Abstract

A novel scheme for the optical generation and coherent detection of tunable narrow-band far-infrared radiation in free space is described. This technique involves the optical heterodyning of two linearly chirped broadband pulses to produce a quasi-sinusoidal intensity modulation at tunable terahertz frequencies. The frequency content of the narrow-band terahertz radiation produced by mixing chirped optical pulses in a nonlinear optoelectronic device such as a photoconducting dipole antenna can be tailored simply by controlling the phase modulation of the optical pulses and the delay between them. An optoelectronic terahertz beam system composed of a tunable narrow-band Hertzian dipole emitter and a synchronously gated tunable dipole detector is presented. The performance of this system as a potentially powerful tool for far-infrared pump–probe spectroscopy and the limitations produced by cubic phase modulation in the chirped optical pulses are discussed.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, “Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284–286 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Mourou, C. V. Stancampiano, and D. Blumenthal, “Picosecond microwave pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 470–472 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, “Optically steerable photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886–888 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X.-C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, “Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011–1013 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and B. Jalali, “Terahertz radiation from large aperture Si p–i–n diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3357–3359 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291–2301 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, “Free space radiation from electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 506–508 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz beam generation by femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784–1786 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, “Generation of terahertz radiation from a poled polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1358–1360 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. H. Auston and K. P. Cheung, “Coherent time-domain far-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 606–612 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectric terahertz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684–1691 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. B. Hu and M. C. Nuss, “Imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1716–1718 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. Katzenellenbogen and D. Grischkowsky, “Efficient generation of 380 fs pulses of THz radiation by ultrafast laser pulse excitation of a biased metal-semiconductor interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 222–224 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. R. Shen, “Far-infrared generation by optical mixing,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 207–232 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. J. Simonis and K. G. Purchase, “Optical generation, distribution, and control of microwaves using laser hetorodyne,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 667–669 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. V. Plant, D. C. Scott, H. R. Fetterman, L. K. Shaw, W. Jones, and K. L. Tan, “Optically generated 60 GHz millimeter waves using AlGaAs/InGaAs HEMT’s integrated with both quasi-optical antenna circuits and MMIC’s,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 102–105 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. R. Brown, K. A. Macintosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, “Photomixing up to 3.8 THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 285–287 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C.-L. Wang and C.-L. Pan, “Tunable multiterahertz beat signal generation from a two-wavelength laser-diode array,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1292–1294 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. S. Weling, B. B. Hu, N. M. Froberg, and D. H. Auston, “Generation of tunable narrow-band THz radiation from large aperture photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 137–139 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. B. Treacy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 454–458 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. L. Fork, O. E. Martinez, and J. P. Gordon, “Negative dispersion using pairs of prisms,” Opt. Lett. 9, 150–152 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. I. P. Christov and I. V. Tomov, “Large bandwidth compression with diffraction gratings,” Opt. Commun. 58, 338–342 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. D. McMullen, “Chirped-pulse compression in strongly dispersive media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1575–1578 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. G. Anderson and J. I. H. Askne, “Wave packets in strongly dispersive media,” Proc. IEEE 62, 1518–1523 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  25. E. P. Ippen and C. V. Shank, “Techniques for measurement,” in Ultrashort Light Pulses, S. L. Shapiro, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977), pp. 90–92.
  26. C. H. Brito Cruz, P. C. Becker, R. L. Fork, and C. V. Shank, “Phase correction of femtosecond optical pulses using a combination of prisms and gratings,” Opt. Lett. 13, 123–125 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. D. Grischkowsky, “Nonlinear generation of subpicosecond pulses of THz electromagnetic radiation by optoelectronics-applications to time-domain spectroscopy,” in Frontiers in Nonlinear Optics, H. Walther, N. Koroteev, and M. O. Scully, eds. (Institute of Physics, Philadelphia, Pa., 1993), pp. 196–227.
  28. P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, and M. C. Nuss, “Subpicosecond photoconducting dipole antennas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255–260 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, “Saturation properties of large-aperture photoconducting antennas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607–1616 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  30. P. K. Benicewicz, J. P. Roberts, and A. J. Taylor, “Scaling of terahertz radiation from large-aperture biased photoconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2533–2546 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  31. D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571–578 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. R. Morris and Y. R. Shen, “Far-infrared generation by picosecond pulses in electro-optic materials,” Opt. Commun. 3, 81–84 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  33. X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Liu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, “Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080–3082 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  34. P. H. Bucksbaum, Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (personal communications, 1995).
  35. A. S. Weling, T. F. Heinz, and D. H. Auston, “Saturation effects in narrow-band terahertz generation by chirped pulse mixing in biased photoconductors,” presented at the annual meeting of the American Physical Society, March1996.
  36. A. Mayer and F. Keilmann, “Far-infrared nonlinear optics. I and II,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 6954–6968 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (4)

