Abstract

The generation of frequency upshifted, pressure-tunable third-harmonic pulses during ultrafast ionization of subatmospheric noble gases at peak intensity 1016 W/cm2 is reported. Pressure tuning of the power spectrum centroid over the range 10−5 ≲ Δω/ω ≲ 10−1, corresponding to a pressure range of 0.1 ≲ p ≲ 700 Torr, is demonstrated. We also demonstrate that the blue-shifted portions of both the 3ω and the ω pulses are preferentially self-guided in a limited pressure range (10 ≲ p ≲ 500 Torr), which is key to separating the pressure-tunable component of the harmonic from nontunable harmonic generated by means of atomic nonlinearities.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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1995 (2)

1994 (3)

C. W. Siders, E. W. Gaul, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, and A. Stepanov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3140 (1994).
[Crossref]

E. E. Fill, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2241 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and M. Y. Ivanov, Opt. Lett. 19, 1870 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (5)

S. P. Le Blanc, R. Sauerbrey, S. C. Rae, and K. Burnett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1801 (1993); in Short Wavelength V, P. B. Corkum and M. D. Perry, eds., Vol. 17 of OSA Preceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 53–57; S. C. Rae and K. Burnett, Phys. Rev. A 46, 1084 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. V. Vanin, A. V. Kim, A. M. Sergeev, and M. C. Downer, JETP Lett. 58, 900 (1993).

P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

J. M. Rax and N. J. Fisch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 772 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, P. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523 (1991); IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 20 (1993); B. M. Penetrante, J. N. Bardsley, W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2032 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Augst, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Strickland, and S. L. Chin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 858 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (3)

F. Brunel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 521 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, W. V. Davis, and K. Rzażewski, Phys. Rev. A 41, 3822 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Silberberg, Opt. Lett. 15, 1282 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

1986 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

1980 (1)

N. L. Manakov and V. D. Ovsyannikov, Sov. Phys. JETP 52, 895 (1980).

1975 (1)

G. C. Bjorklund, IEEE J. Quantum Electron 11, 287 (1975).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

J. E. Bjorkholm and A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 129 (1974); V. N. Goldberg, V. I. Talanov, and R. E. Erm, Izv. Vuz. Radiofiz. 10, 674 (1967); M. Karlsson, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2726 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Ashkin, A.

J. E. Bjorkholm and A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 129 (1974); V. N. Goldberg, V. I. Talanov, and R. E. Erm, Izv. Vuz. Radiofiz. 10, 674 (1967); M. Karlsson, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2726 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Augst, S.

Babine, A.

C. W. Siders, E. W. Gaul, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, and A. Stepanov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3140 (1994).
[Crossref]

Balcou, P.

A. L’Huillier, P. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778 (1992).
[Crossref]

Balcou, Ph.

C. G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709 (1993).
[Crossref]

Barthelemy, A.

Bjorkholm, J. E.

J. E. Bjorkholm and A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 129 (1974); V. N. Goldberg, V. I. Talanov, and R. E. Erm, Izv. Vuz. Radiofiz. 10, 674 (1967); M. Karlsson, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2726 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bjorklund, G. C.

G. C. Bjorklund, IEEE J. Quantum Electron 11, 287 (1975).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, W. V. Davis, and K. Rzażewski, Phys. Rev. A 41, 3822 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braun, A.

Brunel, F.

Burnett, K.

Burnett, N. H.

Candel, S.

A. L’Huillier, P. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chin, S. L.

Corkum, P. B.

Davis, W. V.

M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, W. V. Davis, and K. Rzażewski, Phys. Rev. A 41, 3822 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dawson, J. M.

S. C. Wilks, J. M. Dawson, W. B. Mori, T. Katsouleas, and M. E. Jones, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2600 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delone, N. B.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Downer, M. C.

