Abstract

Some general conditions concerning the properties of apparatuses that can measure completely the amplitude and the phase of a pulse’s electric field by using a slow detector are formulated. In particular, it is shown that a necessary and sufficient condition for the characterization of an ultrashort pulse shape is that the apparatus consist of at least one time nonstationary and one time stationary element. We show that there are only four possible noninterferometric schemes that meet this criterion. We discuss separately these four minimal methods and the associated algorithms for reconstructing the pulse shape from the measured data.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. E. Rothenberg and D. Grischkowsky, “Measurement of optical phase with subpicosecond resolution by time-domain interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 12, 99–101 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, “General method of ultrashort light pulse chirp measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225–1233 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Yan and J.-C. Diels, “Amplitude and phase recording of ultrashort pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1259–1263 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. L. A. Chilla and O. E. Martinez, “Analysis of a method of phase measurement of ultrashort pulses in the frequency domain,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1228–1235 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J.-P. Foing, J.-P. Likforman, M. Joffre, and A. Migus, “Femtosecond pulse phase measurement by spectrally resolved up-conversion: application to continuum compression,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2285–2290 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571–579 (1993); R. Trebino and D. J. Kane, “Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort pulse: frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1101–1111 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Paye, M. Ramaswamy, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, “Measurement of the amplitude and phase of ultrashort light pulses from spectrally resolved autocorrelation,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1946–1948 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Beck, M. G. Raymer, I. A. Walmsley, and V. Wong, “Chronocyclic tomography for measuring the amplitude and phase structure of optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 18, 2041–2043 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. V. Wong and I. A. Walmsley, “Analysis of ultrashort pulse-shape measurement using linear interferometers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 287–289 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J.-K. Rhee, T. S. Sosnowski, T. B. Norris, J. A. Arns, and W. S. Colburn, “Chirped-pulse amplification of 85-fs pulses at 250 kHz with third-order dispersion compensation by use of holographic transmission gratings,” Opt. Lett.19, 1550–1552 (1994); J.-K. Rhee, T. S. Sosnowski, A.-C. Tien, and T. B. Norris, “Real-time characterization of femtosecond laser pulses using a spectrally and temporally resolved upconversion technique,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CPD39.
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. C. Chu, J. P. Heritage, R. S. Grant, K. X. Liu, A. Dienes, W. E. White, and A. Sullivan, “Direct measurement of the spectral phase of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 20, 904–906 (1995); K. C. Chu, J. P. Heritage, R. S. Grant, A. Dienes, A. Sullivan, and W. E. White, “Direct spectral phase measurement of femtosecond optical pulses by using multiple-slit interference,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper CFM1.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. V. Wong and I. A. Walmsley, “Linear filter analysis of methods for ultrashort pulse-shape measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1491–1499 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, “Time-to-frequency converter for measuring picosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 270–272 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. See discussion in M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1980), Chap. 10.
  15. E. B. Treacy, “Measurement and interpretation of dynamic spectrograms of picosecond light pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 3848–3858 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Paye, “The chronocyclic representation of ultrashort light pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2262–2273 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K.-H. Brenner and K. Wodkiewicz, “The time-dependent physical spectrum of light and the Wigner distribution function,” Opt. Commun. 43, 103–106 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. S. Prade, J. M. Schins, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “A simple method for the determination of the intensity and phase of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 113, 79–84 (1994); B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Gillon, J. P. Chambaret, and A. Mysyrowicz, “New method for the determination of the phase and amplitude of intense femtosecond optical pulses,” in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses II, C. P. Barty and F. W. Wise, eds., Proc. SPIE2377, 187–192 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Ishida, K. Naganuma, T. Yajima, and L. H. Lin, “Ultrafast self-phase modulation in a colliding pulse mode-locked ring dye laser,” in Ultrafast Phenomena IV, D. H. Austin and K. B. Eisenthal, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984), pp. 69–71; Y. Ishida, K. Naganuma, and T. Yajima, “Self-phase modulation in hybridly mode-locked cw dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 69–77 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  20. V. Wong and Ian A. Walmsley, “Phase-retrieval in time-resolved spectral phase measurement,” in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses II, C. P. Barty and F. W. Wise, eds., Proc. SPIE2377, 178–186 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, A. Faridani, and M. G. Raymer, “Measurement of the Wigner distribution and the density matrix of a light mode using optical homodyne tomography: application to squeezed states and the vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244–1247 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. P. LeBlanc and R. Sauerbrey, “Ultrashort pulse characterization using plasma-induced cross-phase-modulation,” Opt. Commun. 111, 297–302 (1994); S. P. LeBlanc, Z. Qi, and R. A. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond VUV pulse characterization,” in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses II, C. P. Barty and F. W. Wise, eds., Proc. SPIE2377, 280–291 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Chilla and O. E. Martinez, “Unidimensional direct phase determination of femtosecond light pulses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CFM5.

