Abstract

A series of models is developed that describes a Ho:Tm laser, and predictions from these models are compared with experimental measurements for a variety of Ho:Tm:YLF amplifiers. Modeling is complicated by the plethora of required parameters needed to describe the dynamics of the Ho:Tm laser system versus the paucity of measured parameters. To remedy this, calculations presented here begin with measured energy levels and a quantum-mechanical model to determine a set of crystal-field parameters that are then used to calculate the energy-transfer parameters. Energy-transfer parameters, which describe the dynamics of energy exchange in the Ho:Tm system, are subsequently used in a rate-equation model to describe the dynamics of the lowest four manifolds of both Ho and Tm. Next, predictions of the rate-equation model are used in an amplifier model, which, among other effects, includes the variation of the pump energy density with the position of the probe beam in the amplifier. Results of the amplifier model are then compared with small-signal gain measurements from a variety of Ho:Tm:YLF laser amplifiers. Finally, the models are used to investigate the ultimate performance of a Ho:Tm:YLF laser amplifier by varying the concentrations of Ho and Tm in addition to the length of the end-pumped device.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. G. Hawley, R. Targ, S. W. Henderson, C. P. Hale, M. J. Kavaya, and D. Moerder, “Coherent launch site atmospheric wind sounder: theory and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4557–4568 (1993).
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  3. N. P. Barnes, K. E. Murray, M. G. Jani, and S. R. Harrell, “Diode-pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser pumping an AgGaSe2 parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2422–2426 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2629 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and N. P. Barnes, “Theoretical branching ratios for the  5I7 To  5I8 levels in Ho3+ in the garnets,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, H. P. Jenssen and G. Dube, eds., Vol. 6 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 354–370.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. M. E. Storm, “Ho:YLF amplifier performance and the prospect for multi joule energies using diode laser pumping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-29, 440–451 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. R. Bowman, M. J. Winings, R. C. Auyeung, J. E. Tucker, S. Searles, and B. J. Feldman, “Upconversion studies of flashlamp-pumped Cr, Tm, Ho:YAG,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of AmericaWashington, D.C., 1991), pp. 172–177.
  11. N. P. Barnes and D. J. Gettemy, “Performance of Ho:YAG as a function of temperature,” Appl. Opt. 29, 404–409 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. N. P. Barnes and C. J. Lee, “Ho:Tm lasers I, theoretical,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-32, 92–103 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. J. Lee, G. Han, and N. P. Barnes, “Ho:Tm lasers II: experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-32, 104–111 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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  16. N. Karayianis, D. E. Wortman, and H. P. Jenssen, “Analysis of the optical spectrum of Ho3+ in LiYF4,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 37, 675–682 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. P. Jenssen, A. Linz, R. P. Leavitt, C. A. Morrison, and D. E. Wortman, “Analysis of the optical spectrum of Tm3+ in LiYF4,” Phys. Rev. B 11, 92–101 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. F. Johnson, L. G. Van Uitert, J. J. Rubin, and R. A. Thomas, “Energy transfer from Er3+, to Tm3+ and Ho3+,” Phys. Rev. 133, A494–A498 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. T. Karpick and B. DiBartolo, “Effects of temperature and concentration on the energy transfer process between Er and Ho in yttrium aluminum garnet,” J. Lumin. 4, 309–334 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. M. Antipenko, “Cross relaxation schemes for pumping laser transitions,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 29, 228–230 (1984).
  21. R. R. Petrin, M. G. Jani, and R. C. Powell, “Spectral dynamics of laser pumped Y3Al5O12:Tm:Ho lasers,” Opt. Mater. 1, 111–125 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. Li, Y. Guyot, C. Linares, R. Moncorge, and M. F. Joubert, “Radiative transition probabilities of trivalent rare earth ions in LiYF4,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 91–95.
  23. S. R. Bowman, J. G. Lynn, S. K. Searles, B. J. Feldman, J. McMahon, W. Whitney, C. Marquardt, D. Epp, G. J. Quarles, and K. J. Riley, “Comparative study of diode pumped two micron laser materials,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 415–418.
  24. T. Basiev, Russian Academy of Science Institute of General Physics, Vavelov Street 38, Moscow, Russia 117333 (personal communication, February1995).
  25. N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, F. L. Naranjo, W. J. Rodriguez, and M. R. Kokta, “Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Ho:Tm:LuAG,” Opt. Lett. 18, 708–710 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. G. Jani, N. P. Barnes, G. E. Lockard, E. D. Filer, and G. J. Quarles, “Diode pumped Ho:Tm:LiLiF4 laser at room temperature,” presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Baltimore, Md., May 21–26, 1995.
  27. G. J. Quarles, S. R. Bowman, J. G. Lynn, C. L-. Marquardt, S. K. Searles, and B. J. Feldman, “Design and performance of a high power, diode pumped 2.0 µm Tm,Ho:YAG laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 471–473.