C. W. Siders, E. W. Gaul, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, and A. Stepanov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3140 (1994).
[Crossref]

E. V. Vanin, A. V. Kim, A. M. Sergeev, and M. C. Downer, JETP Lett. 58, 900 (1993).

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523 (1991); IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 20 (1993); B. M. Penetrante, J. N. Bardsley, W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2032 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Du, D.

Fill, E. E.

Fisch, N. J.

J. M. Rax and N. J. Fisch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 772 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaul, E. W.

C. W. Siders, E. W. Gaul, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, and A. Stepanov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3140 (1994).
[Crossref]

Gordon, C. L.

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M. Y.

Jones, M. E.

S. C. Wilks, J. M. Dawson, W. B. Mori, T. Katsouleas, and M. E. Jones, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2600 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Katsouleas, T.

S. C. Wilks, J. M. Dawson, W. B. Mori, T. Katsouleas, and M. E. Jones, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2600 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, A. V.

E. V. Vanin, A. V. Kim, A. M. Sergeev, and M. C. Downer, JETP Lett. 58, 900 (1993).

Kmetec, J. D.

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Korn, G.

Krainov, V. P.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Kulander, K. C.

A. L’Huillier, P. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778 (1992).
[Crossref]

L’Huillier, A.

C. G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709 (1993).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, P. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778 (1992).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, in Atoms in Intense Laser Fields, M. Gavrila, ed. (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1992), pp. 139–206.

Larsson, J.

C. G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709 (1993).
[Crossref]

Le Blanc, S. P.

Liu, X.

A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squire, and G. Mourou, Opt. Lett. 20, 73 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu and D. Umstadter, in Short Wavelength V, P. B. Corkum and M. D. Perry, eds., Vol. 17 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 45–49.

Lompré, L. A.

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, in Atoms in Intense Laser Fields, M. Gavrila, ed. (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1992), pp. 139–206.

Macklin, J. J.

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mainfray, G.

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, in Atoms in Intense Laser Fields, M. Gavrila, ed. (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1992), pp. 139–206.

Malcuit, M. S.

M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, W. V. Davis, and K. Rzażewski, Phys. Rev. A 41, 3822 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manakov, N. L.

N. L. Manakov and V. D. Ovsyannikov, Sov. Phys. JETP 52, 895 (1980).

Manus, C.

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, in Atoms in Intense Laser Fields, M. Gavrila, ed. (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1992), pp. 139–206.

Meyerhofer, D. D.

Mori, W. B.

S. C. Wilks, J. M. Dawson, W. B. Mori, T. Katsouleas, and M. E. Jones, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2600 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mourou, G.

Ovsyannikov, V. D.

N. L. Manakov and V. D. Ovsyannikov, Sov. Phys. JETP 52, 895 (1980).

Persson, A.

C. G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709 (1993).
[Crossref]

Rae, S. C.

Rax, J. M.

J. M. Rax and N. J. Fisch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 772 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reynaud, F.

Rzazewski, K.

M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, W. V. Davis, and K. Rzażewski, Phys. Rev. A 41, 3822 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salières, P.

C. G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709 (1993).
[Crossref]

Salin, F.

Sanpera, A.

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, and K. Burnett, Phys. Rev. A 51, 1458 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sauerbrey, R.

Schafer, K. J.

A. L’Huillier, P. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778 (1992).
[Crossref]

Sergeev, A. M.

E. V. Vanin, A. V. Kim, A. M. Sergeev, and M. C. Downer, JETP Lett. 58, 900 (1993).

Siders, C. W.

C. W. Siders, E. W. Gaul, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, and A. Stepanov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3140 (1994).
[Crossref]

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523 (1991); IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 20 (1993); B. M. Penetrante, J. N. Bardsley, W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2032 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silberberg, Y.

Squire, J.

Starczewski, T.

C. G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709 (1993).
[Crossref]

Stepanov, A.

C. W. Siders, E. W. Gaul, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, and A. Stepanov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3140 (1994).
[Crossref]

Strickland, D.

Svanberg, S.

C. G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709 (1993).
[Crossref]

Turner, N. C.