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, “Generation of terahertz radiation from a poled polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1358–1360 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu and M. C. Nuss, “Imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1716–1718 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. R. Brown, K. A. Macintosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, “Photomixing up to 3.8 THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 285–287 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Wang and C.-L. Pan, “Tunable multiterahertz beat signal generation from a two-wavelength laser-diode array,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1292–1294 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

A. S. Weling, B. B. Hu, N. M. Froberg, and D. H. Auston, “Generation of tunable narrow-band THz radiation from large aperture photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 137–139 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Benicewicz, J. P. Roberts, and A. J. Taylor, “Scaling of terahertz radiation from large-aperture biased photoconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2533–2546 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571–578 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (5)

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Liu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, “Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080–3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, “Saturation properties of large-aperture photoconducting antennas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607–1616 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, D. C. Scott, H. R. Fetterman, L. K. Shaw, W. Jones, and K. L. Tan, “Optically generated 60 GHz millimeter waves using AlGaAs/InGaAs HEMT’s integrated with both quasi-optical antenna circuits and MMIC’s,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 102–105 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291–2301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz beam generation by femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784–1786 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and B. Jalali, “Terahertz radiation from large aperture Si p–i–n diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3357–3359 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. Katzenellenbogen and D. Grischkowsky, “Efficient generation of 380 fs pulses of THz radiation by ultrafast laser pulse excitation of a biased metal-semiconductor interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 222–224 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (5)

B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, “Free space radiation from electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 506–508 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, “Optically steerable photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886–888 (1990).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, “Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011–1013 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectric terahertz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684–1691 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Simonis and K. G. Purchase, “Optical generation, distribution, and control of microwaves using laser hetorodyne,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 667–669 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

1986 (2)

I. P. Christov and I. V. Tomov, “Large bandwidth compression with diffraction gratings,” Opt. Commun. 58, 338–342 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Mayer and F. Keilmann, “Far-infrared nonlinear optics. I and II,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 6954–6968 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1984 (2)

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, “Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284–286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Fork, O. E. Martinez, and J. P. Gordon, “Negative dispersion using pairs of prisms,” Opt. Lett. 9, 150–152 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

G. Mourou, C. V. Stancampiano, and D. Blumenthal, “Picosecond microwave pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 470–472 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

1976 (1)

Y. R. Shen, “Far-infrared generation by optical mixing,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 207–232 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

D. G. Anderson and J. I. H. Askne, “Wave packets in strongly dispersive media,” Proc. IEEE 62, 1518–1523 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. R. Morris and Y. R. Shen, “Far-infrared generation by picosecond pulses in electro-optic materials,” Opt. Commun. 3, 81–84 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

E. B. Treacy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 454–458 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, D. G.

D. G. Anderson and J. I. H. Askne, “Wave packets in strongly dispersive media,” Proc. IEEE 62, 1518–1523 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Askne, J. I. H.

