Abstract

We present a summary of the experimental results, the attempts of interpretation at the present stage, and the conclusions of coupled investigations on semi-insulating, n-type and p-type vanadium-doped CdTe crystals. Combining electron paramagnetic resonance and magnetic circular dichroism permits the monitoring and the quantitative assessment of [V2+] and [V3+] defect concentrations. Photoabsorption results are presented and are discussed in terms of photoionization processes at various wavelengths. The temperature and the spectral dependence of the steady-state photoconductivity are carefully studied in the near infrared. The results are discussed in terms of electronic transitions for the two vanadium charge states. Finally, the photorefractive performances of the semi-insulating sample are analyzed in a two-beam-coupling experiment and are correlated to the properties of the V2+/V3+ donor states to derive photoionization cross sections.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  11. A. Aoudia, E. Rzepka, A. Lusson, A. Thomson-Carli, D. Schneider, Y. Marfaing, and R. Triboulet, “Crystal growth and characterization of CdTe doped with transition metal elements,” Opt. Mater. 4, 241 (1995).
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  13. L. A. de Montmorillon, Ph. Delaye, J. C. Launay, and G. Roosen, “Comparative study of CdTe and GaAs photorefractive performances from 1 µm to 1.55 µm,” Opt. Mater. 4, 233 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]
  33. G. Bremond, A. Zerrai, G. Marrakchi, A. Aoudia, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, M. C. Bush, J. M. Koebbel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, and J. Y. Moisan, “Characterization and identification of the deep levels in V doped CdTe and their relationship with the photorefractive properties,” Opt. Mater. 4, 246 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  34. W. Stadler, D. M. Hofmann, H. C. Alt, T. Muschik, B. K. Meyer, E. Weigel, G. Müller-Vogt, M. Salk, E. Rupp, and K. W. Benz, “Optical investigations of defects in Cd1−x Znx Te,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10619 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

P. Peka, M. U. Lehr, H. J. Schulz, U. W. Pohl, J. Kreissl, and K. Irmscher, “Vanadium centers in ZnTe crystals. I. Optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1907 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (11)

F. Ramaz, A. Hamri, B. Briat, V. Topa, and G. Mitroaica, “Magnetic circular dichroism and absorption study of photochromism in Mn-doped Bi12GeO20,” Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids 136, 1009 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Bremond, A. Zerrai, G. Marrakchi, A. Aoudia, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, M. C. Bush, J. M. Koebbel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, and J. Y. Moisan, “Characterization and identification of the deep levels in V doped CdTe and their relationship with the photorefractive properties,” Opt. Mater. 4, 246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. Stadler, D. M. Hofmann, H. C. Alt, T. Muschik, B. K. Meyer, E. Weigel, G. Müller-Vogt, M. Salk, E. Rupp, and K. W. Benz, “Optical investigations of defects in Cd1−x Znx Te,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10619 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. J. von Bardeleben, V. Mazoyer, X. Launay, and J. C. Launay, “A comparative electron paramagnetic resonance study of vanadium in n-type, semi-insulating and p-type CdTe,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10, 163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Schultz and J. Kreissl, “Optical and EPR properties of V and Ti ions in CdTe,” Opt. Mater. 4, 202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Christmann, H. C. Alt, D. M. Hofmann, B. K. Meyer, J. Kreissl, R. Schwarz, and K. W. Benz, “Optically detected magnetic resonance investigations on titanium and vanadium ions in CdTe,” Opt. Mater. 4, 210 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Lambert, M. Gauneau, G. Grandpierre, M. Schoisswohl, H. J. von Bardeleben, J. C. Launay, V. Mazoyer, A. Aoudia, E. Rzepka, Y. Marfaing, and R. Triboulet, “Effective trap concentration in photorefractive CdTe:V and ZnCdTe:V crystals,” Opt. Mater. 4, 265 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Briat, F. Ramaz, A. Hamri, H. J. von Bardeleben, J. C. Launay, and V. Mazoyer, “Monitoring of V2+ and V3+ in vanadium-doped CdTe: a combined magnetic circular dichroism and electron paramagnetic resonance approach,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10, 1629 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. J. von Bardeleben, C. Miesner, J. Monge, B. Briat, J. C. Launay, and X. Launay, “An electron paramagnetic resonance and magneto-optical study of vanadium in Znx Cd1−x Te:V,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Aoudia, E. Rzepka, A. Lusson, A. Thomson-Carli, D. Schneider, Y. Marfaing, and R. Triboulet, “Crystal growth and characterization of CdTe doped with transition metal elements,” Opt. Mater. 4, 241 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. A. de Montmorillon, Ph. Delaye, J. C. Launay, and G. Roosen, “Comparative study of CdTe and GaAs photorefractive performances from 1 µm to 1.55 µm,” Opt. Mater. 4, 233 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (4)

Ph. Delaye, L. A. de Montmorillon, H. J. von Bardeleben, and G. Roosen, “Photorefractive wave mixing in undoped liquid encapsulated Czochralski GaAs at 1.5 µm: validation of photorefractive modeling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Rzepka, A. Aoudia, M. Cuniot, A. Lusson, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, G. Brémond, G. Marrakchi, K. Cherkaoui, M. C. Busch, J. M. Koebel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, J. Y. Moisan, P. Gravey, N. Wolffer, and O. Moine, “Optical and thermal spectroscopy of vanadium-doped CdTe and related photorefractive effect,” J. Cryst. Growth 138, 244 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Peka, M. U. Lehr, H. J. Schulz, R. Schwarz, and K. W. Benz, “Energy levels of vanadium ions in CdTe,” Appl. Phys. A 58, 447 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Schwartz, M. Ziari, and S. Trivedi, “Electron paramagnetic resonance and an optical investigation of photorefractive vanadium-doped CdTe,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 5274 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (5)

Ph. Delaye, F. Bignon, G. Roosen, M. Tapiero, J. P. Zielinger, Z. Guellil, J. C. Launay, and V. Mazoyer, “Spectroscopic and photorefractive investigation of vanadium-doped cadmium telluride,” Nonlinear Opt. 5, 103 (1993).

J. C. Launay, V. Mazoyer, M. Tapiero, J. P. Zielinger, Z. Guellil, Ph. Delaye, and G. Roosen, “Growth, spectroscopic and photorefractive investigation of vanadium-doped cadmium telluride,” Appl. Phys. A 55, 33 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. J. von Bardeleben, J. C. Launay, and V. Mazoyer, “Defects in photorefractive CdTe:V: an electron paramagnetic resonance study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1140 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Rzepka, Y. Marfaing, M. Cuniot, and R. Triboulet, “Deep centres for optical processing in CdTe,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 16, 262 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Zielinger and M. Tapiero, “Assessment of deep levels in photorefractive materials by transient photoelectric methods,” J. Phys. (Paris) III 3, 1327 (1993).

1990 (1)

A. Partovi, J. Millerd, E. M. Garmire, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, S. B. Trivedi, and M. B. Klein, “Photorefractivity at 1.5 µm in CdTe:V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 846 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

J. C. Fabre, J. M. C. Jonathan, and G. Roosen, “4¯3m photorefractive materials in energy transfer experiments,” Opt. Commun. 65, 257 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Görger, B. K. Meyer, J. M. Spaeth, and A. M. Hennel, “Identification of spin, charge states and optical transitions of vanadium impurities in GaAs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 3, 832 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

G. Pauliat, M. Allain, J. C. Launay, and G. Roosen, “Optical evidence of a photorefractive effect due to holes in Bi12GeO20 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 61, 321 (1987).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Sokolov, “Universal trends of changes in the positions of (0/+) and (0/−) levels of 3d impurities in II–VI compounds,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 29, 1061 (1987).