1995 (2)

1994 (4)

M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, “Time-to-frequency converter for measuring picosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 270–272 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Prade, J. M. Schins, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “A simple method for the determination of the intensity and phase of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 113, 79–84 (1994); B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Gillon, J. P. Chambaret, and A. Mysyrowicz, “New method for the determination of the phase and amplitude of intense femtosecond optical pulses,” in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses II, C. P. Barty and F. W. Wise, eds., Proc. SPIE2377, 187–192 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. Wong and I. A. Walmsley, “Analysis of ultrashort pulse-shape measurement using linear interferometers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 287–289 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. LeBlanc and R. Sauerbrey, “Ultrashort pulse characterization using plasma-induced cross-phase-modulation,” Opt. Commun. 111, 297–302 (1994); S. P. LeBlanc, Z. Qi, and R. A. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond VUV pulse characterization,” in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses II, C. P. Barty and F. W. Wise, eds., Proc. SPIE2377, 280–291 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (4)

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571–579 (1993); R. Trebino and D. J. Kane, “Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort pulse: frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1101–1111 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Paye, M. Ramaswamy, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, “Measurement of the amplitude and phase of ultrashort light pulses from spectrally resolved autocorrelation,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1946–1948 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Beck, M. G. Raymer, I. A. Walmsley, and V. Wong, “Chronocyclic tomography for measuring the amplitude and phase structure of optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 18, 2041–2043 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, A. Faridani, and M. G. Raymer, “Measurement of the Wigner distribution and the density matrix of a light mode using optical homodyne tomography: application to squeezed states and the vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244–1247 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

J. Paye, “The chronocyclic representation of ultrashort light pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2262–2273 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Foing, J.-P. Likforman, M. Joffre, and A. Migus, “Femtosecond pulse phase measurement by spectrally resolved up-conversion: application to continuum compression,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2285–2290 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

C. Yan and J.-C. Diels, “Amplitude and phase recording of ultrashort pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1259–1263 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. L. A. Chilla and O. E. Martinez, “Analysis of a method of phase measurement of ultrashort pulses in the frequency domain,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1228–1235 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, “General method of ultrashort light pulse chirp measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225–1233 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1982 (1)

K.-H. Brenner and K. Wodkiewicz, “The time-dependent physical spectrum of light and the Wigner distribution function,” Opt. Commun. 43, 103–106 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

E. B. Treacy, “Measurement and interpretation of dynamic spectrograms of picosecond light pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 3848–3858 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Arns, J. A.

J.-K. Rhee, T. S. Sosnowski, T. B. Norris, J. A. Arns, and W. S. Colburn, “Chirped-pulse amplification of 85-fs pulses at 250 kHz with third-order dispersion compensation by use of holographic transmission gratings,” Opt. Lett.19, 1550–1552 (1994); J.-K. Rhee, T. S. Sosnowski, A.-C. Tien, and T. B. Norris, “Real-time characterization of femtosecond laser pulses using a spectrally and temporally resolved upconversion technique,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CPD39.
[CrossRef]

Banyai, W. C.

