Abstract

We have measured the absolute optical frequencies of 90 rovibrational lines of the 12C2H2 and 13C2H2 1.5-µm bands. Using an optical frequency comb generator, we could precisely measure the relative frequencies between two lasers stabilized on the saturation dip of the rovibrational lines up to 2 THz apart. The absolute frequencies were determined with respect to the Rb two-photon transition at 0.778 µm with a HCN rovibration line at 1.556 µm used as an intermediate reference. This measurement provides an accurate frequency atlas of acetylene 1.5-µm bands with an uncertainty of 10-9.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. Ishikawa and H. Watanabe, IEEE Trans Instrum. Meas. 42, 423–425 (1993).
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  30. Y. Kabbadj, M. Herman, G. Di Lonardo, and L. Fusina, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 150, 535–565 (1991).
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  31. G. Di Lonardo, P. Ferracuti, L. Fusina, E. Venuti, and J. W. C. Johns, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 161, 466–486 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  32. B. C. Smith and J. S. Winn, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 4638–4645 (1988).
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  33. F. S. Pavone, F. Marin, P. De Natale, M. Inguscio, and F. Biraben, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 42–45 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. P. A. Jungner, S. Swartz, M. Eickhoff, Jun Ye, J. L. Hall, and S. Waltman, IEEE Trans Instrum. Meas. 44, 151–154 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  37. L.-S. Ma, J. Ye, P. Dube, and J. L. Hall, “A new modulation method for sensitive nonlinear spectroscopy—application to molecular overtones as visible frequency references,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996).

1995 (5)

1994 (5)

F. S. Pavone, F. Marin, P. De Natale, M. Inguscio, and F. Biraben, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 42–45 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kourogi, T. Enami, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 214–217 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Millerioux, D. Touahri, L. Hilico, A. Clairon, R. Felder, F. Biraben, and B. de Beauvoir, Opt. Commun. 108, 91–96 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. de Labachelerie, K. Nakagawa, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Lett. 19, 840–842 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Latrasse, M. Breton, M. Tetu, N. Cry, R. Roberge, and B. Villeneuve, Opt. Lett. 19, 1885–1887 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (5)

M. Kourogi, K. Nakagawa, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2693–2701 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Nez, F. Biraben, R. Felder, and Y. Millerioux, Opt. Commun. 102, 432–438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

O. Acef, J. J. Zondy, M. Abed, D. G. Rovera, A. H. Gerard, A. Clairon, Ph. Laurent, Y. Millierioux, and P. Juncar, Opt. Commun. 97, 29–34 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Ishikawa and H. Watanabe, IEEE Trans Instrum. Meas. 42, 423–425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Di Lonardo, P. Ferracuti, L. Fusina, E. Venuti, and J. W. C. Johns, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 161, 466–486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (4)

D. J. E. Knight, P. S. Hansell, H. C. Leeson, G. Duxbury, J. Meldau, and M. Lawrence, Proc. SPIE 1837, 106–114 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakagawa, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Lett. 17, 934–936 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sasada and O. Kubota, Appl. Phys. B 55, 186–188 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Lee and N. C. Wong, Opt. Lett. 17, 13–15 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (4)

V. A. Alekseev, M. A. Gubin, and E. D. Protsenko, Laser Phys. 1, 221–260 (1991).

H. Sasada, S. Takeuchi, M. Iritani, and K. Nakatani, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 713–718 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakagawa, M. Teshima, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Lett. 16, 1590–1592 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kabbadj, M. Herman, G. Di Lonardo, and L. Fusina, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 150, 535–565 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

1988 (1)

B. C. Smith and J. S. Winn, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 4638–4645 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

A. Clairon, B. Dahmani, A. Filimon, and J. Rutman, IEEE Trans Instrum. Meas. 34, 265–268 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. McNicholl and H. Metcalf, Appl. Opt. 24, 2757–2761 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (3)

1979 (1)

1973 (1)

F. R. Petersen, D. G. McDonald, J. D. Cupp, and B. L. Danielson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 31, 573–576 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

W. J. Lafferty and R. J. Thibault, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 14, 79–96 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Abed, M.

