Abstract

We propose a simple model based on the Drude–Lorentz theory of carrier transport to account for the details of the ultrashort terahertz pulses radiated from small photoconductive semiconductor antennas. The dynamics of the bias field under the influence of the space-charge field from the accelerated carriers is included in the model. We consider in detail the optical system used to image the terahertz radiation onto the terahertz detector, and we calculate the frequency-dependent response of the detector. The proposed model is compared with several different experiments, each focusing on different parameters of the model. Agreement between experiment and model is found in all cases, supporting the validity of this simple and appropriate model.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. X.-C. Zhang and D. H. Auston, “Optically induced THz electromagnetic radiation from planar photoconducting structures,” J. Electron. Wave Appl. 6, 85–106 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. X.-C. Zhang and D. H. Auston, “Optoelectronic measurement of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces with femtosecond optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 326–328 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. R. Grischkowsky, “An ultrafast optoelectronic THz beam system,” Opt. Photonics News (May1992), pp. 21–28.
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Grischkowsky, “Non-linear generation of sub-psec pulses of THz electromagnetic radiation by optoelectronics—applications to time-domain spectroscopy,” in Frontiers in Nonlinear Optics, H. Walther, N. Koroteev, and M. O. Scully, eds. (Institute of Physics, Philadelphia, 1993), pp. 196–227.
  5. M. C. Nuss, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brenner, H. G. Roskos, M. S. C. Lou, and S. L. Chuang, “THz electromagnetic radiation from quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 249–259 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. S. C. Lou, S. L. Chuang, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brenner, H. G. Roskos, and M. C. Nuss, “Generation of terahertz electromagnetic pulses from quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1478–1488 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. R. Keiding, “THz spectroscopy in atomic, molecular and optical physics,” Comments At. Mol. Phys. 30, 37–60 (1994).
  8. Feature on THz electromagnetics, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2454–2585 (1994).
  9. M. van Exter and D. R. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1684–1691 (1990).
  10. D. Krökel, D. R. Grischkowsky, and M. B. Ketchen, “Subpicosecond electrical pulse generation using photoconductive switches with long carrier lifetimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1046–1047 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. Katzenellenbogen and D. R. Grischkowsky, “Efficient generation of 380 fs pulses of THz radiation by ultrafast laser pulse excitation of a biased metal-semiconductor interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 222–224 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. E. Ralph and D. R. Grischkowsky, “Trap-enhanced electric fields in semi-insulators: the role of electrical and optical carrier injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1972–1974 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. Sha, J.-K. Rhee, T. B. Norris, and W. J. Schaff, “Transient carrier and field dynamics in quantum-well parallel transport: from the ballistic to the quasi-equilibrium regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2445–2455 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. E. Pedersen, V. G. Lyssenko, J. M. Hvam, P. U. Jepsen, S. R. Keiding, C. B. Sørensen, and P. E. Lindelof, “Ultrafast local field dynamics in photoconductive THz antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1265–1267 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. H. Knox, J. E. Henry, K. W. Goosen, K. D. Li, B. Tell, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, J. English, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Femtosecond excitonic optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2586–2595 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. E. Pedersen, S. R. Keiding, C. B. Sørensen, P. E. Lindelof, W. W. Rühle, and X. Q. Zhou, “5 THz bandwidth from GaAs-on-silicon photoconductive receiver,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 7022–7024 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. B. Hu, E. A. de Souza, W. H. Knox, J. E. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss, A. V. Kuznetsov, and S. L. Chuang, “Identifying the distinct phases of carrier transport in semiconductors with 10 fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1689–1692 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. K. Benicewicz and A. J. Taylor, “Scaling of terahertz radiation from large-aperture biased InP photoconductors,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1332–1334 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. Rodriguez, S. R. Caceres, and A. J. Taylor, “Modelling of terahertz radiation from biased photoconductors: transient velocity effects,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1994–1996 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Grischkowsky and N. Katzenellenbogen, “Femtosecond pulses of terahertz radiation: physics and applications,” in Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics, T. C. L. G. Stollner and J. Shah, eds., Vol. 9 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.1991), pp. 9–14.
  21. S. D. Brorson, J. Zhang, and S. R. Keiding, “Ultrafast carrier trapping and slow recombination in ion-bombarded silicon-on-sapphire measured via THz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2385–2387 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. V. Kuznetsov and C. J. Stanton, “Ultrafast optical generation of carriers in a DC electric field: transient localization and photocurrent,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 10828–10845 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  23. B. B. Hu, A. S. Weling, D. H. Auston, A. V. Kuznetsov, and C. J. Stanton, “DC-electric-field dependence of THz radiation induced by femtosecond optical excitation of bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 2234–2237 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  24. U. D. Keil and D. R. Dykaar, “Electro-optic sampling and carrier dynamics at zero propagation distance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1504–1506 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Alexandrou, C.-C. Wang, R. Sobolowski, and T. Y. Hsiang, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses by nonuniform illumination of GaAs transmission-line gaps,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1332–1338 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  26. U. D. Keil, D. R. Dykaar, R. F. Kopf, and S. B. Darack, “Femtosecond reflectivity measurements and second harmonic generation in nonresonant excitation of photoconductive switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1812–1814 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. H. Jacobsen, K. Birkelund, T. Holst, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Interpretation of photocurrent correlation measurements used for ultrafast photoconductive switch characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2649–2657 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  28. P. U. Jepsen and S. R. Keiding, “Radiation patterns from lens-coupled terahertz antennas,” Opt. Lett. 20, 807–809 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. Ch. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490–492 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  30. D. Grischkowsky, S. R. Keiding, M. van Exter, and Ch. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006–2015 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd Edition (Wiley, New York, 1975), Chap. 9, p. 395.
  32. W. Lukosz and R. E. Kunz, “Light emission by magnetic and electric dipoles close to a plane dielectric interface. I. Total radiated power,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 67, 1607–1615 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  33. W. Lukosz and R. E. Kunz, “Light emission by magnetic and electric dipoles close to a plane dielectric interface. I. Radiation patterns of perpendicular oriented dipoles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 67, 1615–1619 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  34. Ch. Fattinger and D. R. Grischkowsky, “Beams of terahertz electromagnetic pulses,” presented at the Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics Topical Meeting of the Optical Society of America, Salt Lake City, Utah, March 8–10, 1989.
  35. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th Ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1986), Chap. 8, pp. 375–380.
  36. N. Katzenellenbogen and D. Grischkowsky, “Electrical characterization to 4 THz of n- and p-type GaAs using THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 840–842 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  37. S. C. Howells, S. D. Herrera, and L. A. Schlie, “Infrared wavelength and temperature dependence of optically induced terahertz radiation from InSb,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2946–2948 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  38. B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Temperature dependence of femtosecond electromagnetic radiation from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2629–2631 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  39. B. B. Hu and M. C. Nuss, “Imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1716–1718 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