M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, “Time-to-frequency converter for measuring picosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 270–272 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, A. Faridani, and M. G. Raymer, “Measurement of the Wigner distribution and the density matrix of a light mode using optical homodyne tomography: application to squeezed states and the vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244–1247 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Beck, M. G. Raymer, I. A. Walmsley, and V. Wong, “Chronocyclic tomography for measuring the amplitude and phase structure of optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 18, 2041–2043 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloom, D. M.

M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, “Time-to-frequency converter for measuring picosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 270–272 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

See discussion in M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1980), Chap. 10.

Brenner, K.-H.

K.-H. Brenner and K. Wodkiewicz, “The time-dependent physical spectrum of light and the Wigner distribution function,” Opt. Commun. 43, 103–106 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chilla, J.

J. Chilla and O. E. Martinez, “Unidimensional direct phase determination of femtosecond light pulses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CFM5.

Chilla, J. L. A.

J. L. A. Chilla and O. E. Martinez, “Analysis of a method of phase measurement of ultrashort pulses in the frequency domain,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1228–1235 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chu, K. C.

Colburn, W. S.

J.-K. Rhee, T. S. Sosnowski, T. B. Norris, J. A. Arns, and W. S. Colburn, “Chirped-pulse amplification of 85-fs pulses at 250 kHz with third-order dispersion compensation by use of holographic transmission gratings,” Opt. Lett.19, 1550–1552 (1994); J.-K. Rhee, T. S. Sosnowski, A.-C. Tien, and T. B. Norris, “Real-time characterization of femtosecond laser pulses using a spectrally and temporally resolved upconversion technique,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CPD39.
[CrossRef]

Diels, J.-C.

Dienes, A.

Faridani, A.

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, A. Faridani, and M. G. Raymer, “Measurement of the Wigner distribution and the density matrix of a light mode using optical homodyne tomography: application to squeezed states and the vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244–1247 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foing, J.-P.

J.-P. Foing, J.-P. Likforman, M. Joffre, and A. Migus, “Femtosecond pulse phase measurement by spectrally resolved up-conversion: application to continuum compression,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2285–2290 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M. A.

B. S. Prade, J. M. Schins, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “A simple method for the determination of the intensity and phase of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 113, 79–84 (1994); B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Gillon, J. P. Chambaret, and A. Mysyrowicz, “New method for the determination of the phase and amplitude of intense femtosecond optical pulses,” in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses II, C. P. Barty and F. W. Wise, eds., Proc. SPIE2377, 187–192 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Godil, A. A.

M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, “Time-to-frequency converter for measuring picosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 270–272 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Grant, R. S.

Grischkowsky, D.

Heritage, J. P.

Ippen, E. P.

Ishida, Y.

Y. Ishida, K. Naganuma, T. Yajima, and L. H. Lin, “Ultrafast self-phase modulation in a colliding pulse mode-locked ring dye laser,” in Ultrafast Phenomena IV, D. H. Austin and K. B. Eisenthal, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984), pp. 69–71; Y. Ishida, K. Naganuma, and T. Yajima, “Self-phase modulation in hybridly mode-locked cw dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 69–77 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Joffre, M.

J.-P. Foing, J.-P. Likforman, M. Joffre, and A. Migus, “Femtosecond pulse phase measurement by spectrally resolved up-conversion: application to continuum compression,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2285–2290 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kane, D. J.

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571–579 (1993); R. Trebino and D. J. Kane, “Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort pulse: frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1101–1111 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kauffman, M. T.

M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, “Time-to-frequency converter for measuring picosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 270–272 (1994).
[CrossRef]

LeBlanc, S. P.