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

M. B. Klein and G. C. Valley, “Beam coupling in BaTiO3 at 442 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4901 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

A. Muranevich, M. Roitberg, and E. Finkman, “Growth of CdTe single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 64, 285 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

J. Jouglar, C. Hetroit, P. L. Vuillermoz, and R. Triboulet, “Influence of growth parameters on CdTe low temperature thermal conductivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3171 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Kushwaha and S. S. Kushwaha, “Lattice dynamics of ZnTe, CdTe, GaP, and InP,” Can. J. Phys. 58, 351 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979); “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. II. Beam coupling–light amplification,”  22, 961 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. A. Slodowy and J. M. Baranowski, “Absorption spectra of Ti(d2), V(d3), and Cr(d4) ions in CdTe,” Phys. Status Solidi B 49, 499 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

D. T. F. Marple, “Refractive index of ZnSe, ZnTe and CdTe,” J. Appl. Phys. 35, 539 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Allain, M.

G. Pauliat, M. Allain, J. C. Launay, and G. Roosen, “Optical evidence of a photorefractive effect due to holes in Bi12GeO20 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 61, 321 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Alt, H. C.

P. Christmann, H. C. Alt, D. M. Hofmann, B. K. Meyer, J. Kreissl, R. Schwarz, and K. W. Benz, “Optically detected magnetic resonance investigations on titanium and vanadium ions in CdTe,” Opt. Mater. 4, 210 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. Stadler, D. M. Hofmann, H. C. Alt, T. Muschik, B. K. Meyer, E. Weigel, G. Müller-Vogt, M. Salk, E. Rupp, and K. W. Benz, “Optical investigations of defects in Cd1−x Znx Te,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10619 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Aoudia, A.

G. Bremond, A. Zerrai, G. Marrakchi, A. Aoudia, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, M. C. Bush, J. M. Koebbel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, and J. Y. Moisan, “Characterization and identification of the deep levels in V doped CdTe and their relationship with the photorefractive properties,” Opt. Mater. 4, 246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Aoudia, E. Rzepka, A. Lusson, A. Thomson-Carli, D. Schneider, Y. Marfaing, and R. Triboulet, “Crystal growth and characterization of CdTe doped with transition metal elements,” Opt. Mater. 4, 241 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Lambert, M. Gauneau, G. Grandpierre, M. Schoisswohl, H. J. von Bardeleben, J. C. Launay, V. Mazoyer, A. Aoudia, E. Rzepka, Y. Marfaing, and R. Triboulet, “Effective trap concentration in photorefractive CdTe:V and ZnCdTe:V crystals,” Opt. Mater. 4, 265 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Rzepka, A. Aoudia, M. Cuniot, A. Lusson, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, G. Brémond, G. Marrakchi, K. Cherkaoui, M. C. Busch, J. M. Koebel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, J. Y. Moisan, P. Gravey, N. Wolffer, and O. Moine, “Optical and thermal spectroscopy of vanadium-doped CdTe and related photorefractive effect,” J. Cryst. Growth 138, 244 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Baranowski, J. M.

P. A. Slodowy and J. M. Baranowski, “Absorption spectra of Ti(d2), V(d3), and Cr(d4) ions in CdTe,” Phys. Status Solidi B 49, 499 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Benz, K. W.

P. Christmann, H. C. Alt, D. M. Hofmann, B. K. Meyer, J. Kreissl, R. Schwarz, and K. W. Benz, “Optically detected magnetic resonance investigations on titanium and vanadium ions in CdTe,” Opt. Mater. 4, 210 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. Stadler, D. M. Hofmann, H. C. Alt, T. Muschik, B. K. Meyer, E. Weigel, G. Müller-Vogt, M. Salk, E. Rupp, and K. W. Benz, “Optical investigations of defects in Cd1−x Znx Te,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10619 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Peka, M. U. Lehr, H. J. Schulz, R. Schwarz, and K. W. Benz, “Energy levels of vanadium ions in CdTe,” Appl. Phys. A 58, 447 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bignon, F.

Ph. Delaye, F. Bignon, G. Roosen, M. Tapiero, J. P. Zielinger, Z. Guellil, J. C. Launay, and V. Mazoyer, “Spectroscopic and photorefractive investigation of vanadium-doped cadmium telluride,” Nonlinear Opt. 5, 103 (1993).

Bremond, G.

G. Bremond, A. Zerrai, G. Marrakchi, A. Aoudia, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, M. C. Bush, J. M. Koebbel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, and J. Y. Moisan, “Characterization and identification of the deep levels in V doped CdTe and their relationship with the photorefractive properties,” Opt. Mater. 4, 246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brémond, G.

E. Rzepka, A. Aoudia, M. Cuniot, A. Lusson, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, G. Brémond, G. Marrakchi, K. Cherkaoui, M. C. Busch, J. M. Koebel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, J. Y. Moisan, P. Gravey, N. Wolffer, and O. Moine, “Optical and thermal spectroscopy of vanadium-doped CdTe and related photorefractive effect,” J. Cryst. Growth 138, 244 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Briat, B.

F. Ramaz, A. Hamri, B. Briat, V. Topa, and G. Mitroaica, “Magnetic circular dichroism and absorption study of photochromism in Mn-doped Bi12GeO20,” Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids 136, 1009 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Briat, F. Ramaz, A. Hamri, H. J. von Bardeleben, J. C. Launay, and V. Mazoyer, “Monitoring of V2+ and V3+ in vanadium-doped CdTe: a combined magnetic circular dichroism and electron paramagnetic resonance approach,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10, 1629 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. J. von Bardeleben, C. Miesner, J. Monge, B. Briat, J. C. Launay, and X. Launay, “An electron paramagnetic resonance and magneto-optical study of vanadium in Znx Cd1−x Te:V,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bube, R. H.

R. H. Bube, Electronic Properties of Crystalline Solids (Academic, New York, 1974).

Busch, M. C.

E. Rzepka, A. Aoudia, M. Cuniot, A. Lusson, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, G. Brémond, G. Marrakchi, K. Cherkaoui, M. C. Busch, J. M. Koebel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, J. Y. Moisan, P. Gravey, N. Wolffer, and O. Moine, “Optical and thermal spectroscopy of vanadium-doped CdTe and related photorefractive effect,” J. Cryst. Growth 138, 244 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bush, M. C.

G. Bremond, A. Zerrai, G. Marrakchi, A. Aoudia, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, M. C. Bush, J. M. Koebbel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, and J. Y. Moisan, “Characterization and identification of the deep levels in V doped CdTe and their relationship with the photorefractive properties,” Opt. Mater. 4, 246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cherkaoui, K.

E. Rzepka, A. Aoudia, M. Cuniot, A. Lusson, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, G. Brémond, G. Marrakchi, K. Cherkaoui, M. C. Busch, J. M. Koebel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, J. Y. Moisan, P. Gravey, N. Wolffer, and O. Moine, “Optical and thermal spectroscopy of vanadium-doped CdTe and related photorefractive effect,” J. Cryst. Growth 138, 244 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Christmann, P.

P. Christmann, H. C. Alt, D. M. Hofmann, B. K. Meyer, J. Kreissl, R. Schwarz, and K. W. Benz, “Optically detected magnetic resonance investigations on titanium and vanadium ions in CdTe,” Opt. Mater. 4, 210 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cuniot, M.

E. Rzepka, A. Aoudia, M. Cuniot, A. Lusson, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, G. Brémond, G. Marrakchi, K. Cherkaoui, M. C. Busch, J. M. Koebel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, J. Y. Moisan, P. Gravey, N. Wolffer, and O. Moine, “Optical and thermal spectroscopy of vanadium-doped CdTe and related photorefractive effect,” J. Cryst. Growth 138, 244 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Rzepka, Y. Marfaing, M. Cuniot, and R. Triboulet, “Deep centres for optical processing in CdTe,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 16, 262 (1993).
[CrossRef]

de Montmorillon, L. A.

L. A. de Montmorillon, Ph. Delaye, J. C. Launay, and G. Roosen, “Comparative study of CdTe and GaAs photorefractive performances from 1 µm to 1.55 µm,” Opt. Mater. 4, 233 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Delaye, L. A. de Montmorillon, H. J. von Bardeleben, and G. Roosen, “Photorefractive wave mixing in undoped liquid encapsulated Czochralski GaAs at 1.5 µm: validation of photorefractive modeling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Delaye, Ph.