1996 (2)

N. P. Barnes and C. J. Lee, “Ho:Tm lasers I, theoretical,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-32, 92–103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Lee, G. Han, and N. P. Barnes, “Ho:Tm lasers II: experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-32, 104–111 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (3)

1992 (2)

R. R. Petrin, M. G. Jani, and R. C. Powell, “Spectral dynamics of laser pumped Y3Al5O12:Tm:Ho lasers,” Opt. Mater. 1, 111–125 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2629 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. E. Storm and J. P. Deyst, “Gain and energy storage in Ho:YLF,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3, 982–985 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1984 (1)

B. M. Antipenko, “Cross relaxation schemes for pumping laser transitions,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 29, 228–230 (1984).

1981 (1)

N. P. Barnes and D. J. Gettemy, “Pulsed Ho:YAG oscillator and amplifier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1303–1308 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

N. Karayianis, D. E. Wortman, and H. P. Jenssen, “Analysis of the optical spectrum of Ho3+ in LiYF4,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 37, 675–682 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

H. P. Jenssen, A. Linz, R. P. Leavitt, C. A. Morrison, and D. E. Wortman, “Analysis of the optical spectrum of Tm3+ in LiYF4,” Phys. Rev. B 11, 92–101 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. T. Karpick and B. DiBartolo, “Effects of temperature and concentration on the energy transfer process between Er and Ho in yttrium aluminum garnet,” J. Lumin. 4, 309–334 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

L. F. Johnson, L. G. Van Uitert, J. J. Rubin, and R. A. Thomas, “Energy transfer from Er3+, to Tm3+ and Ho3+,” Phys. Rev. 133, A494–A498 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Antipenko, B. M.

B. M. Antipenko, “Cross relaxation schemes for pumping laser transitions,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 29, 228–230 (1984).

Auyeung, R. C.

S. R. Bowman, M. J. Winings, R. C. Auyeung, J. E. Tucker, S. Searles, and B. J. Feldman, “Upconversion studies of flashlamp-pumped Cr, Tm, Ho:YAG,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of AmericaWashington, D.C., 1991), pp. 172–177.

Barnes, N. P.

C. J. Lee, G. Han, and N. P. Barnes, “Ho:Tm lasers II: experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-32, 104–111 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Barnes and C. J. Lee, “Ho:Tm lasers I, theoretical,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-32, 92–103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Barnes, K. E. Murray, M. G. Jani, and S. R. Harrell, “Diode-pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser pumping an AgGaSe2 parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2422–2426 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, F. L. Naranjo, W. J. Rodriguez, and M. R. Kokta, “Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Ho:Tm:LuAG,” Opt. Lett. 18, 708–710 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. P. Barnes and D. J. Gettemy, “Performance of Ho:YAG as a function of temperature,” Appl. Opt. 29, 404–409 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. P. Barnes and D. J. Gettemy, “Pulsed Ho:YAG oscillator and amplifier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1303–1308 (1981).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and N. P. Barnes, “Theoretical branching ratios for the  5I7 To  5I8 levels in Ho3+ in the garnets,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, H. P. Jenssen and G. Dube, eds., Vol. 6 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 354–370.