R. H. Jacobsen, K. Birkelund, T. Holst, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Interpretation of photocurrent correlation measurements used for ultrafast photoconductive switch characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2649–2657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

P. U. Jepsen and S. R. Keiding, “Radiation patterns from lens-coupled terahertz antennas,” Opt. Lett. 20, 807–809 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. B. Hu and M. C. Nuss, “Imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1716–1718 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. B. Hu, E. A. de Souza, W. H. Knox, J. E. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss, A. V. Kuznetsov, and S. L. Chuang, “Identifying the distinct phases of carrier transport in semiconductors with 10 fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1689–1692 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (9)

S. D. Brorson, J. Zhang, and S. R. Keiding, “Ultrafast carrier trapping and slow recombination in ion-bombarded silicon-on-sapphire measured via THz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2385–2387 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nuss, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brenner, H. G. Roskos, M. S. C. Lou, and S. L. Chuang, “THz electromagnetic radiation from quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 249–259 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. S. C. Lou, S. L. Chuang, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brenner, H. G. Roskos, and M. C. Nuss, “Generation of terahertz electromagnetic pulses from quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1478–1488 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Keiding, “THz spectroscopy in atomic, molecular and optical physics,” Comments At. Mol. Phys. 30, 37–60 (1994).

Feature on THz electromagnetics, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2454–2585 (1994).

S. C. Howells, S. D. Herrera, and L. A. Schlie, “Infrared wavelength and temperature dependence of optically induced terahertz radiation from InSb,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2946–2948 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, A. S. Weling, D. H. Auston, A. V. Kuznetsov, and C. J. Stanton, “DC-electric-field dependence of THz radiation induced by femtosecond optical excitation of bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 2234–2237 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Alexandrou, C.-C. Wang, R. Sobolowski, and T. Y. Hsiang, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses by nonuniform illumination of GaAs transmission-line gaps,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1332–1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

U. D. Keil, D. R. Dykaar, R. F. Kopf, and S. B. Darack, “Femtosecond reflectivity measurements and second harmonic generation in nonresonant excitation of photoconductive switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1812–1814 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (5)

A. V. Kuznetsov and C. J. Stanton, “Ultrafast optical generation of carriers in a DC electric field: transient localization and photocurrent,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 10828–10845 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Benicewicz and A. J. Taylor, “Scaling of terahertz radiation from large-aperture biased InP photoconductors,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1332–1334 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Rodriguez, S. R. Caceres, and A. J. Taylor, “Modelling of terahertz radiation from biased photoconductors: transient velocity effects,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1994–1996 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Pedersen, V. G. Lyssenko, J. M. Hvam, P. U. Jepsen, S. R. Keiding, C. B. Sørensen, and P. E. Lindelof, “Ultrafast local field dynamics in photoconductive THz antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1265–1267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Pedersen, S. R. Keiding, C. B. Sørensen, P. E. Lindelof, W. W. Rühle, and X. Q. Zhou, “5 THz bandwidth from GaAs-on-silicon photoconductive receiver,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 7022–7024 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (6)

W. Sha, J.-K. Rhee, T. B. Norris, and W. J. Schaff, “Transient carrier and field dynamics in quantum-well parallel transport: from the ballistic to the quasi-equilibrium regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2445–2455 (1992).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang and D. H. Auston, “Optically induced THz electromagnetic radiation from planar photoconducting structures,” J. Electron. Wave Appl. 6, 85–106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang and D. H. Auston, “Optoelectronic measurement of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces with femtosecond optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 326–328 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Grischkowsky, “An ultrafast optoelectronic THz beam system,” Opt. Photonics News (May1992), pp. 21–28.
[CrossRef]

U. D. Keil and D. R. Dykaar, “Electro-optic sampling and carrier dynamics at zero propagation distance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1504–1506 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. Katzenellenbogen and D. Grischkowsky, “Electrical characterization to 4 THz of n- and p-type GaAs using THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 840–842 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