L. A. de Montmorillon, Ph. Delaye, J. C. Launay, and G. Roosen, “Comparative study of CdTe and GaAs photorefractive performances from 1 µm to 1.55 µm,” Opt. Mater. 4, 233 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Delaye, L. A. de Montmorillon, H. J. von Bardeleben, and G. Roosen, “Photorefractive wave mixing in undoped liquid encapsulated Czochralski GaAs at 1.5 µm: validation of photorefractive modeling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Launay, V. Mazoyer, M. Tapiero, J. P. Zielinger, Z. Guellil, Ph. Delaye, and G. Roosen, “Growth, spectroscopic and photorefractive investigation of vanadium-doped cadmium telluride,” Appl. Phys. A 55, 33 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Delaye, F. Bignon, G. Roosen, M. Tapiero, J. P. Zielinger, Z. Guellil, J. C. Launay, and V. Mazoyer, “Spectroscopic and photorefractive investigation of vanadium-doped cadmium telluride,” Nonlinear Opt. 5, 103 (1993).

Delerue, C.

C. Delerue, “Théorie des ions de transition dans les semi-conducteurs,” Thesis (Université des Sciences et Techniques de Lille, France, 1989), p. 123.

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J. C. Fabre, J. M. C. Jonathan, and G. Roosen, “4¯3m photorefractive materials in energy transfer experiments,” Opt. Commun. 65, 257 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Finkman, E.

A. Muranevich, M. Roitberg, and E. Finkman, “Growth of CdTe single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 64, 285 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Garmire, E. M.

A. Partovi, J. Millerd, E. M. Garmire, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, S. B. Trivedi, and M. B. Klein, “Photorefractivity at 1.5 µm in CdTe:V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 846 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gauneau, M.

B. Lambert, M. Gauneau, G. Grandpierre, M. Schoisswohl, H. J. von Bardeleben, J. C. Launay, V. Mazoyer, A. Aoudia, E. Rzepka, Y. Marfaing, and R. Triboulet, “Effective trap concentration in photorefractive CdTe:V and ZnCdTe:V crystals,” Opt. Mater. 4, 265 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Görger, A.

A. Görger, B. K. Meyer, J. M. Spaeth, and A. M. Hennel, “Identification of spin, charge states and optical transitions of vanadium impurities in GaAs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 3, 832 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Grandpierre, G.

B. Lambert, M. Gauneau, G. Grandpierre, M. Schoisswohl, H. J. von Bardeleben, J. C. Launay, V. Mazoyer, A. Aoudia, E. Rzepka, Y. Marfaing, and R. Triboulet, “Effective trap concentration in photorefractive CdTe:V and ZnCdTe:V crystals,” Opt. Mater. 4, 265 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gravey, P.

E. Rzepka, A. Aoudia, M. Cuniot, A. Lusson, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, G. Brémond, G. Marrakchi, K. Cherkaoui, M. C. Busch, J. M. Koebel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, J. Y. Moisan, P. Gravey, N. Wolffer, and O. Moine, “Optical and thermal spectroscopy of vanadium-doped CdTe and related photorefractive effect,” J. Cryst. Growth 138, 244 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Guellil, Z.

Ph. Delaye, F. Bignon, G. Roosen, M. Tapiero, J. P. Zielinger, Z. Guellil, J. C. Launay, and V. Mazoyer, “Spectroscopic and photorefractive investigation of vanadium-doped cadmium telluride,” Nonlinear Opt. 5, 103 (1993).

J. C. Launay, V. Mazoyer, M. Tapiero, J. P. Zielinger, Z. Guellil, Ph. Delaye, and G. Roosen, “Growth, spectroscopic and photorefractive investigation of vanadium-doped cadmium telluride,” Appl. Phys. A 55, 33 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hage-Ali, M.

G. Bremond, A. Zerrai, G. Marrakchi, A. Aoudia, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, M. C. Bush, J. M. Koebbel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, and J. Y. Moisan, “Characterization and identification of the deep levels in V doped CdTe and their relationship with the photorefractive properties,” Opt. Mater. 4, 246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Rzepka, A. Aoudia, M. Cuniot, A. Lusson, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, G. Brémond, G. Marrakchi, K. Cherkaoui, M. C. Busch, J. M. Koebel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, J. Y. Moisan, P. Gravey, N. Wolffer, and O. Moine, “Optical and thermal spectroscopy of vanadium-doped CdTe and related photorefractive effect,” J. Cryst. Growth 138, 244 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hamri, A.

F. Ramaz, A. Hamri, B. Briat, V. Topa, and G. Mitroaica, “Magnetic circular dichroism and absorption study of photochromism in Mn-doped Bi12GeO20,” Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids 136, 1009 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Briat, F. Ramaz, A. Hamri, H. J. von Bardeleben, J. C. Launay, and V. Mazoyer, “Monitoring of V2+ and V3+ in vanadium-doped CdTe: a combined magnetic circular dichroism and electron paramagnetic resonance approach,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10, 1629 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hellwarth, R. W.

Hennel, A. M.

A. Görger, B. K. Meyer, J. M. Spaeth, and A. M. Hennel, “Identification of spin, charge states and optical transitions of vanadium impurities in GaAs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 3, 832 (1988).
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J. Jouglar, C. Hetroit, P. L. Vuillermoz, and R. Triboulet, “Influence of growth parameters on CdTe low temperature thermal conductivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3171 (1980).
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Hofmann, D. M.

W. Stadler, D. M. Hofmann, H. C. Alt, T. Muschik, B. K. Meyer, E. Weigel, G. Müller-Vogt, M. Salk, E. Rupp, and K. W. Benz, “Optical investigations of defects in Cd1−x Znx Te,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10619 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Christmann, H. C. Alt, D. M. Hofmann, B. K. Meyer, J. Kreissl, R. Schwarz, and K. W. Benz, “Optically detected magnetic resonance investigations on titanium and vanadium ions in CdTe,” Opt. Mater. 4, 210 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Irmscher, K.

P. Peka, M. U. Lehr, H. J. Schulz, U. W. Pohl, J. Kreissl, and K. Irmscher, “Vanadium centers in ZnTe crystals. I. Optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1907 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jonathan, J. M. C.

J. C. Fabre, J. M. C. Jonathan, and G. Roosen, “4¯3m photorefractive materials in energy transfer experiments,” Opt. Commun. 65, 257 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Strohkendl, J. M. C. Jonathan, and R. W. Hellwarth, “Hole–electron competition in photorefractive gratings,” Opt. Lett. 11, 312 (1986).
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Jouglar, J.

J. Jouglar, C. Hetroit, P. L. Vuillermoz, and R. Triboulet, “Influence of growth parameters on CdTe low temperature thermal conductivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3171 (1980).
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Kamimura, H.

S. Sugano, Y. Tanabe, and H. Kamimura, Multiplets of Transition Metal Ions in Crystals (Academic, New York, 1970).

Klein, M. B.

A. Partovi, J. Millerd, E. M. Garmire, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, S. B. Trivedi, and M. B. Klein, “Photorefractivity at 1.5 µm in CdTe:V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 846 (1990).
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M. B. Klein and G. C. Valley, “Beam coupling in BaTiO3 at 442 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4901 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Koebbel, J. M.

G. Bremond, A. Zerrai, G. Marrakchi, A. Aoudia, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, M. C. Bush, J. M. Koebbel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, and J. Y. Moisan, “Characterization and identification of the deep levels in V doped CdTe and their relationship with the photorefractive properties,” Opt. Mater. 4, 246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Koebel, J. M.

E. Rzepka, A. Aoudia, M. Cuniot, A. Lusson, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, G. Brémond, G. Marrakchi, K. Cherkaoui, M. C. Busch, J. M. Koebel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, J. Y. Moisan, P. Gravey, N. Wolffer, and O. Moine, “Optical and thermal spectroscopy of vanadium-doped CdTe and related photorefractive effect,” J. Cryst. Growth 138, 244 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kreissl, J.