M. G. Jani, N. P. Barnes, and K. E. Murray, “Long pulse length two micrometer lasers for LAWS applications,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 424–426.

E. D. Filer, N. P. Barnes, and C. A. Morrison, “Theoretical temperature dependent branching ratios and laser thresholds of the  3F4 to  3H6 level of Tm3+ in ten garnets,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, G. Dube and L. Chase, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 189–200.

M. G. Jani, N. P. Barnes, G. E. Lockard, E. D. Filer, and G. J. Quarles, “Diode pumped Ho:Tm:LiLiF4 laser at room temperature,” presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Baltimore, Md., May 21–26, 1995.

Basiev, T.

T. Basiev, Russian Academy of Science Institute of General Physics, Vavelov Street 38, Moscow, Russia 117333 (personal communication, February1995).

Bowman, S. R.

S. R. Bowman, M. J. Winings, R. C. Auyeung, J. E. Tucker, S. Searles, and B. J. Feldman, “Upconversion studies of flashlamp-pumped Cr, Tm, Ho:YAG,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of AmericaWashington, D.C., 1991), pp. 172–177.

S. R. Bowman, J. G. Lynn, S. K. Searles, B. J. Feldman, J. McMahon, W. Whitney, C. Marquardt, D. Epp, G. J. Quarles, and K. J. Riley, “Comparative study of diode pumped two micron laser materials,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 415–418.

G. J. Quarles, S. R. Bowman, J. G. Lynn, C. L-. Marquardt, S. K. Searles, and B. J. Feldman, “Design and performance of a high power, diode pumped 2.0 µm Tm,Ho:YAG laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 471–473.

Chase, L. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2629 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Deyst, J. P.

M. E. Storm and J. P. Deyst, “Gain and energy storage in Ho:YLF,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3, 982–985 (1991).
[CrossRef]

DiBartolo, B.

J. T. Karpick and B. DiBartolo, “Effects of temperature and concentration on the energy transfer process between Er and Ho in yttrium aluminum garnet,” J. Lumin. 4, 309–334 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Epp, D.

S. R. Bowman, J. G. Lynn, S. K. Searles, B. J. Feldman, J. McMahon, W. Whitney, C. Marquardt, D. Epp, G. J. Quarles, and K. J. Riley, “Comparative study of diode pumped two micron laser materials,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 415–418.

Feldman, B. J.

S. R. Bowman, J. G. Lynn, S. K. Searles, B. J. Feldman, J. McMahon, W. Whitney, C. Marquardt, D. Epp, G. J. Quarles, and K. J. Riley, “Comparative study of diode pumped two micron laser materials,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 415–418.

G. J. Quarles, S. R. Bowman, J. G. Lynn, C. L-. Marquardt, S. K. Searles, and B. J. Feldman, “Design and performance of a high power, diode pumped 2.0 µm Tm,Ho:YAG laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 471–473.

S. R. Bowman, M. J. Winings, R. C. Auyeung, J. E. Tucker, S. Searles, and B. J. Feldman, “Upconversion studies of flashlamp-pumped Cr, Tm, Ho:YAG,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of AmericaWashington, D.C., 1991), pp. 172–177.

Filer, E. D.

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, F. L. Naranjo, W. J. Rodriguez, and M. R. Kokta, “Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Ho:Tm:LuAG,” Opt. Lett. 18, 708–710 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Filer, N. P. Barnes, and C. A. Morrison, “Theoretical temperature dependent branching ratios and laser thresholds of the  3F4 to  3H6 level of Tm3+ in ten garnets,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, G. Dube and L. Chase, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 189–200.

M. G. Jani, N. P. Barnes, G. E. Lockard, E. D. Filer, and G. J. Quarles, “Diode pumped Ho:Tm:LiLiF4 laser at room temperature,” presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Baltimore, Md., May 21–26, 1995.

E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and N. P. Barnes, “Theoretical branching ratios for the  5I7 To  5I8 levels in Ho3+ in the garnets,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, H. P. Jenssen and G. Dube, eds., Vol. 6 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 354–370.