N. Katzenellenbogen and D. R. Grischkowsky, “Efficient generation of 380 fs pulses of THz radiation by ultrafast laser pulse excitation of a biased metal-semiconductor interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 222–224 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Ralph and D. R. Grischkowsky, “Trap-enhanced electric fields in semi-insulators: the role of electrical and optical carrier injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1972–1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

M. van Exter and D. R. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1684–1691 (1990).

B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Temperature dependence of femtosecond electromagnetic radiation from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2629–2631 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, S. R. Keiding, M. van Exter, and Ch. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006–2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

Ch. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490–492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Krökel, D. R. Grischkowsky, and M. B. Ketchen, “Subpicosecond electrical pulse generation using photoconductive switches with long carrier lifetimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1046–1047 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Knox, J. E. Henry, K. W. Goosen, K. D. Li, B. Tell, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, J. English, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Femtosecond excitonic optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2586–2595 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

W. Lukosz and R. E. Kunz, “Light emission by magnetic and electric dipoles close to a plane dielectric interface. I. Total radiated power,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 67, 1607–1615 (1977).
[CrossRef]

W. Lukosz and R. E. Kunz, “Light emission by magnetic and electric dipoles close to a plane dielectric interface. I. Radiation patterns of perpendicular oriented dipoles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 67, 1615–1619 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Alexandrou, S.

S. Alexandrou, C.-C. Wang, R. Sobolowski, and T. Y. Hsiang, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses by nonuniform illumination of GaAs transmission-line gaps,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1332–1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

B. B. Hu, A. S. Weling, D. H. Auston, A. V. Kuznetsov, and C. J. Stanton, “DC-electric-field dependence of THz radiation induced by femtosecond optical excitation of bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 2234–2237 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang and D. H. Auston, “Optically induced THz electromagnetic radiation from planar photoconducting structures,” J. Electron. Wave Appl. 6, 85–106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang and D. H. Auston, “Optoelectronic measurement of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces with femtosecond optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 326–328 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Temperature dependence of femtosecond electromagnetic radiation from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2629–2631 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Benicewicz, P. K.

Birkelund, K.

R. H. Jacobsen, K. Birkelund, T. Holst, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Interpretation of photocurrent correlation measurements used for ultrafast photoconductive switch characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2649–2657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th Ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1986), Chap. 8, pp. 375–380.

Brenner, I.

M. C. Nuss, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brenner, H. G. Roskos, M. S. C. Lou, and S. L. Chuang, “THz electromagnetic radiation from quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 249–259 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. S. C. Lou, S. L. Chuang, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brenner, H. G. Roskos, and M. C. Nuss, “Generation of terahertz electromagnetic pulses from quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1478–1488 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brorson, S. D.

S. D. Brorson, J. Zhang, and S. R. Keiding, “Ultrafast carrier trapping and slow recombination in ion-bombarded silicon-on-sapphire measured via THz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2385–2387 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Caceres, S. R.

Chemla, D. S.

W. H. Knox, J. E. Henry, K. W. Goosen, K. D. Li, B. Tell, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, J. English, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Femtosecond excitonic optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2586–2595 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, S. L.

B. B. Hu, E. A. de Souza, W. H. Knox, J. E. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss, A. V. Kuznetsov, and S. L. Chuang, “Identifying the distinct phases of carrier transport in semiconductors with 10 fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1689–1692 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. C. Lou, S. L. Chuang, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brenner, H. G. Roskos, and M. C. Nuss, “Generation of terahertz electromagnetic pulses from quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1478–1488 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nuss, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brenner, H. G. Roskos, M. S. C. Lou, and S. L. Chuang, “THz electromagnetic radiation from quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 249–259 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

B. B. Hu, E. A. de Souza, W. H. Knox, J. E. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss, A. V. Kuznetsov, and S. L. Chuang, “Identifying the distinct phases of carrier transport in semiconductors with 10 fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1689–1692 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darack, S. B.

U. D. Keil, D. R. Dykaar, R. F. Kopf, and S. B. Darack, “Femtosecond reflectivity measurements and second harmonic generation in nonresonant excitation of photoconductive switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1812–1814 (1994).
[CrossRef]

de Souza, E. A.

B. B. Hu, E. A. de Souza, W. H. Knox, J. E. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss, A. V. Kuznetsov, and S. L. Chuang, “Identifying the distinct phases of carrier transport in semiconductors with 10 fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1689–1692 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dykaar, D. R.

U. D. Keil, D. R. Dykaar, R. F. Kopf, and S. B. Darack, “Femtosecond reflectivity measurements and second harmonic generation in nonresonant excitation of photoconductive switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1812–1814 (1994).
[CrossRef]

U. D. Keil and D. R. Dykaar, “Electro-optic sampling and carrier dynamics at zero propagation distance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1504–1506 (1992).
[CrossRef]

English, J.

W. H. Knox, J. E. Henry, K. W. Goosen, K. D. Li, B. Tell, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, J. English, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Femtosecond excitonic optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2586–2595 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fattinger, Ch.

D. Grischkowsky, S. R. Keiding, M. van Exter, and Ch. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006–2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490–492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Fattinger and D. R. Grischkowsky, “Beams of terahertz electromagnetic pulses,” presented at the Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics Topical Meeting of the Optical Society of America, Salt Lake City, Utah, March 8–10, 1989.

Goosen, K. W.