P. Peka, M. U. Lehr, H. J. Schulz, U. W. Pohl, J. Kreissl, and K. Irmscher, “Vanadium centers in ZnTe crystals. I. Optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1907 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Schultz and J. Kreissl, “Optical and EPR properties of V and Ti ions in CdTe,” Opt. Mater. 4, 202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Christmann, H. C. Alt, D. M. Hofmann, B. K. Meyer, J. Kreissl, R. Schwarz, and K. W. Benz, “Optically detected magnetic resonance investigations on titanium and vanadium ions in CdTe,” Opt. Mater. 4, 210 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kukhtarev, N. V.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979); “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. II. Beam coupling–light amplification,”  22, 961 (1979).
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Kushwaha, M. S.

M. S. Kushwaha and S. S. Kushwaha, “Lattice dynamics of ZnTe, CdTe, GaP, and InP,” Can. J. Phys. 58, 351 (1980).
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Kushwaha, S. S.

M. S. Kushwaha and S. S. Kushwaha, “Lattice dynamics of ZnTe, CdTe, GaP, and InP,” Can. J. Phys. 58, 351 (1980).
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Lambert, B.

B. Lambert, M. Gauneau, G. Grandpierre, M. Schoisswohl, H. J. von Bardeleben, J. C. Launay, V. Mazoyer, A. Aoudia, E. Rzepka, Y. Marfaing, and R. Triboulet, “Effective trap concentration in photorefractive CdTe:V and ZnCdTe:V crystals,” Opt. Mater. 4, 265 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Launay, J. C.

H. J. von Bardeleben, C. Miesner, J. Monge, B. Briat, J. C. Launay, and X. Launay, “An electron paramagnetic resonance and magneto-optical study of vanadium in Znx Cd1−x Te:V,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Lambert, M. Gauneau, G. Grandpierre, M. Schoisswohl, H. J. von Bardeleben, J. C. Launay, V. Mazoyer, A. Aoudia, E. Rzepka, Y. Marfaing, and R. Triboulet, “Effective trap concentration in photorefractive CdTe:V and ZnCdTe:V crystals,” Opt. Mater. 4, 265 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Briat, F. Ramaz, A. Hamri, H. J. von Bardeleben, J. C. Launay, and V. Mazoyer, “Monitoring of V2+ and V3+ in vanadium-doped CdTe: a combined magnetic circular dichroism and electron paramagnetic resonance approach,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10, 1629 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. A. de Montmorillon, Ph. Delaye, J. C. Launay, and G. Roosen, “Comparative study of CdTe and GaAs photorefractive performances from 1 µm to 1.55 µm,” Opt. Mater. 4, 233 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. J. von Bardeleben, V. Mazoyer, X. Launay, and J. C. Launay, “A comparative electron paramagnetic resonance study of vanadium in n-type, semi-insulating and p-type CdTe,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10, 163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. J. von Bardeleben, J. C. Launay, and V. Mazoyer, “Defects in photorefractive CdTe:V: an electron paramagnetic resonance study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1140 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Delaye, F. Bignon, G. Roosen, M. Tapiero, J. P. Zielinger, Z. Guellil, J. C. Launay, and V. Mazoyer, “Spectroscopic and photorefractive investigation of vanadium-doped cadmium telluride,” Nonlinear Opt. 5, 103 (1993).

J. C. Launay, V. Mazoyer, M. Tapiero, J. P. Zielinger, Z. Guellil, Ph. Delaye, and G. Roosen, “Growth, spectroscopic and photorefractive investigation of vanadium-doped cadmium telluride,” Appl. Phys. A 55, 33 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Pauliat, M. Allain, J. C. Launay, and G. Roosen, “Optical evidence of a photorefractive effect due to holes in Bi12GeO20 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 61, 321 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Launay, X.

H. J. von Bardeleben, V. Mazoyer, X. Launay, and J. C. Launay, “A comparative electron paramagnetic resonance study of vanadium in n-type, semi-insulating and p-type CdTe,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10, 163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. J. von Bardeleben, C. Miesner, J. Monge, B. Briat, J. C. Launay, and X. Launay, “An electron paramagnetic resonance and magneto-optical study of vanadium in Znx Cd1−x Te:V,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lehr, M. U.

P. Peka, M. U. Lehr, H. J. Schulz, U. W. Pohl, J. Kreissl, and K. Irmscher, “Vanadium centers in ZnTe crystals. I. Optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1907 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Peka, M. U. Lehr, H. J. Schulz, R. Schwarz, and K. W. Benz, “Energy levels of vanadium ions in CdTe,” Appl. Phys. A 58, 447 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lusson, A.

A. Aoudia, E. Rzepka, A. Lusson, A. Thomson-Carli, D. Schneider, Y. Marfaing, and R. Triboulet, “Crystal growth and characterization of CdTe doped with transition metal elements,” Opt. Mater. 4, 241 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Rzepka, A. Aoudia, M. Cuniot, A. Lusson, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, G. Brémond, G. Marrakchi, K. Cherkaoui, M. C. Busch, J. M. Koebel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, J. Y. Moisan, P. Gravey, N. Wolffer, and O. Moine, “Optical and thermal spectroscopy of vanadium-doped CdTe and related photorefractive effect,” J. Cryst. Growth 138, 244 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Marfaing, Y.

A. Aoudia, E. Rzepka, A. Lusson, A. Thomson-Carli, D. Schneider, Y. Marfaing, and R. Triboulet, “Crystal growth and characterization of CdTe doped with transition metal elements,” Opt. Mater. 4, 241 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Bremond, A. Zerrai, G. Marrakchi, A. Aoudia, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, M. C. Bush, J. M. Koebbel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, and J. Y. Moisan, “Characterization and identification of the deep levels in V doped CdTe and their relationship with the photorefractive properties,” Opt. Mater. 4, 246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Lambert, M. Gauneau, G. Grandpierre, M. Schoisswohl, H. J. von Bardeleben, J. C. Launay, V. Mazoyer, A. Aoudia, E. Rzepka, Y. Marfaing, and R. Triboulet, “Effective trap concentration in photorefractive CdTe:V and ZnCdTe:V crystals,” Opt. Mater. 4, 265 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Rzepka, A. Aoudia, M. Cuniot, A. Lusson, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, G. Brémond, G. Marrakchi, K. Cherkaoui, M. C. Busch, J. M. Koebel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, J. Y. Moisan, P. Gravey, N. Wolffer, and O. Moine, “Optical and thermal spectroscopy of vanadium-doped CdTe and related photorefractive effect,” J. Cryst. Growth 138, 244 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Rzepka, Y. Marfaing, M. Cuniot, and R. Triboulet, “Deep centres for optical processing in CdTe,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 16, 262 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Markov, V. B.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979); “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. II. Beam coupling–light amplification,”  22, 961 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Marple, D. T. F.

D. T. F. Marple, “Refractive index of ZnSe, ZnTe and CdTe,” J. Appl. Phys. 35, 539 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Marrakchi, G.

G. Bremond, A. Zerrai, G. Marrakchi, A. Aoudia, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, M. C. Bush, J. M. Koebbel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, and J. Y. Moisan, “Characterization and identification of the deep levels in V doped CdTe and their relationship with the photorefractive properties,” Opt. Mater. 4, 246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Rzepka, A. Aoudia, M. Cuniot, A. Lusson, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, G. Brémond, G. Marrakchi, K. Cherkaoui, M. C. Busch, J. M. Koebel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, J. Y. Moisan, P. Gravey, N. Wolffer, and O. Moine, “Optical and thermal spectroscopy of vanadium-doped CdTe and related photorefractive effect,” J. Cryst. Growth 138, 244 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mazoyer, V.