S. P. LeBlanc and R. Sauerbrey, “Ultrashort pulse characterization using plasma-induced cross-phase-modulation,” Opt. Commun. 111, 297–302 (1994); S. P. LeBlanc, Z. Qi, and R. A. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond VUV pulse characterization,” in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses II, C. P. Barty and F. W. Wise, eds., Proc. SPIE2377, 280–291 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Likforman, J.-P.

J.-P. Foing, J.-P. Likforman, M. Joffre, and A. Migus, “Femtosecond pulse phase measurement by spectrally resolved up-conversion: application to continuum compression,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2285–2290 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L. H.

Y. Ishida, K. Naganuma, T. Yajima, and L. H. Lin, “Ultrafast self-phase modulation in a colliding pulse mode-locked ring dye laser,” in Ultrafast Phenomena IV, D. H. Austin and K. B. Eisenthal, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984), pp. 69–71; Y. Ishida, K. Naganuma, and T. Yajima, “Self-phase modulation in hybridly mode-locked cw dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 69–77 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Liu, K. X.

Martinez, O. E.

J. L. A. Chilla and O. E. Martinez, “Analysis of a method of phase measurement of ultrashort pulses in the frequency domain,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1228–1235 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Chilla and O. E. Martinez, “Unidimensional direct phase determination of femtosecond light pulses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CFM5.

Migus, A.

J.-P. Foing, J.-P. Likforman, M. Joffre, and A. Migus, “Femtosecond pulse phase measurement by spectrally resolved up-conversion: application to continuum compression,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2285–2290 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mogi, K.

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, “General method of ultrashort light pulse chirp measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225–1233 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

B. S. Prade, J. M. Schins, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “A simple method for the determination of the intensity and phase of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 113, 79–84 (1994); B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Gillon, J. P. Chambaret, and A. Mysyrowicz, “New method for the determination of the phase and amplitude of intense femtosecond optical pulses,” in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses II, C. P. Barty and F. W. Wise, eds., Proc. SPIE2377, 187–192 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Naganuma, K.

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, “General method of ultrashort light pulse chirp measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225–1233 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishida, K. Naganuma, T. Yajima, and L. H. Lin, “Ultrafast self-phase modulation in a colliding pulse mode-locked ring dye laser,” in Ultrafast Phenomena IV, D. H. Austin and K. B. Eisenthal, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984), pp. 69–71; Y. Ishida, K. Naganuma, and T. Yajima, “Self-phase modulation in hybridly mode-locked cw dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 69–77 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nibbering, E. T. J.

B. S. Prade, J. M. Schins, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “A simple method for the determination of the intensity and phase of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 113, 79–84 (1994); B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Gillon, J. P. Chambaret, and A. Mysyrowicz, “New method for the determination of the phase and amplitude of intense femtosecond optical pulses,” in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses II, C. P. Barty and F. W. Wise, eds., Proc. SPIE2377, 187–192 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Norris, T. B.

J.-K. Rhee, T. S. Sosnowski, T. B. Norris, J. A. Arns, and W. S. Colburn, “Chirped-pulse amplification of 85-fs pulses at 250 kHz with third-order dispersion compensation by use of holographic transmission gratings,” Opt. Lett.19, 1550–1552 (1994); J.-K. Rhee, T. S. Sosnowski, A.-C. Tien, and T. B. Norris, “Real-time characterization of femtosecond laser pulses using a spectrally and temporally resolved upconversion technique,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CPD39.
[CrossRef]

Paye, J.

Prade, B. S.

B. S. Prade, J. M. Schins, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “A simple method for the determination of the intensity and phase of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 113, 79–84 (1994); B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Gillon, J. P. Chambaret, and A. Mysyrowicz, “New method for the determination of the phase and amplitude of intense femtosecond optical pulses,” in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses II, C. P. Barty and F. W. Wise, eds., Proc. SPIE2377, 187–192 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswamy, M.