W. H. Knox, J. E. Henry, K. W. Goosen, K. D. Li, B. Tell, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, J. English, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Femtosecond excitonic optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2586–2595 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

W. H. Knox, J. E. Henry, K. W. Goosen, K. D. Li, B. Tell, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, J. English, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Femtosecond excitonic optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2586–2595 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

N. Katzenellenbogen and D. Grischkowsky, “Electrical characterization to 4 THz of n- and p-type GaAs using THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 840–842 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, S. R. Keiding, M. van Exter, and Ch. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006–2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490–492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky and N. Katzenellenbogen, “Femtosecond pulses of terahertz radiation: physics and applications,” in Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics, T. C. L. G. Stollner and J. Shah, eds., Vol. 9 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.1991), pp. 9–14.

D. Grischkowsky, “Non-linear generation of sub-psec pulses of THz electromagnetic radiation by optoelectronics—applications to time-domain spectroscopy,” in Frontiers in Nonlinear Optics, H. Walther, N. Koroteev, and M. O. Scully, eds. (Institute of Physics, Philadelphia, 1993), pp. 196–227.

Grischkowsky, D. R.

D. R. Grischkowsky, “An ultrafast optoelectronic THz beam system,” Opt. Photonics News (May1992), pp. 21–28.
[CrossRef]

N. Katzenellenbogen and D. R. Grischkowsky, “Efficient generation of 380 fs pulses of THz radiation by ultrafast laser pulse excitation of a biased metal-semiconductor interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 222–224 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Ralph and D. R. Grischkowsky, “Trap-enhanced electric fields in semi-insulators: the role of electrical and optical carrier injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1972–1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter and D. R. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1684–1691 (1990).

D. Krökel, D. R. Grischkowsky, and M. B. Ketchen, “Subpicosecond electrical pulse generation using photoconductive switches with long carrier lifetimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1046–1047 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Fattinger and D. R. Grischkowsky, “Beams of terahertz electromagnetic pulses,” presented at the Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics Topical Meeting of the Optical Society of America, Salt Lake City, Utah, March 8–10, 1989.

Henry, J. E.

W. H. Knox, J. E. Henry, K. W. Goosen, K. D. Li, B. Tell, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, J. English, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Femtosecond excitonic optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2586–2595 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Herrera, S. D.

S. C. Howells, S. D. Herrera, and L. A. Schlie, “Infrared wavelength and temperature dependence of optically induced terahertz radiation from InSb,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2946–2948 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Holst, T.

R. H. Jacobsen, K. Birkelund, T. Holst, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Interpretation of photocurrent correlation measurements used for ultrafast photoconductive switch characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2649–2657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Howells, S. C.

S. C. Howells, S. D. Herrera, and L. A. Schlie, “Infrared wavelength and temperature dependence of optically induced terahertz radiation from InSb,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2946–2948 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hsiang, T. Y.

S. Alexandrou, C.-C. Wang, R. Sobolowski, and T. Y. Hsiang, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses by nonuniform illumination of GaAs transmission-line gaps,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1332–1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. B.

B. B. Hu and M. C. Nuss, “Imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1716–1718 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. B. Hu, E. A. de Souza, W. H. Knox, J. E. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss, A. V. Kuznetsov, and S. L. Chuang, “Identifying the distinct phases of carrier transport in semiconductors with 10 fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1689–1692 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. B. Hu, A. S. Weling, D. H. Auston, A. V. Kuznetsov, and C. J. Stanton, “DC-electric-field dependence of THz radiation induced by femtosecond optical excitation of bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 2234–2237 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Temperature dependence of femtosecond electromagnetic radiation from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2629–2631 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hvam, J. M.

J. E. Pedersen, V. G. Lyssenko, J. M. Hvam, P. U. Jepsen, S. R. Keiding, C. B. Sørensen, and P. E. Lindelof, “Ultrafast local field dynamics in photoconductive THz antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1265–1267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. D.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd Edition (Wiley, New York, 1975), Chap. 9, p. 395.

Jacobsen, R. H.

R. H. Jacobsen, K. Birkelund, T. Holst, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Interpretation of photocurrent correlation measurements used for ultrafast photoconductive switch characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2649–2657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. U.

P. U. Jepsen and S. R. Keiding, “Radiation patterns from lens-coupled terahertz antennas,” Opt. Lett. 20, 807–809 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Pedersen, V. G. Lyssenko, J. M. Hvam, P. U. Jepsen, S. R. Keiding, C. B. Sørensen, and P. E. Lindelof, “Ultrafast local field dynamics in photoconductive THz antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1265–1267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. Uhd

R. H. Jacobsen, K. Birkelund, T. Holst, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Interpretation of photocurrent correlation measurements used for ultrafast photoconductive switch characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2649–2657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Katzenellenbogen, N.

N. Katzenellenbogen and D. Grischkowsky, “Electrical characterization to 4 THz of n- and p-type GaAs using THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 840–842 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. Katzenellenbogen and D. R. Grischkowsky, “Efficient generation of 380 fs pulses of THz radiation by ultrafast laser pulse excitation of a biased metal-semiconductor interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 222–224 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky and N. Katzenellenbogen, “Femtosecond pulses of terahertz radiation: physics and applications,” in Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics, T. C. L. G. Stollner and J. Shah, eds., Vol. 9 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.1991), pp. 9–14.

Keiding, S. R.

R. H. Jacobsen, K. Birkelund, T. Holst, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Interpretation of photocurrent correlation measurements used for ultrafast photoconductive switch characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2649–2657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen and S. R. Keiding, “Radiation patterns from lens-coupled terahertz antennas,” Opt. Lett. 20, 807–809 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Brorson, J. Zhang, and S. R. Keiding, “Ultrafast carrier trapping and slow recombination in ion-bombarded silicon-on-sapphire measured via THz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2385–2387 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Keiding, “THz spectroscopy in atomic, molecular and optical physics,” Comments At. Mol. Phys. 30, 37–60 (1994).