H. J. von Bardeleben, V. Mazoyer, X. Launay, and J. C. Launay, “A comparative electron paramagnetic resonance study of vanadium in n-type, semi-insulating and p-type CdTe,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10, 163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Briat, F. Ramaz, A. Hamri, H. J. von Bardeleben, J. C. Launay, and V. Mazoyer, “Monitoring of V2+ and V3+ in vanadium-doped CdTe: a combined magnetic circular dichroism and electron paramagnetic resonance approach,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10, 1629 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Lambert, M. Gauneau, G. Grandpierre, M. Schoisswohl, H. J. von Bardeleben, J. C. Launay, V. Mazoyer, A. Aoudia, E. Rzepka, Y. Marfaing, and R. Triboulet, “Effective trap concentration in photorefractive CdTe:V and ZnCdTe:V crystals,” Opt. Mater. 4, 265 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Launay, V. Mazoyer, M. Tapiero, J. P. Zielinger, Z. Guellil, Ph. Delaye, and G. Roosen, “Growth, spectroscopic and photorefractive investigation of vanadium-doped cadmium telluride,” Appl. Phys. A 55, 33 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. J. von Bardeleben, J. C. Launay, and V. Mazoyer, “Defects in photorefractive CdTe:V: an electron paramagnetic resonance study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1140 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Delaye, F. Bignon, G. Roosen, M. Tapiero, J. P. Zielinger, Z. Guellil, J. C. Launay, and V. Mazoyer, “Spectroscopic and photorefractive investigation of vanadium-doped cadmium telluride,” Nonlinear Opt. 5, 103 (1993).

Meyer, B. K.

W. Stadler, D. M. Hofmann, H. C. Alt, T. Muschik, B. K. Meyer, E. Weigel, G. Müller-Vogt, M. Salk, E. Rupp, and K. W. Benz, “Optical investigations of defects in Cd1−x Znx Te,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10619 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Christmann, H. C. Alt, D. M. Hofmann, B. K. Meyer, J. Kreissl, R. Schwarz, and K. W. Benz, “Optically detected magnetic resonance investigations on titanium and vanadium ions in CdTe,” Opt. Mater. 4, 210 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Görger, B. K. Meyer, J. M. Spaeth, and A. M. Hennel, “Identification of spin, charge states and optical transitions of vanadium impurities in GaAs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 3, 832 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Miesner, C.

H. J. von Bardeleben, C. Miesner, J. Monge, B. Briat, J. C. Launay, and X. Launay, “An electron paramagnetic resonance and magneto-optical study of vanadium in Znx Cd1−x Te:V,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Millerd, J.

A. Partovi, J. Millerd, E. M. Garmire, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, S. B. Trivedi, and M. B. Klein, “Photorefractivity at 1.5 µm in CdTe:V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 846 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mitroaica, G.

F. Ramaz, A. Hamri, B. Briat, V. Topa, and G. Mitroaica, “Magnetic circular dichroism and absorption study of photochromism in Mn-doped Bi12GeO20,” Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids 136, 1009 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moine, O.

E. Rzepka, A. Aoudia, M. Cuniot, A. Lusson, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, G. Brémond, G. Marrakchi, K. Cherkaoui, M. C. Busch, J. M. Koebel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, J. Y. Moisan, P. Gravey, N. Wolffer, and O. Moine, “Optical and thermal spectroscopy of vanadium-doped CdTe and related photorefractive effect,” J. Cryst. Growth 138, 244 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moisan, J. Y.

G. Bremond, A. Zerrai, G. Marrakchi, A. Aoudia, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, M. C. Bush, J. M. Koebbel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, and J. Y. Moisan, “Characterization and identification of the deep levels in V doped CdTe and their relationship with the photorefractive properties,” Opt. Mater. 4, 246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Rzepka, A. Aoudia, M. Cuniot, A. Lusson, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, G. Brémond, G. Marrakchi, K. Cherkaoui, M. C. Busch, J. M. Koebel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, J. Y. Moisan, P. Gravey, N. Wolffer, and O. Moine, “Optical and thermal spectroscopy of vanadium-doped CdTe and related photorefractive effect,” J. Cryst. Growth 138, 244 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Monge, J.

H. J. von Bardeleben, C. Miesner, J. Monge, B. Briat, J. C. Launay, and X. Launay, “An electron paramagnetic resonance and magneto-optical study of vanadium in Znx Cd1−x Te:V,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Müller-Vogt, G.

W. Stadler, D. M. Hofmann, H. C. Alt, T. Muschik, B. K. Meyer, E. Weigel, G. Müller-Vogt, M. Salk, E. Rupp, and K. W. Benz, “Optical investigations of defects in Cd1−x Znx Te,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10619 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Muranevich, A.

A. Muranevich, M. Roitberg, and E. Finkman, “Growth of CdTe single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 64, 285 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Muschik, T.

W. Stadler, D. M. Hofmann, H. C. Alt, T. Muschik, B. K. Meyer, E. Weigel, G. Müller-Vogt, M. Salk, E. Rupp, and K. W. Benz, “Optical investigations of defects in Cd1−x Znx Te,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10619 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Odulov, S. G.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979); “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. II. Beam coupling–light amplification,”  22, 961 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Partovi, A.

A. Partovi, J. Millerd, E. M. Garmire, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, S. B. Trivedi, and M. B. Klein, “Photorefractivity at 1.5 µm in CdTe:V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 846 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pauliat, G.

G. Pauliat, M. Allain, J. C. Launay, and G. Roosen, “Optical evidence of a photorefractive effect due to holes in Bi12GeO20 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 61, 321 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Peka, P.

P. Peka, M. U. Lehr, H. J. Schulz, U. W. Pohl, J. Kreissl, and K. Irmscher, “Vanadium centers in ZnTe crystals. I. Optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1907 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Peka, M. U. Lehr, H. J. Schulz, R. Schwarz, and K. W. Benz, “Energy levels of vanadium ions in CdTe,” Appl. Phys. A 58, 447 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, U. W.

P. Peka, M. U. Lehr, H. J. Schulz, U. W. Pohl, J. Kreissl, and K. Irmscher, “Vanadium centers in ZnTe crystals. I. Optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1907 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ramaz, F.

B. Briat, F. Ramaz, A. Hamri, H. J. von Bardeleben, J. C. Launay, and V. Mazoyer, “Monitoring of V2+ and V3+ in vanadium-doped CdTe: a combined magnetic circular dichroism and electron paramagnetic resonance approach,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10, 1629 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Ramaz, A. Hamri, B. Briat, V. Topa, and G. Mitroaica, “Magnetic circular dichroism and absorption study of photochromism in Mn-doped Bi12GeO20,” Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids 136, 1009 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roitberg, M.

A. Muranevich, M. Roitberg, and E. Finkman, “Growth of CdTe single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 64, 285 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Roosen, G.

L. A. de Montmorillon, Ph. Delaye, J. C. Launay, and G. Roosen, “Comparative study of CdTe and GaAs photorefractive performances from 1 µm to 1.55 µm,” Opt. Mater. 4, 233 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Delaye, L. A. de Montmorillon, H. J. von Bardeleben, and G. Roosen, “Photorefractive wave mixing in undoped liquid encapsulated Czochralski GaAs at 1.5 µm: validation of photorefractive modeling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Launay, V. Mazoyer, M. Tapiero, J. P. Zielinger, Z. Guellil, Ph. Delaye, and G. Roosen, “Growth, spectroscopic and photorefractive investigation of vanadium-doped cadmium telluride,” Appl. Phys. A 55, 33 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Delaye, F. Bignon, G. Roosen, M. Tapiero, J. P. Zielinger, Z. Guellil, J. C. Launay, and V. Mazoyer, “Spectroscopic and photorefractive investigation of vanadium-doped cadmium telluride,” Nonlinear Opt. 5, 103 (1993).

J. C. Fabre, J. M. C. Jonathan, and G. Roosen, “4¯3m photorefractive materials in energy transfer experiments,” Opt. Commun. 65, 257 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Pauliat, M. Allain, J. C. Launay, and G. Roosen, “Optical evidence of a photorefractive effect due to holes in Bi12GeO20 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 61, 321 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rupp, E.

W. Stadler, D. M. Hofmann, H. C. Alt, T. Muschik, B. K. Meyer, E. Weigel, G. Müller-Vogt, M. Salk, E. Rupp, and K. W. Benz, “Optical investigations of defects in Cd1−x Znx Te,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10619 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rzepka, E.