Gettemy, D. J.

N. P. Barnes and D. J. Gettemy, “Performance of Ho:YAG as a function of temperature,” Appl. Opt. 29, 404–409 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. P. Barnes and D. J. Gettemy, “Pulsed Ho:YAG oscillator and amplifier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1303–1308 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Guyot, Y.

C. Li, Y. Guyot, C. Linares, R. Moncorge, and M. F. Joubert, “Radiative transition probabilities of trivalent rare earth ions in LiYF4,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 91–95.

Hale, C. P.

Han, G.

C. J. Lee, G. Han, and N. P. Barnes, “Ho:Tm lasers II: experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-32, 104–111 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Harrell, S. R.

Hawley, J. G.

Henderson, S. W.

Jani, M. G.

N. P. Barnes, K. E. Murray, M. G. Jani, and S. R. Harrell, “Diode-pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser pumping an AgGaSe2 parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2422–2426 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Petrin, M. G. Jani, and R. C. Powell, “Spectral dynamics of laser pumped Y3Al5O12:Tm:Ho lasers,” Opt. Mater. 1, 111–125 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Jani, N. P. Barnes, and K. E. Murray, “Long pulse length two micrometer lasers for LAWS applications,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 424–426.

M. G. Jani, N. P. Barnes, G. E. Lockard, E. D. Filer, and G. J. Quarles, “Diode pumped Ho:Tm:LiLiF4 laser at room temperature,” presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Baltimore, Md., May 21–26, 1995.

Jenssen, H. P.

N. Karayianis, D. E. Wortman, and H. P. Jenssen, “Analysis of the optical spectrum of Ho3+ in LiYF4,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 37, 675–682 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Jenssen, A. Linz, R. P. Leavitt, C. A. Morrison, and D. E. Wortman, “Analysis of the optical spectrum of Tm3+ in LiYF4,” Phys. Rev. B 11, 92–101 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L. F.

L. F. Johnson, L. G. Van Uitert, J. J. Rubin, and R. A. Thomas, “Energy transfer from Er3+, to Tm3+ and Ho3+,” Phys. Rev. 133, A494–A498 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Joubert, M. F.

C. Li, Y. Guyot, C. Linares, R. Moncorge, and M. F. Joubert, “Radiative transition probabilities of trivalent rare earth ions in LiYF4,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 91–95.

Karayianis, N.

N. Karayianis, D. E. Wortman, and H. P. Jenssen, “Analysis of the optical spectrum of Ho3+ in LiYF4,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 37, 675–682 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Karpick, J. T.

J. T. Karpick and B. DiBartolo, “Effects of temperature and concentration on the energy transfer process between Er and Ho in yttrium aluminum garnet,” J. Lumin. 4, 309–334 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kavaya, M. J.

Kokta, M. R.

Krupke, W. F.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2629 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kway, W. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2629 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Leavitt, R. P.

H. P. Jenssen, A. Linz, R. P. Leavitt, C. A. Morrison, and D. E. Wortman, “Analysis of the optical spectrum of Tm3+ in LiYF4,” Phys. Rev. B 11, 92–101 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. J.

C. J. Lee, G. Han, and N. P. Barnes, “Ho:Tm lasers II: experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-32, 104–111 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Barnes and C. J. Lee, “Ho:Tm lasers I, theoretical,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-32, 92–103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

C. Li, Y. Guyot, C. Linares, R. Moncorge, and M. F. Joubert, “Radiative transition probabilities of trivalent rare earth ions in LiYF4,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 91–95.

Linares, C.

C. Li, Y. Guyot, C. Linares, R. Moncorge, and M. F. Joubert, “Radiative transition probabilities of trivalent rare earth ions in LiYF4,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 91–95.

Linz, A.

H. P. Jenssen, A. Linz, R. P. Leavitt, C. A. Morrison, and D. E. Wortman, “Analysis of the optical spectrum of Tm3+ in LiYF4,” Phys. Rev. B 11, 92–101 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Lockard, G. E.