J. E. Pedersen, V. G. Lyssenko, J. M. Hvam, P. U. Jepsen, S. R. Keiding, C. B. Sørensen, and P. E. Lindelof, “Ultrafast local field dynamics in photoconductive THz antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1265–1267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Pedersen, S. R. Keiding, C. B. Sørensen, P. E. Lindelof, W. W. Rühle, and X. Q. Zhou, “5 THz bandwidth from GaAs-on-silicon photoconductive receiver,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 7022–7024 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, S. R. Keiding, M. van Exter, and Ch. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006–2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Keil, U. D.

U. D. Keil, D. R. Dykaar, R. F. Kopf, and S. B. Darack, “Femtosecond reflectivity measurements and second harmonic generation in nonresonant excitation of photoconductive switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1812–1814 (1994).
[CrossRef]

U. D. Keil and D. R. Dykaar, “Electro-optic sampling and carrier dynamics at zero propagation distance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1504–1506 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ketchen, M. B.

D. Krökel, D. R. Grischkowsky, and M. B. Ketchen, “Subpicosecond electrical pulse generation using photoconductive switches with long carrier lifetimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1046–1047 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

B. B. Hu, E. A. de Souza, W. H. Knox, J. E. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss, A. V. Kuznetsov, and S. L. Chuang, “Identifying the distinct phases of carrier transport in semiconductors with 10 fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1689–1692 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Knox, J. E. Henry, K. W. Goosen, K. D. Li, B. Tell, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, J. English, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Femtosecond excitonic optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2586–2595 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kopf, R. F.

U. D. Keil, D. R. Dykaar, R. F. Kopf, and S. B. Darack, “Femtosecond reflectivity measurements and second harmonic generation in nonresonant excitation of photoconductive switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1812–1814 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Krökel, D.

D. Krökel, D. R. Grischkowsky, and M. B. Ketchen, “Subpicosecond electrical pulse generation using photoconductive switches with long carrier lifetimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1046–1047 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, R. E.

W. Lukosz and R. E. Kunz, “Light emission by magnetic and electric dipoles close to a plane dielectric interface. I. Total radiated power,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 67, 1607–1615 (1977).
[CrossRef]

W. Lukosz and R. E. Kunz, “Light emission by magnetic and electric dipoles close to a plane dielectric interface. I. Radiation patterns of perpendicular oriented dipoles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 67, 1615–1619 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, A. V.

B. B. Hu, E. A. de Souza, W. H. Knox, J. E. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss, A. V. Kuznetsov, and S. L. Chuang, “Identifying the distinct phases of carrier transport in semiconductors with 10 fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1689–1692 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. B. Hu, A. S. Weling, D. H. Auston, A. V. Kuznetsov, and C. J. Stanton, “DC-electric-field dependence of THz radiation induced by femtosecond optical excitation of bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 2234–2237 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kuznetsov and C. J. Stanton, “Ultrafast optical generation of carriers in a DC electric field: transient localization and photocurrent,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 10828–10845 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Li, K. D.

W. H. Knox, J. E. Henry, K. W. Goosen, K. D. Li, B. Tell, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, J. English, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Femtosecond excitonic optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2586–2595 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lindelof, P. E.

J. E. Pedersen, V. G. Lyssenko, J. M. Hvam, P. U. Jepsen, S. R. Keiding, C. B. Sørensen, and P. E. Lindelof, “Ultrafast local field dynamics in photoconductive THz antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1265–1267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Pedersen, S. R. Keiding, C. B. Sørensen, P. E. Lindelof, W. W. Rühle, and X. Q. Zhou, “5 THz bandwidth from GaAs-on-silicon photoconductive receiver,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 7022–7024 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lou, M. S. C.

M. S. C. Lou, S. L. Chuang, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brenner, H. G. Roskos, and M. C. Nuss, “Generation of terahertz electromagnetic pulses from quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1478–1488 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nuss, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brenner, H. G. Roskos, M. S. C. Lou, and S. L. Chuang, “THz electromagnetic radiation from quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 249–259 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lukosz, W.

W. Lukosz and R. E. Kunz, “Light emission by magnetic and electric dipoles close to a plane dielectric interface. I. Total radiated power,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 67, 1607–1615 (1977).
[CrossRef]

W. Lukosz and R. E. Kunz, “Light emission by magnetic and electric dipoles close to a plane dielectric interface. I. Radiation patterns of perpendicular oriented dipoles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 67, 1615–1619 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lyssenko, V. G.

J. E. Pedersen, V. G. Lyssenko, J. M. Hvam, P. U. Jepsen, S. R. Keiding, C. B. Sørensen, and P. E. Lindelof, “Ultrafast local field dynamics in photoconductive THz antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1265–1267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

W. H. Knox, J. E. Henry, K. W. Goosen, K. D. Li, B. Tell, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, J. English, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Femtosecond excitonic optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2586–2595 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Norris, T. B.