O. Acef, J. J. Zondy, M. Abed, D. G. Rovera, A. H. Gerard, A. Clairon, Ph. Laurent, Y. Millierioux, and P. Juncar, Opt. Commun. 97, 29–34 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Acef, O.

O. Acef, J. J. Zondy, M. Abed, D. G. Rovera, A. H. Gerard, A. Clairon, Ph. Laurent, Y. Millierioux, and P. Juncar, Opt. Commun. 97, 29–34 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Alekseev, V. A.

V. A. Alekseev, M. A. Gubin, and E. D. Protsenko, Laser Phys. 1, 221–260 (1991).

Awaji, Y.

Beaty, E. C.

Biraben, F.

F. S. Pavone, F. Marin, P. De Natale, M. Inguscio, and F. Biraben, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 42–45 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Millerioux, D. Touahri, L. Hilico, A. Clairon, R. Felder, F. Biraben, and B. de Beauvoir, Opt. Commun. 108, 91–96 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Nez, F. Biraben, R. Felder, and Y. Millerioux, Opt. Commun. 102, 432–438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Breton, M.

Clairon, A.

Y. Millerioux, D. Touahri, L. Hilico, A. Clairon, R. Felder, F. Biraben, and B. de Beauvoir, Opt. Commun. 108, 91–96 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. Acef, J. J. Zondy, M. Abed, D. G. Rovera, A. H. Gerard, A. Clairon, Ph. Laurent, Y. Millierioux, and P. Juncar, Opt. Commun. 97, 29–34 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Clairon, B. Dahmani, A. Filimon, and J. Rutman, IEEE Trans Instrum. Meas. 34, 265–268 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Cry, N.

Cupp, J. D.

F. R. Petersen, D. G. McDonald, J. D. Cupp, and B. L. Danielson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 31, 573–576 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Dahmani, B.

A. Clairon, B. Dahmani, A. Filimon, and J. Rutman, IEEE Trans Instrum. Meas. 34, 265–268 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Danielson, B. L.

F. R. Petersen, D. G. McDonald, J. D. Cupp, and B. L. Danielson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 31, 573–576 (1973).
[CrossRef]

de Beauvoir, B.

Y. Millerioux, D. Touahri, L. Hilico, A. Clairon, R. Felder, F. Biraben, and B. de Beauvoir, Opt. Commun. 108, 91–96 (1994).
[CrossRef]

de Labachelerie, M.

De Natale, P.

F. S. Pavone, F. Marin, P. De Natale, M. Inguscio, and F. Biraben, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 42–45 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Lonardo, G.

G. Di Lonardo, P. Ferracuti, L. Fusina, E. Venuti, and J. W. C. Johns, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 161, 466–486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kabbadj, M. Herman, G. Di Lonardo, and L. Fusina, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 150, 535–565 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Drullinger, R. E.

Dube, P.

L.-S. Ma, J. Ye, P. Dube, and J. L. Hall, “A new modulation method for sensitive nonlinear spectroscopy—application to molecular overtones as visible frequency references,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996).

Duxbury, G.

D. J. E. Knight, P. S. Hansell, H. C. Leeson, G. Duxbury, J. Meldau, and M. Lawrence, Proc. SPIE 1837, 106–114 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Eickhoff, M.

P. A. Jungner, S. Swartz, M. Eickhoff, Jun Ye, J. L. Hall, and S. Waltman, IEEE Trans Instrum. Meas. 44, 151–154 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Enami, T.

K. Nakagawa, M. de Labachelerie, Y. Awaji, M. Kourogi, T. Enami, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Lett. 20, 410–412 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Kourogi, T. Enami, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 214–217 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Evenson, K. M.

Felder, R.

Y. Millerioux, D. Touahri, L. Hilico, A. Clairon, R. Felder, F. Biraben, and B. de Beauvoir, Opt. Commun. 108, 91–96 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Nez, F. Biraben, R. Felder, and Y. Millerioux, Opt. Commun. 102, 432–438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ferracuti, P.

G. Di Lonardo, P. Ferracuti, L. Fusina, E. Venuti, and J. W. C. Johns, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 161, 466–486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Filimon, A.

A. Clairon, B. Dahmani, A. Filimon, and J. Rutman, IEEE Trans Instrum. Meas. 34, 265–268 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fusina, L.