M. G. Jani, N. P. Barnes, G. E. Lockard, E. D. Filer, and G. J. Quarles, “Diode pumped Ho:Tm:LiLiF4 laser at room temperature,” presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Baltimore, Md., May 21–26, 1995.

Lynn, J. G.

S. R. Bowman, J. G. Lynn, S. K. Searles, B. J. Feldman, J. McMahon, W. Whitney, C. Marquardt, D. Epp, G. J. Quarles, and K. J. Riley, “Comparative study of diode pumped two micron laser materials,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 415–418.

G. J. Quarles, S. R. Bowman, J. G. Lynn, C. L-. Marquardt, S. K. Searles, and B. J. Feldman, “Design and performance of a high power, diode pumped 2.0 µm Tm,Ho:YAG laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 471–473.

Marquardt, C.

S. R. Bowman, J. G. Lynn, S. K. Searles, B. J. Feldman, J. McMahon, W. Whitney, C. Marquardt, D. Epp, G. J. Quarles, and K. J. Riley, “Comparative study of diode pumped two micron laser materials,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 415–418.

Marquardt, C. L-.

G. J. Quarles, S. R. Bowman, J. G. Lynn, C. L-. Marquardt, S. K. Searles, and B. J. Feldman, “Design and performance of a high power, diode pumped 2.0 µm Tm,Ho:YAG laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 471–473.

McMahon, J.

S. R. Bowman, J. G. Lynn, S. K. Searles, B. J. Feldman, J. McMahon, W. Whitney, C. Marquardt, D. Epp, G. J. Quarles, and K. J. Riley, “Comparative study of diode pumped two micron laser materials,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 415–418.

Moerder, D.

Moncorge, R.

C. Li, Y. Guyot, C. Linares, R. Moncorge, and M. F. Joubert, “Radiative transition probabilities of trivalent rare earth ions in LiYF4,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 91–95.

Morrison, C. A.

H. P. Jenssen, A. Linz, R. P. Leavitt, C. A. Morrison, and D. E. Wortman, “Analysis of the optical spectrum of Tm3+ in LiYF4,” Phys. Rev. B 11, 92–101 (1975).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Morrison, Lectures on Crystal Field Theory, (Harry Diamond Laboratories, Adelphi, Md., 1982).

E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and N. P. Barnes, “Theoretical branching ratios for the  5I7 To  5I8 levels in Ho3+ in the garnets,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, H. P. Jenssen and G. Dube, eds., Vol. 6 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 354–370.

C. A. Morrison, Angular Momentum Theory Applied to Interactions in Solids, (Harry Diamond Laboratories, Adelphi, Md., 1987).

E. D. Filer, N. P. Barnes, and C. A. Morrison, “Theoretical temperature dependent branching ratios and laser thresholds of the  3F4 to  3H6 level of Tm3+ in ten garnets,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, G. Dube and L. Chase, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 189–200.

Murray, K. E.

N. P. Barnes, K. E. Murray, M. G. Jani, and S. R. Harrell, “Diode-pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser pumping an AgGaSe2 parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2422–2426 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Jani, N. P. Barnes, and K. E. Murray, “Long pulse length two micrometer lasers for LAWS applications,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 424–426.

Naranjo, F. L.

Payne, S. A.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2629 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Petrin, R. R.

R. R. Petrin, M. G. Jani, and R. C. Powell, “Spectral dynamics of laser pumped Y3Al5O12:Tm:Ho lasers,” Opt. Mater. 1, 111–125 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Powell, R. C.

R. R. Petrin, M. G. Jani, and R. C. Powell, “Spectral dynamics of laser pumped Y3Al5O12:Tm:Ho lasers,” Opt. Mater. 1, 111–125 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Quarles, G. J.

S. R. Bowman, J. G. Lynn, S. K. Searles, B. J. Feldman, J. McMahon, W. Whitney, C. Marquardt, D. Epp, G. J. Quarles, and K. J. Riley, “Comparative study of diode pumped two micron laser materials,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 415–418.