W. Sha, J.-K. Rhee, T. B. Norris, and W. J. Schaff, “Transient carrier and field dynamics in quantum-well parallel transport: from the ballistic to the quasi-equilibrium regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2445–2455 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

B. B. Hu, E. A. de Souza, W. H. Knox, J. E. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss, A. V. Kuznetsov, and S. L. Chuang, “Identifying the distinct phases of carrier transport in semiconductors with 10 fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1689–1692 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. B. Hu and M. C. Nuss, “Imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1716–1718 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. C. Lou, S. L. Chuang, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brenner, H. G. Roskos, and M. C. Nuss, “Generation of terahertz electromagnetic pulses from quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1478–1488 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nuss, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brenner, H. G. Roskos, M. S. C. Lou, and S. L. Chuang, “THz electromagnetic radiation from quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 249–259 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, J. E.

J. E. Pedersen, V. G. Lyssenko, J. M. Hvam, P. U. Jepsen, S. R. Keiding, C. B. Sørensen, and P. E. Lindelof, “Ultrafast local field dynamics in photoconductive THz antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1265–1267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Pedersen, S. R. Keiding, C. B. Sørensen, P. E. Lindelof, W. W. Rühle, and X. Q. Zhou, “5 THz bandwidth from GaAs-on-silicon photoconductive receiver,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 7022–7024 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Planken, P. C. M.

M. C. Nuss, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brenner, H. G. Roskos, M. S. C. Lou, and S. L. Chuang, “THz electromagnetic radiation from quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 249–259 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. S. C. Lou, S. L. Chuang, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brenner, H. G. Roskos, and M. C. Nuss, “Generation of terahertz electromagnetic pulses from quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1478–1488 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ralph, S. E.

S. E. Ralph and D. R. Grischkowsky, “Trap-enhanced electric fields in semi-insulators: the role of electrical and optical carrier injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1972–1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rhee, J.-K.

W. Sha, J.-K. Rhee, T. B. Norris, and W. J. Schaff, “Transient carrier and field dynamics in quantum-well parallel transport: from the ballistic to the quasi-equilibrium regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2445–2455 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, G.

Roskos, H. G.

M. S. C. Lou, S. L. Chuang, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brenner, H. G. Roskos, and M. C. Nuss, “Generation of terahertz electromagnetic pulses from quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1478–1488 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nuss, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brenner, H. G. Roskos, M. S. C. Lou, and S. L. Chuang, “THz electromagnetic radiation from quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 249–259 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rühle, W. W.

J. E. Pedersen, S. R. Keiding, C. B. Sørensen, P. E. Lindelof, W. W. Rühle, and X. Q. Zhou, “5 THz bandwidth from GaAs-on-silicon photoconductive receiver,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 7022–7024 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schaff, W. J.

W. Sha, J.-K. Rhee, T. B. Norris, and W. J. Schaff, “Transient carrier and field dynamics in quantum-well parallel transport: from the ballistic to the quasi-equilibrium regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2445–2455 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schlie, L. A.

S. C. Howells, S. D. Herrera, and L. A. Schlie, “Infrared wavelength and temperature dependence of optically induced terahertz radiation from InSb,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2946–2948 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt-Rink, S.

W. H. Knox, J. E. Henry, K. W. Goosen, K. D. Li, B. Tell, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, J. English, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Femtosecond excitonic optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2586–2595 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sha, W.

W. Sha, J.-K. Rhee, T. B. Norris, and W. J. Schaff, “Transient carrier and field dynamics in quantum-well parallel transport: from the ballistic to the quasi-equilibrium regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2445–2455 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sobolowski, R.

S. Alexandrou, C.-C. Wang, R. Sobolowski, and T. Y. Hsiang, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses by nonuniform illumination of GaAs transmission-line gaps,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1332–1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sørensen, C. B.

J. E. Pedersen, V. G. Lyssenko, J. M. Hvam, P. U. Jepsen, S. R. Keiding, C. B. Sørensen, and P. E. Lindelof, “Ultrafast local field dynamics in photoconductive THz antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1265–1267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Pedersen, S. R. Keiding, C. B. Sørensen, P. E. Lindelof, W. W. Rühle, and X. Q. Zhou, “5 THz bandwidth from GaAs-on-silicon photoconductive receiver,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 7022–7024 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stanton, C. J.

B. B. Hu, A. S. Weling, D. H. Auston, A. V. Kuznetsov, and C. J. Stanton, “DC-electric-field dependence of THz radiation induced by femtosecond optical excitation of bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 2234–2237 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kuznetsov and C. J. Stanton, “Ultrafast optical generation of carriers in a DC electric field: transient localization and photocurrent,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 10828–10845 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

Tell, B.

W. H. Knox, J. E. Henry, K. W. Goosen, K. D. Li, B. Tell, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, J. English, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Femtosecond excitonic optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2586–2595 (1989).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M.

M. van Exter and D. R. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1684–1691 (1990).

D. Grischkowsky, S. R. Keiding, M. van Exter, and Ch. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006–2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.-C.

S. Alexandrou, C.-C. Wang, R. Sobolowski, and T. Y. Hsiang, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses by nonuniform illumination of GaAs transmission-line gaps,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1332–1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Weling, A. S.

B. B. Hu, A. S. Weling, D. H. Auston, A. V. Kuznetsov, and C. J. Stanton, “DC-electric-field dependence of THz radiation induced by femtosecond optical excitation of bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 2234–2237 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th Ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1986), Chap. 8, pp. 375–380.

Zhang, J.

S. D. Brorson, J. Zhang, and S. R. Keiding, “Ultrafast carrier trapping and slow recombination in ion-bombarded silicon-on-sapphire measured via THz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2385–2387 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

X.-C. Zhang and D. H. Auston, “Optoelectronic measurement of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces with femtosecond optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 326–328 (1992).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang and D. H. Auston, “Optically induced THz electromagnetic radiation from planar photoconducting structures,” J. Electron. Wave Appl. 6, 85–106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Temperature dependence of femtosecond electromagnetic radiation from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2629–2631 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X. Q.