A. Aoudia, E. Rzepka, A. Lusson, A. Thomson-Carli, D. Schneider, Y. Marfaing, and R. Triboulet, “Crystal growth and characterization of CdTe doped with transition metal elements,” Opt. Mater. 4, 241 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Lambert, M. Gauneau, G. Grandpierre, M. Schoisswohl, H. J. von Bardeleben, J. C. Launay, V. Mazoyer, A. Aoudia, E. Rzepka, Y. Marfaing, and R. Triboulet, “Effective trap concentration in photorefractive CdTe:V and ZnCdTe:V crystals,” Opt. Mater. 4, 265 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Rzepka, A. Aoudia, M. Cuniot, A. Lusson, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, G. Brémond, G. Marrakchi, K. Cherkaoui, M. C. Busch, J. M. Koebel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, J. Y. Moisan, P. Gravey, N. Wolffer, and O. Moine, “Optical and thermal spectroscopy of vanadium-doped CdTe and related photorefractive effect,” J. Cryst. Growth 138, 244 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Rzepka, Y. Marfaing, M. Cuniot, and R. Triboulet, “Deep centres for optical processing in CdTe,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 16, 262 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Salk, M.

W. Stadler, D. M. Hofmann, H. C. Alt, T. Muschik, B. K. Meyer, E. Weigel, G. Müller-Vogt, M. Salk, E. Rupp, and K. W. Benz, “Optical investigations of defects in Cd1−x Znx Te,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10619 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, D.

A. Aoudia, E. Rzepka, A. Lusson, A. Thomson-Carli, D. Schneider, Y. Marfaing, and R. Triboulet, “Crystal growth and characterization of CdTe doped with transition metal elements,” Opt. Mater. 4, 241 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schoisswohl, M.

B. Lambert, M. Gauneau, G. Grandpierre, M. Schoisswohl, H. J. von Bardeleben, J. C. Launay, V. Mazoyer, A. Aoudia, E. Rzepka, Y. Marfaing, and R. Triboulet, “Effective trap concentration in photorefractive CdTe:V and ZnCdTe:V crystals,” Opt. Mater. 4, 265 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, H. J.

H. J. Schultz and J. Kreissl, “Optical and EPR properties of V and Ti ions in CdTe,” Opt. Mater. 4, 202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, H. J.

P. Peka, M. U. Lehr, H. J. Schulz, U. W. Pohl, J. Kreissl, and K. Irmscher, “Vanadium centers in ZnTe crystals. I. Optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1907 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Peka, M. U. Lehr, H. J. Schulz, R. Schwarz, and K. W. Benz, “Energy levels of vanadium ions in CdTe,” Appl. Phys. A 58, 447 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, R.

R. Schwartz, M. Ziari, and S. Trivedi, “Electron paramagnetic resonance and an optical investigation of photorefractive vanadium-doped CdTe,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 5274 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, R.

P. Christmann, H. C. Alt, D. M. Hofmann, B. K. Meyer, J. Kreissl, R. Schwarz, and K. W. Benz, “Optically detected magnetic resonance investigations on titanium and vanadium ions in CdTe,” Opt. Mater. 4, 210 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Peka, M. U. Lehr, H. J. Schulz, R. Schwarz, and K. W. Benz, “Energy levels of vanadium ions in CdTe,” Appl. Phys. A 58, 447 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Siffert, P.

G. Bremond, A. Zerrai, G. Marrakchi, A. Aoudia, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, M. C. Bush, J. M. Koebbel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, and J. Y. Moisan, “Characterization and identification of the deep levels in V doped CdTe and their relationship with the photorefractive properties,” Opt. Mater. 4, 246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Rzepka, A. Aoudia, M. Cuniot, A. Lusson, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, G. Brémond, G. Marrakchi, K. Cherkaoui, M. C. Busch, J. M. Koebel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, J. Y. Moisan, P. Gravey, N. Wolffer, and O. Moine, “Optical and thermal spectroscopy of vanadium-doped CdTe and related photorefractive effect,” J. Cryst. Growth 138, 244 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Slodowy, P. A.

P. A. Slodowy and J. M. Baranowski, “Absorption spectra of Ti(d2), V(d3), and Cr(d4) ions in CdTe,” Phys. Status Solidi B 49, 499 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Sokolov, V. I.

V. I. Sokolov, “Universal trends of changes in the positions of (0/+) and (0/−) levels of 3d impurities in II–VI compounds,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 29, 1061 (1987).

Soskin, M. S.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979); “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. II. Beam coupling–light amplification,”  22, 961 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Spaeth, J. M.

A. Görger, B. K. Meyer, J. M. Spaeth, and A. M. Hennel, “Identification of spin, charge states and optical transitions of vanadium impurities in GaAs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 3, 832 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stadler, W.

W. Stadler, D. M. Hofmann, H. C. Alt, T. Muschik, B. K. Meyer, E. Weigel, G. Müller-Vogt, M. Salk, E. Rupp, and K. W. Benz, “Optical investigations of defects in Cd1−x Znx Te,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10619 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

A. Partovi, J. Millerd, E. M. Garmire, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, S. B. Trivedi, and M. B. Klein, “Photorefractivity at 1.5 µm in CdTe:V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 846 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Strohkendl, F. P.

Sugano, S.

S. Sugano, Y. Tanabe, and H. Kamimura, Multiplets of Transition Metal Ions in Crystals (Academic, New York, 1970).

Tanabe, Y.

S. Sugano, Y. Tanabe, and H. Kamimura, Multiplets of Transition Metal Ions in Crystals (Academic, New York, 1970).

Tapiero, M.

Ph. Delaye, F. Bignon, G. Roosen, M. Tapiero, J. P. Zielinger, Z. Guellil, J. C. Launay, and V. Mazoyer, “Spectroscopic and photorefractive investigation of vanadium-doped cadmium telluride,” Nonlinear Opt. 5, 103 (1993).

J. C. Launay, V. Mazoyer, M. Tapiero, J. P. Zielinger, Z. Guellil, Ph. Delaye, and G. Roosen, “Growth, spectroscopic and photorefractive investigation of vanadium-doped cadmium telluride,” Appl. Phys. A 55, 33 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Zielinger and M. Tapiero, “Assessment of deep levels in photorefractive materials by transient photoelectric methods,” J. Phys. (Paris) III 3, 1327 (1993).

Thomson-Carli, A.

A. Aoudia, E. Rzepka, A. Lusson, A. Thomson-Carli, D. Schneider, Y. Marfaing, and R. Triboulet, “Crystal growth and characterization of CdTe doped with transition metal elements,” Opt. Mater. 4, 241 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Topa, V.

F. Ramaz, A. Hamri, B. Briat, V. Topa, and G. Mitroaica, “Magnetic circular dichroism and absorption study of photochromism in Mn-doped Bi12GeO20,” Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids 136, 1009 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Triboulet, R.

A. Aoudia, E. Rzepka, A. Lusson, A. Thomson-Carli, D. Schneider, Y. Marfaing, and R. Triboulet, “Crystal growth and characterization of CdTe doped with transition metal elements,” Opt. Mater. 4, 241 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Bremond, A. Zerrai, G. Marrakchi, A. Aoudia, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, M. C. Bush, J. M. Koebbel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, and J. Y. Moisan, “Characterization and identification of the deep levels in V doped CdTe and their relationship with the photorefractive properties,” Opt. Mater. 4, 246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Lambert, M. Gauneau, G. Grandpierre, M. Schoisswohl, H. J. von Bardeleben, J. C. Launay, V. Mazoyer, A. Aoudia, E. Rzepka, Y. Marfaing, and R. Triboulet, “Effective trap concentration in photorefractive CdTe:V and ZnCdTe:V crystals,” Opt. Mater. 4, 265 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Rzepka, A. Aoudia, M. Cuniot, A. Lusson, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, G. Brémond, G. Marrakchi, K. Cherkaoui, M. C. Busch, J. M. Koebel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, J. Y. Moisan, P. Gravey, N. Wolffer, and O. Moine, “Optical and thermal spectroscopy of vanadium-doped CdTe and related photorefractive effect,” J. Cryst. Growth 138, 244 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Rzepka, Y. Marfaing, M. Cuniot, and R. Triboulet, “Deep centres for optical processing in CdTe,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 16, 262 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Jouglar, C. Hetroit, P. L. Vuillermoz, and R. Triboulet, “Influence of growth parameters on CdTe low temperature thermal conductivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3171 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Trivedi, S.