G. J. Quarles, S. R. Bowman, J. G. Lynn, C. L-. Marquardt, S. K. Searles, and B. J. Feldman, “Design and performance of a high power, diode pumped 2.0 µm Tm,Ho:YAG laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 471–473.

M. G. Jani, N. P. Barnes, G. E. Lockard, E. D. Filer, and G. J. Quarles, “Diode pumped Ho:Tm:LiLiF4 laser at room temperature,” presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Baltimore, Md., May 21–26, 1995.

Riley, K. J.

S. R. Bowman, J. G. Lynn, S. K. Searles, B. J. Feldman, J. McMahon, W. Whitney, C. Marquardt, D. Epp, G. J. Quarles, and K. J. Riley, “Comparative study of diode pumped two micron laser materials,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 415–418.

Rodriguez, W. J.

Rubin, J. J.

L. F. Johnson, L. G. Van Uitert, J. J. Rubin, and R. A. Thomas, “Energy transfer from Er3+, to Tm3+ and Ho3+,” Phys. Rev. 133, A494–A498 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Searles, S.

S. R. Bowman, M. J. Winings, R. C. Auyeung, J. E. Tucker, S. Searles, and B. J. Feldman, “Upconversion studies of flashlamp-pumped Cr, Tm, Ho:YAG,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of AmericaWashington, D.C., 1991), pp. 172–177.

Searles, S. K.

G. J. Quarles, S. R. Bowman, J. G. Lynn, C. L-. Marquardt, S. K. Searles, and B. J. Feldman, “Design and performance of a high power, diode pumped 2.0 µm Tm,Ho:YAG laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 471–473.

S. R. Bowman, J. G. Lynn, S. K. Searles, B. J. Feldman, J. McMahon, W. Whitney, C. Marquardt, D. Epp, G. J. Quarles, and K. J. Riley, “Comparative study of diode pumped two micron laser materials,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 415–418.

Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2629 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Storm, M. E.

M. E. Storm, “Ho:YLF amplifier performance and the prospect for multi joule energies using diode laser pumping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-29, 440–451 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Storm and J. P. Deyst, “Gain and energy storage in Ho:YLF,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3, 982–985 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Targ, R.

Thomas, R. A.

L. F. Johnson, L. G. Van Uitert, J. J. Rubin, and R. A. Thomas, “Energy transfer from Er3+, to Tm3+ and Ho3+,” Phys. Rev. 133, A494–A498 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, J. E.

S. R. Bowman, M. J. Winings, R. C. Auyeung, J. E. Tucker, S. Searles, and B. J. Feldman, “Upconversion studies of flashlamp-pumped Cr, Tm, Ho:YAG,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of AmericaWashington, D.C., 1991), pp. 172–177.

Turner, G. A.

E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and N. P. Barnes, “Theoretical branching ratios for the  5I7 To  5I8 levels in Ho3+ in the garnets,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, H. P. Jenssen and G. Dube, eds., Vol. 6 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 354–370.

Van Uitert, L. G.

L. F. Johnson, L. G. Van Uitert, J. J. Rubin, and R. A. Thomas, “Energy transfer from Er3+, to Tm3+ and Ho3+,” Phys. Rev. 133, A494–A498 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Whitney, W.

S. R. Bowman, J. G. Lynn, S. K. Searles, B. J. Feldman, J. McMahon, W. Whitney, C. Marquardt, D. Epp, G. J. Quarles, and K. J. Riley, “Comparative study of diode pumped two micron laser materials,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 415–418.

Winings, M. J.

S. R. Bowman, M. J. Winings, R. C. Auyeung, J. E. Tucker, S. Searles, and B. J. Feldman, “Upconversion studies of flashlamp-pumped Cr, Tm, Ho:YAG,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of AmericaWashington, D.C., 1991), pp. 172–177.

Wortman, D. E.