Raymer, M. G.

M. Beck, M. G. Raymer, I. A. Walmsley, and V. Wong, “Chronocyclic tomography for measuring the amplitude and phase structure of optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 18, 2041–2043 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, A. Faridani, and M. G. Raymer, “Measurement of the Wigner distribution and the density matrix of a light mode using optical homodyne tomography: application to squeezed states and the vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244–1247 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rhee, J.-K.

J.-K. Rhee, T. S. Sosnowski, T. B. Norris, J. A. Arns, and W. S. Colburn, “Chirped-pulse amplification of 85-fs pulses at 250 kHz with third-order dispersion compensation by use of holographic transmission gratings,” Opt. Lett.19, 1550–1552 (1994); J.-K. Rhee, T. S. Sosnowski, A.-C. Tien, and T. B. Norris, “Real-time characterization of femtosecond laser pulses using a spectrally and temporally resolved upconversion technique,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CPD39.
[CrossRef]

Rothenberg, J. E.

Sauerbrey, R.

S. P. LeBlanc and R. Sauerbrey, “Ultrashort pulse characterization using plasma-induced cross-phase-modulation,” Opt. Commun. 111, 297–302 (1994); S. P. LeBlanc, Z. Qi, and R. A. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond VUV pulse characterization,” in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses II, C. P. Barty and F. W. Wise, eds., Proc. SPIE2377, 280–291 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schins, J. M.

B. S. Prade, J. M. Schins, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “A simple method for the determination of the intensity and phase of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 113, 79–84 (1994); B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Gillon, J. P. Chambaret, and A. Mysyrowicz, “New method for the determination of the phase and amplitude of intense femtosecond optical pulses,” in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses II, C. P. Barty and F. W. Wise, eds., Proc. SPIE2377, 187–192 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Smithey, D. T.

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, A. Faridani, and M. G. Raymer, “Measurement of the Wigner distribution and the density matrix of a light mode using optical homodyne tomography: application to squeezed states and the vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244–1247 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sosnowski, T. S.

J.-K. Rhee, T. S. Sosnowski, T. B. Norris, J. A. Arns, and W. S. Colburn, “Chirped-pulse amplification of 85-fs pulses at 250 kHz with third-order dispersion compensation by use of holographic transmission gratings,” Opt. Lett.19, 1550–1552 (1994); J.-K. Rhee, T. S. Sosnowski, A.-C. Tien, and T. B. Norris, “Real-time characterization of femtosecond laser pulses using a spectrally and temporally resolved upconversion technique,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CPD39.
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, A.

Treacy, E. B.

E. B. Treacy, “Measurement and interpretation of dynamic spectrograms of picosecond light pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 3848–3858 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571–579 (1993); R. Trebino and D. J. Kane, “Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort pulse: frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1101–1111 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I. A.

Walmsley, Ian A.

V. Wong and Ian A. Walmsley, “Phase-retrieval in time-resolved spectral phase measurement,” in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses II, C. P. Barty and F. W. Wise, eds., Proc. SPIE2377, 178–186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

White, W. E.

Wodkiewicz, K.

K.-H. Brenner and K. Wodkiewicz, “The time-dependent physical spectrum of light and the Wigner distribution function,” Opt. Commun. 43, 103–106 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

See discussion in M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1980), Chap. 10.

Wong, V.

Yajima, T.