G. Di Lonardo, P. Ferracuti, L. Fusina, E. Venuti, and J. W. C. Johns, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 161, 466–486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kabbadj, M. Herman, G. Di Lonardo, and L. Fusina, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 150, 535–565 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gerard, A. H.

O. Acef, J. J. Zondy, M. Abed, D. G. Rovera, A. H. Gerard, A. Clairon, Ph. Laurent, Y. Millierioux, and P. Juncar, Opt. Commun. 97, 29–34 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gubin, M. A.

V. A. Alekseev, M. A. Gubin, and E. D. Protsenko, Laser Phys. 1, 221–260 (1991).

Guelachvili, G.

G. Guelachvili and K. Narahari Rao, Handbook of Infrared Standards II (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1993).

Hall, J. L.

P. A. Jungner, S. Swartz, M. Eickhoff, Jun Ye, J. L. Hall, and S. Waltman, IEEE Trans Instrum. Meas. 44, 151–154 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Jennings, C. R. Pollock, F. R. Petersen, R. E. Drullinger, K. M. Evenson, J. S. Wells, J. L. Hall, and H. P. Layer, Opt. Lett. 8, 136–138 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Ma, J. Ye, P. Dube, and J. L. Hall, “A new modulation method for sensitive nonlinear spectroscopy—application to molecular overtones as visible frequency references,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996).

Hänsch, T. W.

Hansell, P. S.

D. J. E. Knight, P. S. Hansell, H. C. Leeson, G. Duxbury, J. Meldau, and M. Lawrence, Proc. SPIE 1837, 106–114 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Herman, M.

Y. Kabbadj, M. Herman, G. Di Lonardo, and L. Fusina, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 150, 535–565 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hilico, L.

Y. Millerioux, D. Touahri, L. Hilico, A. Clairon, R. Felder, F. Biraben, and B. de Beauvoir, Opt. Commun. 108, 91–96 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Inguscio, M.

F. S. Pavone, F. Marin, P. De Natale, M. Inguscio, and F. Biraben, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 42–45 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iritani, M.

Ishikawa, J.

J. Ishikawa and H. Watanabe, IEEE Trans Instrum. Meas. 42, 423–425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jennings, D. A.

Johns, J. W. C.

G. Di Lonardo, P. Ferracuti, L. Fusina, E. Venuti, and J. W. C. Johns, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 161, 466–486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Juncar, P.

O. Acef, J. J. Zondy, M. Abed, D. G. Rovera, A. H. Gerard, A. Clairon, Ph. Laurent, Y. Millierioux, and P. Juncar, Opt. Commun. 97, 29–34 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jungner, P. A.

P. A. Jungner, S. Swartz, M. Eickhoff, Jun Ye, J. L. Hall, and S. Waltman, IEEE Trans Instrum. Meas. 44, 151–154 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kabbadj, Y.

Y. Kabbadj, M. Herman, G. Di Lonardo, and L. Fusina, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 150, 535–565 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kinugawa, S.

S. Kinugawa and H. Sasada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 611–612 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Knight, D. J. E.

D. J. E. Knight, P. S. Hansell, H. C. Leeson, G. Duxbury, J. Meldau, and M. Lawrence, Proc. SPIE 1837, 106–114 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kourogi, M.

K. Nakagawa, M. de Labachelerie, Y. Awaji, M. Kourogi, T. Enami, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Lett. 20, 410–412 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Kourogi, T. Enami, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 214–217 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Kourogi, K. Nakagawa, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2693–2701 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakagawa, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Lett. 17, 934–936 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, O.

H. Sasada and O. Kubota, Appl. Phys. B 55, 186–188 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, W. J.

W. J. Lafferty and R. J. Thibault, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 14, 79–96 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Latrasse, C.

Laurent, Ph.

O. Acef, J. J. Zondy, M. Abed, D. G. Rovera, A. H. Gerard, A. Clairon, Ph. Laurent, Y. Millierioux, and P. Juncar, Opt. Commun. 97, 29–34 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, M.

D. J. E. Knight, P. S. Hansell, H. C. Leeson, G. Duxbury, J. Meldau, and M. Lawrence, Proc. SPIE 1837, 106–114 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Layer, H. P.

Lee, D.

Leeson, H. C.