N. Karayianis, D. E. Wortman, and H. P. Jenssen, “Analysis of the optical spectrum of Ho3+ in LiYF4,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 37, 675–682 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Jenssen, A. Linz, R. P. Leavitt, C. A. Morrison, and D. E. Wortman, “Analysis of the optical spectrum of Tm3+ in LiYF4,” Phys. Rev. B 11, 92–101 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2629 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Barnes and D. J. Gettemy, “Pulsed Ho:YAG oscillator and amplifier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1303–1308 (1981).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Barnes and C. J. Lee, “Ho:Tm lasers I, theoretical,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-32, 92–103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Lee, G. Han, and N. P. Barnes, “Ho:Tm lasers II: experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-32, 104–111 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Storm, “Ho:YLF amplifier performance and the prospect for multi joule energies using diode laser pumping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-29, 440–451 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

M. E. Storm and J. P. Deyst, “Gain and energy storage in Ho:YLF,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3, 982–985 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

J. T. Karpick and B. DiBartolo, “Effects of temperature and concentration on the energy transfer process between Er and Ho in yttrium aluminum garnet,” J. Lumin. 4, 309–334 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

N. Karayianis, D. E. Wortman, and H. P. Jenssen, “Analysis of the optical spectrum of Ho3+ in LiYF4,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 37, 675–682 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

R. R. Petrin, M. G. Jani, and R. C. Powell, “Spectral dynamics of laser pumped Y3Al5O12:Tm:Ho lasers,” Opt. Mater. 1, 111–125 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

L. F. Johnson, L. G. Van Uitert, J. J. Rubin, and R. A. Thomas, “Energy transfer from Er3+, to Tm3+ and Ho3+,” Phys. Rev. 133, A494–A498 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. P. Jenssen, A. Linz, R. P. Leavitt, C. A. Morrison, and D. E. Wortman, “Analysis of the optical spectrum of Tm3+ in LiYF4,” Phys. Rev. B 11, 92–101 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. (1)

B. M. Antipenko, “Cross relaxation schemes for pumping laser transitions,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 29, 228–230 (1984).

Other (11)

S. R. Bowman, M. J. Winings, R. C. Auyeung, J. E. Tucker, S. Searles, and B. J. Feldman, “Upconversion studies of flashlamp-pumped Cr, Tm, Ho:YAG,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of AmericaWashington, D.C., 1991), pp. 172–177.

C. Li, Y. Guyot, C. Linares, R. Moncorge, and M. F. Joubert, “Radiative transition probabilities of trivalent rare earth ions in LiYF4,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 91–95.

S. R. Bowman, J. G. Lynn, S. K. Searles, B. J. Feldman, J. McMahon, W. Whitney, C. Marquardt, D. Epp, G. J. Quarles, and K. J. Riley, “Comparative study of diode pumped two micron laser materials,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 415–418.

T. Basiev, Russian Academy of Science Institute of General Physics, Vavelov Street 38, Moscow, Russia 117333 (personal communication, February1995).

M. G. Jani, N. P. Barnes, and K. E. Murray, “Long pulse length two micrometer lasers for LAWS applications,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 424–426.

M. G. Jani, N. P. Barnes, G. E. Lockard, E. D. Filer, and G. J. Quarles, “Diode pumped Ho:Tm:LiLiF4 laser at room temperature,” presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Baltimore, Md., May 21–26, 1995.

G. J. Quarles, S. R. Bowman, J. G. Lynn, C. L-. Marquardt, S. K. Searles, and B. J. Feldman, “Design and performance of a high power, diode pumped 2.0 µm Tm,Ho:YAG laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, A. A. Pinto and T. Y. Fan, eds., Vol. 15 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 471–473.

E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and N. P. Barnes, “Theoretical branching ratios for the  5I7 To  5I8 levels in Ho3+ in the garnets,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, H. P. Jenssen and G. Dube, eds., Vol. 6 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 354–370.

E. D. Filer, N. P. Barnes, and C. A. Morrison, “Theoretical temperature dependent branching ratios and laser thresholds of the  3F4 to  3H6 level of Tm3+ in ten garnets,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, G. Dube and L. Chase, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 189–200.