R. Schwartz, M. Ziari, and S. Trivedi, “Electron paramagnetic resonance and an optical investigation of photorefractive vanadium-doped CdTe,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 5274 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Trivedi, S. B.

A. Partovi, J. Millerd, E. M. Garmire, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, S. B. Trivedi, and M. B. Klein, “Photorefractivity at 1.5 µm in CdTe:V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 846 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Valley, G. C.

M. B. Klein and G. C. Valley, “Beam coupling in BaTiO3 at 442 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4901 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Vinetskii, V. L.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979); “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. II. Beam coupling–light amplification,”  22, 961 (1979).
[CrossRef]

von Bardeleben, H. J.

H. J. von Bardeleben, V. Mazoyer, X. Launay, and J. C. Launay, “A comparative electron paramagnetic resonance study of vanadium in n-type, semi-insulating and p-type CdTe,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10, 163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. J. von Bardeleben, C. Miesner, J. Monge, B. Briat, J. C. Launay, and X. Launay, “An electron paramagnetic resonance and magneto-optical study of vanadium in Znx Cd1−x Te:V,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Lambert, M. Gauneau, G. Grandpierre, M. Schoisswohl, H. J. von Bardeleben, J. C. Launay, V. Mazoyer, A. Aoudia, E. Rzepka, Y. Marfaing, and R. Triboulet, “Effective trap concentration in photorefractive CdTe:V and ZnCdTe:V crystals,” Opt. Mater. 4, 265 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Briat, F. Ramaz, A. Hamri, H. J. von Bardeleben, J. C. Launay, and V. Mazoyer, “Monitoring of V2+ and V3+ in vanadium-doped CdTe: a combined magnetic circular dichroism and electron paramagnetic resonance approach,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10, 1629 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Delaye, L. A. de Montmorillon, H. J. von Bardeleben, and G. Roosen, “Photorefractive wave mixing in undoped liquid encapsulated Czochralski GaAs at 1.5 µm: validation of photorefractive modeling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. J. von Bardeleben, J. C. Launay, and V. Mazoyer, “Defects in photorefractive CdTe:V: an electron paramagnetic resonance study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1140 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vuillermoz, P. L.

J. Jouglar, C. Hetroit, P. L. Vuillermoz, and R. Triboulet, “Influence of growth parameters on CdTe low temperature thermal conductivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3171 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Weigel, E.

W. Stadler, D. M. Hofmann, H. C. Alt, T. Muschik, B. K. Meyer, E. Weigel, G. Müller-Vogt, M. Salk, E. Rupp, and K. W. Benz, “Optical investigations of defects in Cd1−x Znx Te,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10619 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wolffer, N.

E. Rzepka, A. Aoudia, M. Cuniot, A. Lusson, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, G. Brémond, G. Marrakchi, K. Cherkaoui, M. C. Busch, J. M. Koebel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, J. Y. Moisan, P. Gravey, N. Wolffer, and O. Moine, “Optical and thermal spectroscopy of vanadium-doped CdTe and related photorefractive effect,” J. Cryst. Growth 138, 244 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zerrai, A.

G. Bremond, A. Zerrai, G. Marrakchi, A. Aoudia, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, M. C. Bush, J. M. Koebbel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, and J. Y. Moisan, “Characterization and identification of the deep levels in V doped CdTe and their relationship with the photorefractive properties,” Opt. Mater. 4, 246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ziari, M.

R. Schwartz, M. Ziari, and S. Trivedi, “Electron paramagnetic resonance and an optical investigation of photorefractive vanadium-doped CdTe,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 5274 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Partovi, J. Millerd, E. M. Garmire, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, S. B. Trivedi, and M. B. Klein, “Photorefractivity at 1.5 µm in CdTe:V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 846 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zielinger, J. P.

J. P. Zielinger and M. Tapiero, “Assessment of deep levels in photorefractive materials by transient photoelectric methods,” J. Phys. (Paris) III 3, 1327 (1993).

J. C. Launay, V. Mazoyer, M. Tapiero, J. P. Zielinger, Z. Guellil, Ph. Delaye, and G. Roosen, “Growth, spectroscopic and photorefractive investigation of vanadium-doped cadmium telluride,” Appl. Phys. A 55, 33 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Delaye, F. Bignon, G. Roosen, M. Tapiero, J. P. Zielinger, Z. Guellil, J. C. Launay, and V. Mazoyer, “Spectroscopic and photorefractive investigation of vanadium-doped cadmium telluride,” Nonlinear Opt. 5, 103 (1993).

Appl. Phys. A (2)

J. C. Launay, V. Mazoyer, M. Tapiero, J. P. Zielinger, Z. Guellil, Ph. Delaye, and G. Roosen, “Growth, spectroscopic and photorefractive investigation of vanadium-doped cadmium telluride,” Appl. Phys. A 55, 33 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Peka, M. U. Lehr, H. J. Schulz, R. Schwarz, and K. W. Benz, “Energy levels of vanadium ions in CdTe,” Appl. Phys. A 58, 447 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. Partovi, J. Millerd, E. M. Garmire, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, S. B. Trivedi, and M. B. Klein, “Photorefractivity at 1.5 µm in CdTe:V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 846 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Delaye, L. A. de Montmorillon, H. J. von Bardeleben, and G. Roosen, “Photorefractive wave mixing in undoped liquid encapsulated Czochralski GaAs at 1.5 µm: validation of photorefractive modeling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. J. von Bardeleben, J. C. Launay, and V. Mazoyer, “Defects in photorefractive CdTe:V: an electron paramagnetic resonance study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1140 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

M. S. Kushwaha and S. S. Kushwaha, “Lattice dynamics of ZnTe, CdTe, GaP, and InP,” Can. J. Phys. 58, 351 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics (1)

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979); “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. II. Beam coupling–light amplification,”  22, 961 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

D. T. F. Marple, “Refractive index of ZnSe, ZnTe and CdTe,” J. Appl. Phys. 35, 539 (1964).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Klein and G. C. Valley, “Beam coupling in BaTiO3 at 442 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4901 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Jouglar, C. Hetroit, P. L. Vuillermoz, and R. Triboulet, “Influence of growth parameters on CdTe low temperature thermal conductivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3171 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

E. Rzepka, A. Aoudia, M. Cuniot, A. Lusson, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, G. Brémond, G. Marrakchi, K. Cherkaoui, M. C. Busch, J. M. Koebel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, J. Y. Moisan, P. Gravey, N. Wolffer, and O. Moine, “Optical and thermal spectroscopy of vanadium-doped CdTe and related photorefractive effect,” J. Cryst. Growth 138, 244 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Muranevich, M. Roitberg, and E. Finkman, “Growth of CdTe single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 64, 285 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. (Paris) III (1)

J. P. Zielinger and M. Tapiero, “Assessment of deep levels in photorefractive materials by transient photoelectric methods,” J. Phys. (Paris) III 3, 1327 (1993).

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

E. Rzepka, Y. Marfaing, M. Cuniot, and R. Triboulet, “Deep centres for optical processing in CdTe,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 16, 262 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nonlinear Opt. (1)

Ph. Delaye, F. Bignon, G. Roosen, M. Tapiero, J. P. Zielinger, Z. Guellil, J. C. Launay, and V. Mazoyer, “Spectroscopic and photorefractive investigation of vanadium-doped cadmium telluride,” Nonlinear Opt. 5, 103 (1993).

