2; ⃞, E−1; ×, E0; +, E+5; △, E+6.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Angular distributions for peak with energy E−3 (see text) of the photoelectron spectra for radiation pulses containing the fundamental frequency of a Ti:sapphire laser, ωL = 1.55 eV, IL = 1.75 × 1013 W/cm2, and its 13th harmonic: thick curve, IH = 3 × 1018 W/cm2 and thin curve, IH = 0 (ATI). The inset represents a polar coordinate view of angular distributions. (b) Same as (a) for a peak with energy E0. (c) Same as (a) for a peak with energy E+3.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Effect of the laser intensity on angular distribution for the peak with energy E0 of two-color photoelectron spectra for radiation pulses containing the fundamental frequency of a Ti:sapphire laser, ωL = 1.55 eV, and its 13th harmonic with a fixed intensity IH = 3 × 108 W/cm2. (a) Long-dashed curve, IL = 5 × 1011 W/cm2; thick solid curve, IL = 3 × 1012 W/cm2; short-dashed curve, IL = 1.75 × 1013 W/cm2; thin solid curve, IL = 2 × 1013 W/cm2. (b) Central part of (a).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Angular-Momentum Populations (×107) for Peaks with Energy E−3, E0, E+3 of the Photoelectron Spectra for Radiation Pulses Containing the Fundamental Frequency of a Ti:sapphire laser, ωL = 1.55 eV; IL = 1.75 × 1013 W/cm2, and its 13th Harmonic (a) IH = 0 (ATI), (b) IH = 3 × 108 W/cm2

Equations (3)

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i Ψ ( r , t ) t = [ H at + H L ( t ) + H H ( t ) ] Ψ ( r , t ) ,
H L ( t ) = z F L ( t ) sin ( ω L t ) , H H ( t ) = z F H ( t ) sin ( ω H t + ϕ ) ,
W ( E k , γ ) = γ 4 ( H at E k ) 4 + γ 4 ,

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