C. A. Morrison, Lectures on Crystal Field Theory, (Harry Diamond Laboratories, Adelphi, Md., 1982).

C. A. Morrison, Angular Momentum Theory Applied to Interactions in Solids, (Harry Diamond Laboratories, Adelphi, Md., 1987).

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated energy level and experimental energy levels for the Ho 5 I7 and 5 I8 manifolds in YLF.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy-transfer processes in a Ho:Tm laser system. Forward and reverse energy-transfer processes are shown as double-headed arrows between the participating pairs of manifolds.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fluorescence from the Tm  3F4 manifold after initial excitation of the Tm 3 F4 manifold. Ho:TmYLF, 0.005:0.050.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental arrangement for the end-pumped laser disk amplifier experiments.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Typical oscilloscope trace showing the no-signal level, the unamplified-signal level, and the amplified signal.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Gain coefficient at 2.05 µm versus absorbed pump fluence for Ho:Tm:YLF; Ho:Tm, 0.005:0.040.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Same as Fig. 6; Ho:Tm, 0.010:0.040.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Same as Fig. 6; Ho:Tm, 0.015:0.040.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Gain coefficient at 2.06 µm versus absorbed pump fluence for Ho:Tm:YLF; Ho:Tm, 0.005:0.040.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Same as Fig. 9; Ho:Tm, 0.005:0.060.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Same as Fig. 9; Ho:Tm, 0.005:0.080.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Extractable-energy efficiency versus incident pump fluence for Ho:Tm:YLF for various Ho concentrations; Tm concentration, 0.040.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Extractable-energy efficiency versus incident pump fluence for Ho:Tm:YLF for various Tm concentrations; Ho concentration, 0.010.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Extractable-energy efficiency versus incident pump fluence for Ho:Tm:YLF for various lengths; Ho:Tm, 0.010:0.040.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental and Predicted Energy-Transfer Parameters for the Tm 3 F4 and the Ho 5I7 Exchanges

Tables Icon

Table 2 Predicted Extractable-Energy Efficiencies under Single-Ended Pumping, Uniformed Pumping, and Cooled Conditions

Equations (21)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dN2dt=R2-N2τ2+β42N4τ4+β32N3τ3+2P41N4N1-2P22N22-P28N2N8+P71N7N1-P27N2N7+P51N5N1+Q41N4N1-Q32N2N3,
dN3dt=R3-N3τ3+β43N4τ4-P38N3N8+P61N6N1-Q32N3N2+Q41N4N1+P48N4N8-P73N7N3,
dN4dt=R4-N4τ4-P41N4N1+P22N22-Q41N4N1+Q32N3N2-P48N4N8+P73N7N3,
dN5dt=R5-N5τ5+P27N2N7-P51N5N1,
dN6dt=R6-N6τ6+β56N5τ5-P61N6N1+P38N3N8,
dN7dt=R7-N7τ7+β57N5τ7+β67N6τ6+P28N2N8-P71N7N1+P48N4N8-P73N7N3-P27N2N7+P51N5N1,
N1=CTNS-N2-N3-N4,
N8=CHNS-N7-N6-N5,
dN2dt=R2-N2τ2-P28N2N8+P71N7N1,
dN7dt=R7-N7τ7+P28N2N8-P71N7N1,
N1=CTNS-N2,
N8=CHNS-N7.
N2=A2 exp(-αat)+B2 exp(-αbt),
N7=A7 exp(-αat)+B7 exp(-αbt),
αa,b=1τ2+1τ7+P28CHNS+P71CTNS2±1τ2-1τ72+2P28CH-P71CT×NS1τ2-1τ7+P28CH+P71CT2NS21/22.
g0=σ(Z2N7-Z1N8),
g0=σe(1+Z1/Z2)[N7-(Z1/Z2)CHNS/(1+Z1/Z2)],
N7OT=(Z1/Z2)CHNS/(1+Z1/Z2).
η1=(hc/λL)πwP2l[N7-N7OT]/EP,
η1=(hc/λL)(πwP2/EP)g0l/[σe(1+Z1/Z2)].
g0=ln(G0)/l=ln[(Vg-Vb)/(Vp-Vb)]/l,

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