D. G. Anderson and J. I. H. Askne, “Wave packets in strongly dispersive media,” Proc. IEEE 62, 1518–1523 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, “Generation of terahertz radiation from a poled polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1358–1360 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Weling, B. B. Hu, N. M. Froberg, and D. H. Auston, “Generation of tunable narrow-band THz radiation from large aperture photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 137–139 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz beam generation by femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784–1786 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291–2301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, “Saturation properties of large-aperture photoconducting antennas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607–1616 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and B. Jalali, “Terahertz radiation from large aperture Si p–i–n diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3357–3359 (1991).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, “Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011–1013 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, “Optically steerable photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886–888 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, “Free space radiation from electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 506–508 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, and M. C. Nuss, “Subpicosecond photoconducting dipole antennas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255–260 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston and K. P. Cheung, “Coherent time-domain far-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 606–612 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, “Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284–286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Weling, T. F. Heinz, and D. H. Auston, “Saturation effects in narrow-band terahertz generation by chirped pulse mixing in biased photoconductors,” presented at the annual meeting of the American Physical Society, March1996.

Becker, P. C.

Benicewicz, P. K.

Blumenthal, D.

G. Mourou, C. V. Stancampiano, and D. Blumenthal, “Picosecond microwave pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 470–472 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Boden, E. P.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Liu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, “Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080–3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brito Cruz, C. H.

Brown, E. R.

E. R. Brown, K. A. Macintosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, “Photomixing up to 3.8 THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 285–287 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

P. H. Bucksbaum, Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (personal communications, 1995).

Cheung, K. P.

D. H. Auston and K. P. Cheung, “Coherent time-domain far-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 606–612 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, “Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284–286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Christov, I. P.

I. P. Christov and I. V. Tomov, “Large bandwidth compression with diffraction gratings,” Opt. Commun. 58, 338–342 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Darrow, J. T.

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, “Saturation properties of large-aperture photoconducting antennas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607–1616 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, “Optically steerable photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886–888 (1990).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, “Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011–1013 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, C. L.

E. R. Brown, K. A. Macintosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, “Photomixing up to 3.8 THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 285–287 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, H. R.

D. V. Plant, D. C. Scott, H. R. Fetterman, L. K. Shaw, W. Jones, and K. L. Tan, “Optically generated 60 GHz millimeter waves using AlGaAs/InGaAs HEMT’s integrated with both quasi-optical antenna circuits and MMIC’s,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 102–105 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fork, R. L.

Froberg, N. M.

A. S. Weling, B. B. Hu, N. M. Froberg, and D. H. Auston, “Generation of tunable narrow-band THz radiation from large aperture photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 137–139 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291–2301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. P.

Grischkowsky, D.

N. Katzenellenbogen and D. Grischkowsky, “Efficient generation of 380 fs pulses of THz radiation by ultrafast laser pulse excitation of a biased metal-semiconductor interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 222–224 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectric terahertz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684–1691 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, “Nonlinear generation of subpicosecond pulses of THz electromagnetic radiation by optoelectronics-applications to time-domain spectroscopy,” in Frontiers in Nonlinear Optics, H. Walther, N. Koroteev, and M. O. Scully, eds. (Institute of Physics, Philadelphia, Pa., 1993), pp. 196–227.

Heinz, T. F.

A. S. Weling, T. F. Heinz, and D. H. Auston, “Saturation effects in narrow-band terahertz generation by chirped pulse mixing in biased photoconductors,” presented at the annual meeting of the American Physical Society, March1996.

Hu, B. B.

B. B. Hu and M. C. Nuss, “Imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1716–1718 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Weling, B. B. Hu, N. M. Froberg, and D. H. Auston, “Generation of tunable narrow-band THz radiation from large aperture photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 137–139 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291–2301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, “Free space radiation from electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 506–508 (1990).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, “Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011–1013 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, “Optically steerable photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886–888 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

E. P. Ippen and C. V. Shank, “Techniques for measurement,” in Ultrashort Light Pulses, S. L. Shapiro, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977), pp. 90–92.

Jalali, B.

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and B. Jalali, “Terahertz radiation from large aperture Si p–i–n diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3357–3359 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Liu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, “Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080–3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jones, W.

D. V. Plant, D. C. Scott, H. R. Fetterman, L. K. Shaw, W. Jones, and K. L. Tan, “Optically generated 60 GHz millimeter waves using AlGaAs/InGaAs HEMT’s integrated with both quasi-optical antenna circuits and MMIC’s,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 102–105 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kane, D. J.

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571–578 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Katzenellenbogen, N.