Y. Ishida, K. Naganuma, T. Yajima, and L. H. Lin, “Ultrafast self-phase modulation in a colliding pulse mode-locked ring dye laser,” in Ultrafast Phenomena IV, D. H. Austin and K. B. Eisenthal, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984), pp. 69–71; Y. Ishida, K. Naganuma, and T. Yajima, “Self-phase modulation in hybridly mode-locked cw dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 69–77 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, “General method of ultrashort light pulse chirp measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225–1233 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yan, C.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, “Time-to-frequency converter for measuring picosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 270–272 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

J. Paye, “The chronocyclic representation of ultrashort light pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2262–2273 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. L. A. Chilla and O. E. Martinez, “Analysis of a method of phase measurement of ultrashort pulses in the frequency domain,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1228–1235 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Foing, J.-P. Likforman, M. Joffre, and A. Migus, “Femtosecond pulse phase measurement by spectrally resolved up-conversion: application to continuum compression,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2285–2290 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571–579 (1993); R. Trebino and D. J. Kane, “Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort pulse: frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1101–1111 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, “General method of ultrashort light pulse chirp measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225–1233 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. B. Treacy, “Measurement and interpretation of dynamic spectrograms of picosecond light pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 3848–3858 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (3)

K.-H. Brenner and K. Wodkiewicz, “The time-dependent physical spectrum of light and the Wigner distribution function,” Opt. Commun. 43, 103–106 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Prade, J. M. Schins, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “A simple method for the determination of the intensity and phase of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 113, 79–84 (1994); B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Gillon, J. P. Chambaret, and A. Mysyrowicz, “New method for the determination of the phase and amplitude of intense femtosecond optical pulses,” in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses II, C. P. Barty and F. W. Wise, eds., Proc. SPIE2377, 187–192 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. P. LeBlanc and R. Sauerbrey, “Ultrashort pulse characterization using plasma-induced cross-phase-modulation,” Opt. Commun. 111, 297–302 (1994); S. P. LeBlanc, Z. Qi, and R. A. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond VUV pulse characterization,” in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses II, C. P. Barty and F. W. Wise, eds., Proc. SPIE2377, 280–291 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, A. Faridani, and M. G. Raymer, “Measurement of the Wigner distribution and the density matrix of a light mode using optical homodyne tomography: application to squeezed states and the vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244–1247 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

J. Chilla and O. E. Martinez, “Unidimensional direct phase determination of femtosecond light pulses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CFM5.

J.-K. Rhee, T. S. Sosnowski, T. B. Norris, J. A. Arns, and W. S. Colburn, “Chirped-pulse amplification of 85-fs pulses at 250 kHz with third-order dispersion compensation by use of holographic transmission gratings,” Opt. Lett.19, 1550–1552 (1994); J.-K. Rhee, T. S. Sosnowski, A.-C. Tien, and T. B. Norris, “Real-time characterization of femtosecond laser pulses using a spectrally and temporally resolved upconversion technique,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CPD39.
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishida, K. Naganuma, T. Yajima, and L. H. Lin, “Ultrafast self-phase modulation in a colliding pulse mode-locked ring dye laser,” in Ultrafast Phenomena IV, D. H. Austin and K. B. Eisenthal, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984), pp. 69–71; Y. Ishida, K. Naganuma, and T. Yajima, “Self-phase modulation in hybridly mode-locked cw dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 69–77 (1985).
[CrossRef]

V. Wong and Ian A. Walmsley, “Phase-retrieval in time-resolved spectral phase measurement,” in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses II, C. P. Barty and F. W. Wise, eds., Proc. SPIE2377, 178–186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

See discussion in M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1980), Chap. 10.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A general ultrashort-pulse-shape measurement apparatus consisting of j+k+n+l filters and an integrating detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

General noninterferometric pulse characterization apparatus, which consists of only in-series filters and an integrating detector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Complete catalog of the noninterferometric, minimalist schemes for measurement of the amplitude and the phase of ultrashort optical pulses with integrating detectors. The filters and their corresponding response functions are AS, SA(t-t); ANS, NA(t, t); PS, SP(t-t); PNS, NP(t, t).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Window function of type I devices in the chronocyclic phase space.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Window function of type II devices in the chronocyclic phase space.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Window function of type III devices in the chronocyclic phase space.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Type III devices’ detected signal represented as the marginal distribution of a rotated version of the Wigner function in the chronocyclic phase space.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Window function of type IV devices in the chronocyclic phase space.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Type IV devices’ detected signal represented as marginal distribution of a rotated version of the Wigner function in the chronocyclic phase space.