J. E. Pedersen, S. R. Keiding, C. B. Sørensen, P. E. Lindelof, W. W. Rühle, and X. Q. Zhou, “5 THz bandwidth from GaAs-on-silicon photoconductive receiver,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 7022–7024 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. C. Nuss, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brenner, H. G. Roskos, M. S. C. Lou, and S. L. Chuang, “THz electromagnetic radiation from quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 249–259 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

D. Krökel, D. R. Grischkowsky, and M. B. Ketchen, “Subpicosecond electrical pulse generation using photoconductive switches with long carrier lifetimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1046–1047 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Katzenellenbogen and D. R. Grischkowsky, “Efficient generation of 380 fs pulses of THz radiation by ultrafast laser pulse excitation of a biased metal-semiconductor interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 222–224 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Ralph and D. R. Grischkowsky, “Trap-enhanced electric fields in semi-insulators: the role of electrical and optical carrier injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1972–1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Pedersen, V. G. Lyssenko, J. M. Hvam, P. U. Jepsen, S. R. Keiding, C. B. Sørensen, and P. E. Lindelof, “Ultrafast local field dynamics in photoconductive THz antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1265–1267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Brorson, J. Zhang, and S. R. Keiding, “Ultrafast carrier trapping and slow recombination in ion-bombarded silicon-on-sapphire measured via THz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2385–2387 (1994).
[CrossRef]

U. D. Keil and D. R. Dykaar, “Electro-optic sampling and carrier dynamics at zero propagation distance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1504–1506 (1992).
[CrossRef]

U. D. Keil, D. R. Dykaar, R. F. Kopf, and S. B. Darack, “Femtosecond reflectivity measurements and second harmonic generation in nonresonant excitation of photoconductive switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1812–1814 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Katzenellenbogen and D. Grischkowsky, “Electrical characterization to 4 THz of n- and p-type GaAs using THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 840–842 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Howells, S. D. Herrera, and L. A. Schlie, “Infrared wavelength and temperature dependence of optically induced terahertz radiation from InSb,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2946–2948 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Temperature dependence of femtosecond electromagnetic radiation from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2629–2631 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490–492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Comments At. Mol. Phys. (1)

S. R. Keiding, “THz spectroscopy in atomic, molecular and optical physics,” Comments At. Mol. Phys. 30, 37–60 (1994).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

M. van Exter and D. R. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1684–1691 (1990).

M. S. C. Lou, S. L. Chuang, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brenner, H. G. Roskos, and M. C. Nuss, “Generation of terahertz electromagnetic pulses from quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1478–1488 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Knox, J. E. Henry, K. W. Goosen, K. D. Li, B. Tell, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, J. English, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Femtosecond excitonic optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2586–2595 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. Sha, J.-K. Rhee, T. B. Norris, and W. J. Schaff, “Transient carrier and field dynamics in quantum-well parallel transport: from the ballistic to the quasi-equilibrium regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2445–2455 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Alexandrou, C.-C. Wang, R. Sobolowski, and T. Y. Hsiang, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses by nonuniform illumination of GaAs transmission-line gaps,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1332–1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

R. H. Jacobsen, K. Birkelund, T. Holst, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Interpretation of photocurrent correlation measurements used for ultrafast photoconductive switch characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2649–2657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Pedersen, S. R. Keiding, C. B. Sørensen, P. E. Lindelof, W. W. Rühle, and X. Q. Zhou, “5 THz bandwidth from GaAs-on-silicon photoconductive receiver,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 7022–7024 (1993).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang and D. H. Auston, “Optoelectronic measurement of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces with femtosecond optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 326–328 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Wave Appl. (1)

X.-C. Zhang and D. H. Auston, “Optically induced THz electromagnetic radiation from planar photoconducting structures,” J. Electron. Wave Appl. 6, 85–106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Feature on THz electromagnetics, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2454–2585 (1994).

W. Lukosz and R. E. Kunz, “Light emission by magnetic and electric dipoles close to a plane dielectric interface. I. Total radiated power,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 67, 1607–1615 (1977).
[CrossRef]

W. Lukosz and R. E. Kunz, “Light emission by magnetic and electric dipoles close to a plane dielectric interface. I. Radiation patterns of perpendicular oriented dipoles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 67, 1615–1619 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, S. R. Keiding, M. van Exter, and Ch. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006–2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Photonics News (1)

D. R. Grischkowsky, “An ultrafast optoelectronic THz beam system,” Opt. Photonics News (May1992), pp. 21–28.
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

A. V. Kuznetsov and C. J. Stanton, “Ultrafast optical generation of carriers in a DC electric field: transient localization and photocurrent,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 10828–10845 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, A. S. Weling, D. H. Auston, A. V. Kuznetsov, and C. J. Stanton, “DC-electric-field dependence of THz radiation induced by femtosecond optical excitation of bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 2234–2237 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

B. B. Hu, E. A. de Souza, W. H. Knox, J. E. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss, A. V. Kuznetsov, and S. L. Chuang, “Identifying the distinct phases of carrier transport in semiconductors with 10 fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1689–1692 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

D. Grischkowsky, “Non-linear generation of sub-psec pulses of THz electromagnetic radiation by optoelectronics—applications to time-domain spectroscopy,” in Frontiers in Nonlinear Optics, H. Walther, N. Koroteev, and M. O. Scully, eds. (Institute of Physics, Philadelphia, 1993), pp. 196–227.