D. J. E. Knight, P. S. Hansell, H. C. Leeson, G. Duxbury, J. Meldau, and M. Lawrence, Proc. SPIE 1837, 106–114 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L.-S.

L.-S. Ma, J. Ye, P. Dube, and J. L. Hall, “A new modulation method for sensitive nonlinear spectroscopy—application to molecular overtones as visible frequency references,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996).

Marin, F.

F. S. Pavone, F. Marin, P. De Natale, M. Inguscio, and F. Biraben, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 42–45 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDonald, D. G.

F. R. Petersen, D. G. McDonald, J. D. Cupp, and B. L. Danielson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 31, 573–576 (1973).
[CrossRef]

McNicholl, P.

Meldau, J.

D. J. E. Knight, P. S. Hansell, H. C. Leeson, G. Duxbury, J. Meldau, and M. Lawrence, Proc. SPIE 1837, 106–114 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meschede, D.

Metcalf, H.

Millerioux, Y.

Y. Millerioux, D. Touahri, L. Hilico, A. Clairon, R. Felder, F. Biraben, and B. de Beauvoir, Opt. Commun. 108, 91–96 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Nez, F. Biraben, R. Felder, and Y. Millerioux, Opt. Commun. 102, 432–438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Millierioux, Y.

O. Acef, J. J. Zondy, M. Abed, D. G. Rovera, A. H. Gerard, A. Clairon, Ph. Laurent, Y. Millierioux, and P. Juncar, Opt. Commun. 97, 29–34 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, K.

Nakatani, K.

Narahari Rao, K.

G. Guelachvili and K. Narahari Rao, Handbook of Infrared Standards II (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1993).

Nez, F.

F. Nez, F. Biraben, R. Felder, and Y. Millerioux, Opt. Commun. 102, 432–438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

Pavone, F. S.

F. S. Pavone, F. Marin, P. De Natale, M. Inguscio, and F. Biraben, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 42–45 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petersen, F. R.

Pollock, C. R.

Protsenko, E. D.

V. A. Alekseev, M. A. Gubin, and E. D. Protsenko, Laser Phys. 1, 221–260 (1991).

Roberge, R.

Rovera, D. G.

O. Acef, J. J. Zondy, M. Abed, D. G. Rovera, A. H. Gerard, A. Clairon, Ph. Laurent, Y. Millierioux, and P. Juncar, Opt. Commun. 97, 29–34 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rutman, J.

A. Clairon, B. Dahmani, A. Filimon, and J. Rutman, IEEE Trans Instrum. Meas. 34, 265–268 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sadada, H.

K. Suzumura and H. Sadada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L1620–L1621 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sasada, H.

Smith, B. C.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the 1.5-µm extended-cavity diode laser spectrometer. (b) A typical derivative signal around the saturation dip of an acetylene absorption line [12C2H2, P(12)]. FI, Faraday isolator; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; λ/4, quarter-wave plate; LD, laser diode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic diagram of the relative frequency measurement using an OFCG. (b) Schematic diagram of the absolute frequency measurement using a Rb two-photon transition as an absolute reference. PD’s, photodiodes; FR, Faraday rotator; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; SHG, second-harmonic generator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Acetylene absorption bands in the 1.5-µm region. The absorption lines measured in the present experiment are indicated by bold bars.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Beat note for the difference frequency of 2.3 THz between two free-running lasers. The resolution bandwidth is 100 kHz. (b) Beat note for the difference frequency of 1 THz between two lasers locked on the P(18) and P(30) lines, respectively, of 13C2H2. The resolution bandwidth is 30 kHz.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Frequencies and Wave Numbers for the ν1+ν3 Band of 12C2H2

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured Frequencies and Wave Numbers for the ν1+ν3 Band of 13C2H2

Tables Icon

Table 3 Molecular Constants of the ν1+ν3 Band of 12C2H2

Tables Icon

Table 4 Molecular Constants of the Ground State of 13C2H2

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

νP,R=ν0+(B+B)m+(B-B-D+D)m2-2(D+D)m3-(D-D)m4,
Δ2F=νR(J-1)-νP(J+1)=(4B-6D+27/4H)(J+1/2)+(-8D+34H)(J+1/2)3+12H(J+1/2)5.

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