Equations (44)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Eout(t)=dtHi(t,t)Ein(t) (for the i th filter),
Eout(t)=dtSi(t-t)Ein(t),
Hi(t,t)=Si(t-t).
E˜out(ω)=dωN˜i(ω-ω)E˜in(ω),
Hi(t,t)=Ni(t)δ(t-t).
ANS (time gate): NA(t;τ)=exp[-Γ2(t-τ)2/2],
PNS (phase modulator): NP(t;ϕt)=exp(iϕtt2),
AS (spectral filter): S˜A(ω;ωc)=exp[-(ω-ωc)2/(2γ2)],
PS (dispersive delay): S˜P(ω;ϕω)=exp(-iϕωω2).
H(t;ωc)=θ(t)exp[-(t-τ)2γ2/2]exp(iωct),
H˜(ω;ωc)=exp[-(ω-ωc)2/(2γ2)]exp(iωcτ)+O(1/γτ).
C(t,t)=Ein(t)Ein*(t),
 dtC(t,t)= dt dt|C(t,t)|2.
W(ω,t)= dtCt+t2,t-t2exp(iωt).
I(t)=|Ein(t)|2= dωW(ω,t),
I(ω)=|E˜in(ω)|2=dtW(ω,t).
D({pi})= dω  dtW(ω,t)F(ω,t;{pi}).
F(ω,t;{pi})=i|S˜i(ω;pi)|2,
D({pi})= dω|E˜in(ω)|2 i|S˜i(ω;pi)|2.
F(ω,t;{pi})=i|Ni(t;pi)|2,
D({pi})= dt|Ein(t)|2i|Ni(t;pi)|2.
F(ω,t;τ,ωc)= dω|S˜A(ω,ωc)|2  dtNAt+t2;τNA*×t-t2;τexp[i(ω-ω)t].
S˜ω;ωc2δωωc.
D(τ,ωc) dtEin(t)NA(t;τ)exp(iωct)2.
F(ω,t;τ,ωc)=exp[-Γ2(t-τ)2]exp-(ω-ωc)2(Γ2+γ2).
ΔτΔω=1ΓΓ2+γ2=1+(γ/Γ)2.
F(ω,t;τ,ωc)=F(ω-ωc,t-τ),
F(ω,t;ωc,τ)= dt|NA(t;τ)|2  dωS˜A×ω+ω2;ωcS˜A*ω-ω2;ωc×exp[-iω(t-t)].
|NA(t;τ)|2δ(t-τ).
D(ωc,τ) dωE˜in(ω)S˜A(ω;ωc)exp(-iωτ)2,
F(ω,t;ωc,τ)=exp-(ω-ωc)2γ2exp-(t-τ)21γ2+1Γ2,
ΔωΔτ=γ1γ2+1Γ2=1+(γ/Γ)2.
F(ω,t;ωc,ϕt)=exp-(ω-ωc-2ϕtt)2γ2.
D(ωc,ϕt) dωWω,ω-ωc2ϕt.
ωθ=ω cos θ+t sin θ,
tθ=-ω sin θ+t cos θ,
ωθ=ωc cos θ,
tan θ=-2ϕt,
D(ωc,ϕt)=D¯(ωθ;θ)= dtθW(ωθ cos θ-tθ sin θ, ωθ sin θ+tθ cos θ).
F(ω,t;τ,ϕω)=exp[-Γ2(t-τ-2ϕωω)2].
D(τ,ϕω) dtWt-τ2ϕω,t.
tθ=τ cos θ,
tan θ=-2ϕω,
D(τ,ϕω)=D¯(tθ;θ)= dωθW(ωθ cos θ-tθ sin θ,ωθ sin θ+tθ cos θ).

Metrics