D. Grischkowsky and N. Katzenellenbogen, “Femtosecond pulses of terahertz radiation: physics and applications,” in Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics, T. C. L. G. Stollner and J. Shah, eds., Vol. 9 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.1991), pp. 9–14.

Ch. Fattinger and D. R. Grischkowsky, “Beams of terahertz electromagnetic pulses,” presented at the Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics Topical Meeting of the Optical Society of America, Salt Lake City, Utah, March 8–10, 1989.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th Ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1986), Chap. 8, pp. 375–380.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd Edition (Wiley, New York, 1975), Chap. 9, p. 395.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of the THz setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Time-domain shape of the THz pulse. The electric-field peak amplitude is of the order of 100 V/cm, corresponding to an induced average current in the antenna of 10 nA at the peak of the THz pulse. (b) Frequency-domain spectrum on a logarithmic scale demonstrating a spectroscopically useful bandwidth extending to 3 THz, corresponding to 100 cm-1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

IV curve for the THz emitter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time evolution of the local field in the THz emitter as a function of laser power and time delay between the pump and the probe pulses. The solid curves are calculated local field dynamics based on the simple model described in the text.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Time-dependent photocurrent calculated from the Drude–Lorentz model with screening included.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Induced current corresponding to the peak amplitude of the radiated THz pulse as a function of the average laser power driving the THz emitter. The solid curve is the peak amplitude calculated from the Drude–Lorentz model.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic illustration of the fundamental steps in our calculation of the radiation pattern from the THz emitter.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Time-domain shape of the pulse from the experiment performed to measure the radiation pattern from the THz emitter. (b) Frequency-domain spectrum of the time-domain data in (a). The spectrum extends to 1 THz.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimentally determined radiation patterns compared with numerical results obtained by numerical integration of Eq. (7). Four cases are shown, all at the distance 35 mm from the emitter, at various frequencies from 0.234 to 0.820 THz.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Time-domain THz pulses obtained by sliding the silicon lens along the x direction, as indicated in Fig. 1. The pulse trace marked by filled circles corresponds to the best alignment of the lens, giving the highest bandwidth and the strongest amplitude. Each trace corresponds to a 20-µm movement along the x direction.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Measured radiation patterns for four different frequencies, as indicated in the legend on the figure. The low signal strength at high frequencies is caused by the high-frequency roll-off of the THz signal, as seen in Fig. 2(b).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Calculated spot size versus frequency for different choices of the separation constant Δ. Shown on the same plot are experimental measurements of the spot size for Δ2.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) GRF for three parameter sets. The photoconductive gap length LS and the electrode width d is kept constant, while the metal electrode length is varied. (b) The GRF for four different parameter sets. The metal electrode length LM and the electrode width d are kept constant, and the photoconductive gap length LS is varied.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(a) THz pulse simulation shown together with the experimental data. The simulation parameters were the same as those used to obtain the results shown in Figs. 4 and 6. (b) The corresponding frequency spectrum of the simulated pulse shown together with the experimental spectrum.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Simulated and experimentally determined frequency spectrum of a THz pulse measured under various conditions: (a) the gap spacing L of the detector is varied, (b) the detector rise time is varied, and (c) the optically induced carrier density is varied.

Equations (29)

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j=-enfv,
dnfdt=-nfτc+G(t).
dv(t)dt=-vτs+em*Emol,
Emol=Ebias-Pscη,
dPscdt=-Pscτr+j(t)=-Pscτr+nfev,
d2vdt2+1τsdvdt+wp2vη=ePscm*ητr.
h=RLnn-1,
Ehom=μ0c24πk2r(nˆ×p)×nˆexp(ikr),
EQ=-ik4πAEsurfexp(ikr)r(cos θo-n cos θi)dA.
Mair=-10Δ-2f-1.
Mtot=fd(n-1)+RLd(Δ-2)RLn-1-dnf(n-1)+RLn(Δ-2)RLnf-1n.
w1(d)=1nπw0RL[d(1-n)+nRL]2π2w04+d2RL2λ2,
R1(d)=[d(1-n)+nRL]2π2w04+d2RL2λ2[d(1-n)+nRL](n-1)π2w04-dRL2λ2.
dfocus=RLn(n-1)(n-1)2+RLλπw022,
w1(dfocus)=λRLπw0(n-1)2+RLλπw022.
limλ0 dfocus=RLnn-1,
limλ0 w1(dfocus)=λπw0RLn-1=cπvω0RLn-1,
E(x,y)=E0 exp[-(x2+y2)/w12].
R=ρMLM+ρSLStdρSLStd,
ρS=LSdξPlaser,
I=UR=E¯(LM+LS)LS2tdξPlaser.
E(L,d)¯=1Ld-L/2L/2-d/2d/2E(x,y)dxdy=E0πw12LdErfL2w1Erfd2w1,
PTHz=12c0--E2(x,y)dxdy=12πw12c0E02
E0=2w1PTHzπc0.
I(ν)=ξPlasercPTHzπ02RLtLS2dω0(n-1)1ν×ErfL2(n-1)πw0cRLνErfd2(n-1)πw0cRLν.
Iν0=ξPlasercPTHzπ02(n-1)πω0c2RLt(LS+LM)LS2ν
Iν=ξPlasercPTHzπ02RLtLS2dω0(n-1)1ν,
νmaxcRL(n-1)ω01πd(LS+LM).
j(τ)=1T0TE(t)g(t+τ)dt,

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