N. C. Turner, “Dual beam detection of frequency shifted ultrafast laser pulses,” Master’s thesis (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Tex., 1994).

Umstadter, D.

X. Liu and D. Umstadter, in Short Wavelength V, P. B. Corkum and M. D. Perry, eds., Vol. 17 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 45–49.

Vanin, E. V.

E. V. Vanin, A. V. Kim, A. M. Sergeev, and M. C. Downer, JETP Lett. 58, 900 (1993).

Wahlström, C. G.

C. G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709 (1993).
[Crossref]

Watson, J. B.

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, and K. Burnett, Phys. Rev. A 51, 1458 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilks, S. C.

S. C. Wilks, J. M. Dawson, W. B. Mori, T. Katsouleas, and M. E. Jones, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2600 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wood, W. M.

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523 (1991); IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 20 (1993); B. M. Penetrante, J. N. Bardsley, W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2032 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron (1)

G. C. Bjorklund, IEEE J. Quantum Electron 11, 287 (1975).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

JETP Lett. (1)

E. V. Vanin, A. V. Kim, A. M. Sergeev, and M. C. Downer, JETP Lett. 58, 900 (1993).

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (4)

M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, W. V. Davis, and K. Rzażewski, Phys. Rev. A 41, 3822 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, and K. Burnett, Phys. Rev. A 51, 1458 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709 (1993).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, P. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778 (1992).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Wilks, J. M. Dawson, W. B. Mori, T. Katsouleas, and M. E. Jones, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2600 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Rax and N. J. Fisch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 772 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523 (1991); IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 20 (1993); B. M. Penetrante, J. N. Bardsley, W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2032 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Bjorkholm and A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 129 (1974); V. N. Goldberg, V. I. Talanov, and R. E. Erm, Izv. Vuz. Radiofiz. 10, 674 (1967); M. Karlsson, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2726 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. W. Siders, E. W. Gaul, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, and A. Stepanov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3140 (1994).
[Crossref]

Sov. Phys. JETP (2)

N. L. Manakov and V. D. Ovsyannikov, Sov. Phys. JETP 52, 895 (1980).

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Other (3)

N. C. Turner, “Dual beam detection of frequency shifted ultrafast laser pulses,” Master’s thesis (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Tex., 1994).

X. Liu and D. Umstadter, in Short Wavelength V, P. B. Corkum and M. D. Perry, eds., Vol. 17 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 45–49.

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, in Atoms in Intense Laser Fields, M. Gavrila, ed. (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1992), pp. 139–206.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a)–(c) Spatially integrated 3ω spectra for three gases for various pressures. Note that the spectra are ordered by pressure but that the pressure axis increases first logarithmically, then linearly. Each spectrum represents an average of 1000 (He, Ne) or 300 (Ar) laser shots. Diode array noise and fixed patterns have been reduced in the data by fast-Fourier-transform filtering. (d) Graph of peak and width (FWHM) of shorter-wavelength feature. The dashed curve is an extrapolation of low-pressure He results.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Zero-order moment (pulse energy) as a function of pressure. (b) Spectrum centroids for ω and 3ω frequency shifts in He as a function in pressure. The measured slope for the fundamental is consistent with the parameters of the experiment. Additionally, results of using a multifocus (five in this case) configuration to achieve a larger measured shift are shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Average power spectrum of the core for ∼700-Torr He, obtained by simple aperturing. The dashed curve is the calculated unshifted third-harmonic-generated spectrum of the fundamental. (b) Spatially resolved blue-shifted third-harmonic spectra after ionization of Ar at the indicated pressures and passage through a quartz prism. Vertical axis, position in the beam profile; horizontal axis, wavelength. The Polaroids were exposed in approximately the focal plane of the most blue-shifted light. Note the well-collimated core of strongly blue-shifted light.

Equations (2)

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δ λ zr e 2 π c λ 3 d n e d t ,
| l / 2 l / 2 exp ( i Δ kz ) [ 1 + i ( z / z R ) ] 2 d z | 2 ,

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