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. C. Fabre, J. M. C. Jonathan, and G. Roosen, “4¯3m photorefractive materials in energy transfer experiments,” Opt. Commun. 65, 257 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Pauliat, M. Allain, J. C. Launay, and G. Roosen, “Optical evidence of a photorefractive effect due to holes in Bi12GeO20 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 61, 321 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (6)

G. Bremond, A. Zerrai, G. Marrakchi, A. Aoudia, Y. Marfaing, R. Triboulet, M. C. Bush, J. M. Koebbel, M. Hage-Ali, P. Siffert, and J. Y. Moisan, “Characterization and identification of the deep levels in V doped CdTe and their relationship with the photorefractive properties,” Opt. Mater. 4, 246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. A. de Montmorillon, Ph. Delaye, J. C. Launay, and G. Roosen, “Comparative study of CdTe and GaAs photorefractive performances from 1 µm to 1.55 µm,” Opt. Mater. 4, 233 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Aoudia, E. Rzepka, A. Lusson, A. Thomson-Carli, D. Schneider, Y. Marfaing, and R. Triboulet, “Crystal growth and characterization of CdTe doped with transition metal elements,” Opt. Mater. 4, 241 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Schultz and J. Kreissl, “Optical and EPR properties of V and Ti ions in CdTe,” Opt. Mater. 4, 202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Christmann, H. C. Alt, D. M. Hofmann, B. K. Meyer, J. Kreissl, R. Schwarz, and K. W. Benz, “Optically detected magnetic resonance investigations on titanium and vanadium ions in CdTe,” Opt. Mater. 4, 210 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Lambert, M. Gauneau, G. Grandpierre, M. Schoisswohl, H. J. von Bardeleben, J. C. Launay, V. Mazoyer, A. Aoudia, E. Rzepka, Y. Marfaing, and R. Triboulet, “Effective trap concentration in photorefractive CdTe:V and ZnCdTe:V crystals,” Opt. Mater. 4, 265 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

R. Schwartz, M. Ziari, and S. Trivedi, “Electron paramagnetic resonance and an optical investigation of photorefractive vanadium-doped CdTe,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 5274 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. Stadler, D. M. Hofmann, H. C. Alt, T. Muschik, B. K. Meyer, E. Weigel, G. Müller-Vogt, M. Salk, E. Rupp, and K. W. Benz, “Optical investigations of defects in Cd1−x Znx Te,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10619 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Peka, M. U. Lehr, H. J. Schulz, U. W. Pohl, J. Kreissl, and K. Irmscher, “Vanadium centers in ZnTe crystals. I. Optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1907 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

P. A. Slodowy and J. M. Baranowski, “Absorption spectra of Ti(d2), V(d3), and Cr(d4) ions in CdTe,” Phys. Status Solidi B 49, 499 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids (1)

F. Ramaz, A. Hamri, B. Briat, V. Topa, and G. Mitroaica, “Magnetic circular dichroism and absorption study of photochromism in Mn-doped Bi12GeO20,” Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids 136, 1009 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (4)

A. Görger, B. K. Meyer, J. M. Spaeth, and A. M. Hennel, “Identification of spin, charge states and optical transitions of vanadium impurities in GaAs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 3, 832 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. J. von Bardeleben, V. Mazoyer, X. Launay, and J. C. Launay, “A comparative electron paramagnetic resonance study of vanadium in n-type, semi-insulating and p-type CdTe,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10, 163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Briat, F. Ramaz, A. Hamri, H. J. von Bardeleben, J. C. Launay, and V. Mazoyer, “Monitoring of V2+ and V3+ in vanadium-doped CdTe: a combined magnetic circular dichroism and electron paramagnetic resonance approach,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10, 1629 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. J. von Bardeleben, C. Miesner, J. Monge, B. Briat, J. C. Launay, and X. Launay, “An electron paramagnetic resonance and magneto-optical study of vanadium in Znx Cd1−x Te:V,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Solid State (1)

V. I. Sokolov, “Universal trends of changes in the positions of (0/+) and (0/−) levels of 3d impurities in II–VI compounds,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 29, 1061 (1987).

Other (3)

C. Delerue, “Théorie des ions de transition dans les semi-conducteurs,” Thesis (Université des Sciences et Techniques de Lille, France, 1989), p. 123.

S. Sugano, Y. Tanabe, and H. Kamimura, Multiplets of Transition Metal Ions in Crystals (Academic, New York, 1970).

R. H. Bube, Electronic Properties of Crystalline Solids (Academic, New York, 1974).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

EPR spectra of the three samples B19, B23, and B28 at T = 4 K and B‖[100]. In the n-type (B19) codoped sample only the donor resonance is seen, in B23 we observe only the V3+ spectrum (no V2+), and in the p-type codoped sample B28 both V3+ and Fe3+ (Fe contamination) is observed.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) EPR spectrum of sample B23 at thermal equilibrium at T = 4 K. (b), (c) Difference spectra (spectrum under photo-excitation minus spectrum in thermal equilibrium). At 1.4 µm (b), we thus observe a decrease in the V3+ intensity; at 1.06 µm (c), an increase, always compared with the thermal equilibrium value. Typical excitation intensities are 10 µW cm−2, and the spectrum intensity achieves an equilibrium value after typically a few minutes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

MCD spectra of samples B28 (codoped As), B19 (codoped C2), and B23 under a magnetic field of 2.5 T at 1.4 K. Δα is expressed in inverse centimeters: (a) low-energy region, (b) high-energy region. The ordinate scales apply to sample B23. For comparison, Δα for B19 was multiplied by 1.4, whereas Δα for B28 was divided by 3 (see text for discussion).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Predicted MCD spectra at 1.4 K and under 2.5 T according to the ratio R of [V2+] and [V3+]. We arbitrarily assumed a total vanadium concentration T of 35 (unit, 1015 cm−3). From top to bottom at 0.91 eV, the various curves stand for values of R: (a) 0.5, (b) 0.8, (c) 1.3, (d) 2.5, (e) 5, and (f) 10. We computed these by combining those for B19 ([V2+] = 3.2) and B28 ([V3+] = 35) with the weighting factors (T/3.2) * R/[(1 + R)] and (T/35)/(1 + R), respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absorption spectra of samples B28, B19, and B23 at 80 K (three lower curves) and B23 at room temperature (upper curve). α is expressed in inverse centimeters. For clarity, the residual absorption at 0.6 eV was subtracted from each of the curves; they were then translated by 1 cm−1 from one another at the same energy. The numbering of the various features is the same as that shown in Fig. 1. Note that, although taken from the same ingot, the B19 sample used for absorption is of a much better quality (no scattering) than that examined in our earlier study.8

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photoabsorption results for sample B23 at 80 K. Spectrum a stands for the difference of absorbance (multiplied by 20), “1.32 − init” (see Subsection 3.B for explanation). Spectrum b deals with “1.06 − 1.32,” whereas spectrum c is associated with “1.55b − 1.06.” The absorption spectrum (shifted by −2 cm−1) is also given (d) for comparison.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Thermal dependence of the PC gain for sample B23. The ordinate unit is arbitrary.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Steady-state PC spectra at room temperature of Cl-codoped (B19), As-codoped (B28), and semi-insulating (B23) CdTe:V crystals. The spectrum of an undoped sample (L825) is also shown for comparison. Because the various spectra were taken between 290 and 320 K, one can observe a slight shift of the maximum of intrinsic PC.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Temperature dependence of the normalized steady-state PC for sample B23. Note that PC for E ≥ 1.35 eV was divided by 5 so as to magnify the low-energy and highly structured sections.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Experimental photorefractive gain as a function of the grating spacing at wavelengths λ = 1.06 µm (●) and 1.55 µm (▲) for CdTe sample B23. The solid curves denote the best theoretical adjustments. The dashed curves represent the adjustment with σ = 2σmin. The photorefractive gain at 1.32 µm is nearly zero.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Electrical Characteristics of the Different Samples Studied in the PC Experimentsa

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Table 2 Determination of [V3+] and [V2+] in the Five Crystals Investigateda

Equations (7)

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i ph = A E q ( μ n τ n + μ p τ p ) α Φ 0 ,
i ph = q A E G α Φ 0
G = μ n τ n + μ p τ p
Γ = 2 π n 0 3 r eff λ   cos   θ k B T e ξ 0 k 1 + ( k 2 / k 0 2 ) ,
N eff = [ V 2 + ] [ V 3 + ] [ V 2 + ] + [ V 3 + ] ,   ξ 0 = S n [ V 2 + ] S p [ V 3 + ] S n [ V 2 + ] + S p [ V 3 + ] ,
σ 2 ( k 0 , ξ 0 ) = i [ Γ m ( k i ) Γ ( k i ) ] 2 .
i ph ( h ν ) = q A E Φ 0 i N i [ f i S n i ( h ν ) μ n τ n + ( 1 f i ) S pi ( h ν ) μ p τ p ] ,

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