N. Katzenellenbogen and D. Grischkowsky, “Efficient generation of 380 fs pulses of THz radiation by ultrafast laser pulse excitation of a biased metal-semiconductor interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 222–224 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Keilmann, F.

A. Mayer and F. Keilmann, “Far-infrared nonlinear optics. I and II,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 6954–6968 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T.-M.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Liu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, “Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080–3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X. F.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Liu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, “Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080–3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, K. A.

E. R. Brown, K. A. Macintosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, “Photomixing up to 3.8 THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 285–287 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, O. E.

Mayer, A.

A. Mayer and F. Keilmann, “Far-infrared nonlinear optics. I and II,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 6954–6968 (1986).
[CrossRef]

McMullen, J. D.

Morris, J. R.

J. R. Morris and Y. R. Shen, “Far-infrared generation by picosecond pulses in electro-optic materials,” Opt. Commun. 3, 81–84 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Morse, J. D.

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, “Saturation properties of large-aperture photoconducting antennas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607–1616 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

G. Mourou, C. V. Stancampiano, and D. Blumenthal, “Picosecond microwave pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 470–472 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, “Generation of terahertz radiation from a poled polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1358–1360 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nichols, K. B.

E. R. Brown, K. A. Macintosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, “Photomixing up to 3.8 THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 285–287 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

B. B. Hu and M. C. Nuss, “Imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1716–1718 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, and M. C. Nuss, “Subpicosecond photoconducting dipole antennas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255–260 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C.-L.

Phelps, P. D.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Liu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, “Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080–3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Plant, D. V.

D. V. Plant, D. C. Scott, H. R. Fetterman, L. K. Shaw, W. Jones, and K. L. Tan, “Optically generated 60 GHz millimeter waves using AlGaAs/InGaAs HEMT’s integrated with both quasi-optical antenna circuits and MMIC’s,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 102–105 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Purchase, K. G.

G. J. Simonis and K. G. Purchase, “Optical generation, distribution, and control of microwaves using laser hetorodyne,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 667–669 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, J. P.

Scott, D. C.

D. V. Plant, D. C. Scott, H. R. Fetterman, L. K. Shaw, W. Jones, and K. L. Tan, “Optically generated 60 GHz millimeter waves using AlGaAs/InGaAs HEMT’s integrated with both quasi-optical antenna circuits and MMIC’s,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 102–105 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

C. H. Brito Cruz, P. C. Becker, R. L. Fork, and C. V. Shank, “Phase correction of femtosecond optical pulses using a combination of prisms and gratings,” Opt. Lett. 13, 123–125 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. P. Ippen and C. V. Shank, “Techniques for measurement,” in Ultrashort Light Pulses, S. L. Shapiro, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977), pp. 90–92.

Shaw, L. K.

D. V. Plant, D. C. Scott, H. R. Fetterman, L. K. Shaw, W. Jones, and K. L. Tan, “Optically generated 60 GHz millimeter waves using AlGaAs/InGaAs HEMT’s integrated with both quasi-optical antenna circuits and MMIC’s,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 102–105 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, “Far-infrared generation by optical mixing,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 207–232 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Morris and Y. R. Shen, “Far-infrared generation by picosecond pulses in electro-optic materials,” Opt. Commun. 3, 81–84 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Simonis, G. J.

G. J. Simonis and K. G. Purchase, “Optical generation, distribution, and control of microwaves using laser hetorodyne,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 667–669 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. R.

B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, “Free space radiation from electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 506–508 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, “Optically steerable photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886–888 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, and M. C. Nuss, “Subpicosecond photoconducting dipole antennas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255–260 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, “Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284–286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Stancampiano, C. V.

G. Mourou, C. V. Stancampiano, and D. Blumenthal, “Picosecond microwave pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 470–472 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, K. R.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Liu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, “Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080–3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tan, K. L.

D. V. Plant, D. C. Scott, H. R. Fetterman, L. K. Shaw, W. Jones, and K. L. Tan, “Optically generated 60 GHz millimeter waves using AlGaAs/InGaAs HEMT’s integrated with both quasi-optical antenna circuits and MMIC’s,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 102–105 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

Tomov, I. V.

I. P. Christov and I. V. Tomov, “Large bandwidth compression with diffraction gratings,” Opt. Commun. 58, 338–342 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Treacy, E. B.

E. B. Treacy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 454–458 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571–578 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Van Exter, M.

M. Van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectric terahertz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684–1691 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.-L.

Weling, A. S.

A. S. Weling, B. B. Hu, N. M. Froberg, and D. H. Auston, “Generation of tunable narrow-band THz radiation from large aperture photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 137–139 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Weling, T. F. Heinz, and D. H. Auston, “Saturation effects in narrow-band terahertz generation by chirped pulse mixing in biased photoconductors,” presented at the annual meeting of the American Physical Society, March1996.

Wu, C.

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, “Generation of terahertz radiation from a poled polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1358–1360 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz beam generation by femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784–1786 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and B. Jalali, “Terahertz radiation from large aperture Si p–i–n diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3357–3359 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yakymyshyn, C. P.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Liu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, “Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080–3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yardley, J. T.

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, “Generation of terahertz radiation from a poled polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1358–1360 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz beam generation by femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784–1786 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291–2301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Liu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, “Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080–3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, “Saturation properties of large-aperture photoconducting antennas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607–1616 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and B. Jalali, “Terahertz radiation from large aperture Si p–i–n diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3357–3359 (1991).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, “Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011–1013 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, “Optically steerable photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886–888 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, “Free space radiation from electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 506–508 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (12)

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, “Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284–286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. Mourou, C. V. Stancampiano, and D. Blumenthal, “Picosecond microwave pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 470–472 (1981).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, “Optically steerable photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886–888 (1990).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, “Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011–1013 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and B. Jalali, “Terahertz radiation from large aperture Si p–i–n diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3357–3359 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, “Free space radiation from electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 506–508 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz beam generation by femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784–1786 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, “Generation of terahertz radiation from a poled polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1358–1360 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. Katzenellenbogen and D. Grischkowsky, “Efficient generation of 380 fs pulses of THz radiation by ultrafast laser pulse excitation of a biased metal-semiconductor interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 222–224 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Brown, K. A. Macintosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, “Photomixing up to 3.8 THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 285–287 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Weling, B. B. Hu, N. M. Froberg, and D. H. Auston, “Generation of tunable narrow-band THz radiation from large aperture photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 137–139 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Liu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, “Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080–3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571–578 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Treacy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 454–458 (1969).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, and M. C. Nuss, “Subpicosecond photoconducting dipole antennas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255–260 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, “Saturation properties of large-aperture photoconducting antennas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607–1616 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291–2301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

D. V. Plant, D. C. Scott, H. R. Fetterman, L. K. Shaw, W. Jones, and K. L. Tan, “Optically generated 60 GHz millimeter waves using AlGaAs/InGaAs HEMT’s integrated with both quasi-optical antenna circuits and MMIC’s,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 102–105 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (2)

G. J. Simonis and K. G. Purchase, “Optical generation, distribution, and control of microwaves using laser hetorodyne,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 667–669 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectric terahertz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684–1691 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. R. Morris and Y. R. Shen, “Far-infrared generation by picosecond pulses in electro-optic materials,” Opt. Commun. 3, 81–84 (1971).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Christov and I. V. Tomov, “Large bandwidth compression with diffraction gratings,” Opt. Commun. 58, 338–342 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Mayer and F. Keilmann, “Far-infrared nonlinear optics. I and II,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 6954–6968 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. G. Anderson and J. I. H. Askne, “Wave packets in strongly dispersive media,” Proc. IEEE 62, 1518–1523 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. R. Shen, “Far-infrared generation by optical mixing,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 207–232 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

E. P. Ippen and C. V. Shank, “Techniques for measurement,” in Ultrashort Light Pulses, S. L. Shapiro, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977), pp. 90–92.

D. Grischkowsky, “Nonlinear generation of subpicosecond pulses of THz electromagnetic radiation by optoelectronics-applications to time-domain spectroscopy,” in Frontiers in Nonlinear Optics, H. Walther, N. Koroteev, and M. O. Scully, eds. (Institute of Physics, Philadelphia, Pa., 1993), pp. 196–227.

P. H. Bucksbaum, Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (personal communications, 1995).

A. S. Weling, T. F. Heinz, and D. H. Auston, “Saturation effects in narrow-band terahertz generation by chirped pulse mixing in biased photoconductors,” presented at the annual meeting of the American Physical Society, March1996.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental technique for producing and mixing chirped optical pulses from the Ti:sapphire oscillator in a Michelson interferometer, the output of which was used to generate and detect tunable narrow-band THz radiation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) SHG cross correlation of the narrow-band optical modulation produced at a delay τ = 3.0 ps between the chirped pulses. (b) Measured values of f0 and Δf (points) and fits (lines) from DFT-based numerical simulations; the values of μ and β used are 2.72 × 10 23 (rad/s)2 and 3.21 × 10 - 39 (s/rad)3, respectively (the dashed line shows Δf for zero cubic phase). (c) Variation of relative amplitudes of the modulation spectrum with f0 and corresponding numerical fit (the dashed curve shows the variation with the above quadratic phase and zero cubic phase).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimental setup of the optoelectronic THz beam system consisting of two 100-µm SOS dipole antennas and THz optics. (b) Typical time-resolved measurement using 160-fs pulses from the oscillator. (c) Time-resolved measurement of the narrow-band THz field produced by chirped-pulse beating in the dipole emitter (delay between chirped pulses, 8.33 ps). (d) Frequency response of the THz beam system showing dips that are due to ambient water-vapor absorption.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of coherent detection using chirped-pulse beating in the dipole detector. (a) Variation of f0 and Δf (points) and with fits (lines) from discrete Fourier-transform based numerical simulations; the values of μ and β used are 2.45 × 10 23 (rad/s)2 and 2.9 × 10 - 39 (s/rad)3, respectively. (b) Relative amplitudes of narrow-band portions of the broadband THz measured by the tunable detector (points) along with modified frequency response with the variation of Imax(f0) from Fig. 2(c) taken into account. The dotted curve shows the Fourier transform of a detected waveform at a specific value of the beat frequency f 0 266 GHz.

Equations (18)

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Φ ( ω ) = Φ ( ω 0 ) + τ 0 ( ω - ω 0 ) + ( ω - ω 0 ) 2 2 µ
+ β ( ω - ω 0 ) 3 + .
E out ( t ) = 1 2 π - d ω   exp [ - i ω t ] exp [ i Φ ( ω ) ]
× - d t   exp [ i ( ω - ω 0 ) t ] A ( t ) exp [ i χ ( t ) ] .
E out ( t ) E 0 σ σ n 1 / 2 exp - t 2 σ n 2 1 - i σ n σ
× exp { i [ Φ 0 - ω 0 t + τ 0 - π / 4 ] } ,
I total ( t ) = I + ( t ) + I - ( t ) + E 0 2 σ σ n
× exp ( - 2 t 2 / σ n 2 ) exp ( - τ 2 / 2 σ n 2 )
× cos 2 t τ σ n σ + ω 0 τ .
f 0 ( τ , μ ) = τ π σ n σ μ τ 2 π .
Δ f = 8 2 π σ n 2 σ μ π = Δ f opt σ σ n .
1 μ = 2 Φ ( ω ) ω 2 ω = ω 0
= - 4 π 2 cb ω 0 3 d 2 1 - 2 π c ω 0 d - sin   γ 2 - 3 / 2 ,
β = 1 6 3 Φ ( ω ) ω 3 ω = ω 0
= 1 2 µ ω 0 1 + ( 2 π c / ω 0 d ) sin   γ - sin 2   γ 1 - [ ( 2 π c / ω 0 d ) - sin   γ ] 2 .
G ( 2 ) ( τ ) - d t I 1 ( t + τ ) I 2 ( t ) .
J avg ( ω ) = I pump ( ω ) H pc ( ω ) H THz ( ω ) H pc * ( ω ) I probe * ( ω ) ,
sin   α max = sin   θ + ω opt ω THz cos   θ δ θ .

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