Abstract

Using conventional volume-holographic angle multiplexing in an Fe:LiNbO3 crystal, we have developed a compact laser threat discriminator, intended for aircraft integration, that optically detects laser spatial coherence and angle of arrival while simultaneously rejecting incoherent background sources, such as the Sun. The device is intended for a specific type of psychophysical laser attack against U.S. Air Force pilots, namely, third-world-country exploitation of inexpensive and powerful cw Ar-ion or doubled Nd:YAG lasers in the visible spectrum to blind or disorient U.S. pilots. The component does not solve the general tactical laser weapon situation, which includes identifying precision-guided munitions, range finders, and lidar systems that use pulsed infrared lasers. These are fundamentally different threats requiring different detector solutions. The device incorporates a sequence of highly redundant, simple black-and-white warning patterns that are keyed to be reconstructed as the incident laser threat, playing the role of an uncooperative probe beam, changes angle with respect to the crystal. The device tracks both azimuth and elevation, using a nonconventional hologram viewing system. Recording and playback conditions are simplified because nonzero cross talk is a desirable feature of this discriminator, inasmuch as our application requires a nonzero probability of detection for arbitrary directions of arrival within the sensor’s field of view. The device can exploit phase-matched grating trade-off with probe-beam wavelength, accommodating wavelength-tunable threats, while still maintaining high direction-of-arrival tracking accuracy.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  2. S. A. Milligan, J. H. Parker, Jr., and M. L. DeLong, "Scanning radiometric imager (SRI)," in Proceedings of the IEEE 1996 National Aerospace and Electronics Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. 750–757.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  7. S. Tao, D. R. Selviah, and J. E. Midwinter, "Spatioangular multiplexed storage in 750 holograms in an Fe:LiNbO3/sub> crystal," Opt. Lett. 18, 912–914 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Maniloff and K. Johnson, "Maximized photorefractive holographic storage," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 4702–4707 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Gu, J. Hong, I. McMichael, R. Saxena, and F. Mok, "Cross-talk-limited storage capacity of volume holographic memory," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1978–1983 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Lee, "Perturbative integral expansion method of analyzing crosstalks in volume holographic interconnections," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2103–2113 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H.-C. Külich and E. Krätzig, "Reconstruction of volume holograms at different wavelengths," in Nonlinear Optical Materials III, P. Guenter, ed., Proc. SPIE 1273, 60–67 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H.-C. Külich, "Reconstructing volume holograms without image field losses," Appl. Opt. 30, 2850–2857 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H.-C. Külich, "Transfer function for image formation of objects reconstructed from volume holograms with different wavelengths," Appl. Opt. 31, 2461–2477 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory of thick hologram gratings," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. De Vré, J. F. Heanue, K. Gürken, and L. Hesselink, "Bragg detuning effects in photorefractive crystals," in Pho-torefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 475–478.
  16. M. DeLong and J. Parker, Jr., "Skylight laser warning receiver: laboratory and field test performance results (U)," Wright Laboratory Tech. Rep. WL-TR-93-1105 (Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson, AFB, Ohio, 1993).
  17. M. DeLong, A. Stephens, and R. Cunningham, "Two advanced laser warning systems: laboratory performance results (U)," in Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh Infrared Information Symposium on Infrared Countermeasures Conference, (Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, Md., 1989).
  18. M. DeLong and J. Parker, "Laboratory performance results: E-Systems’ AVR-3 laser warning receiver (U)," Wright Laboratory Tech. Rep. WL-TR-92-1093, Vol. 1, and WL-TR-92-1094, Vol. 2 (1992).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  31. R. Matull and R. A. Rupp, "Microphotometric investigation of fixed holograms," J. Phys. D 21, 1556–1565 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  32. W. Meyer, P. Würfel, R. Munser, and G. Müller-Vogt, "Kinetics of fixation of phase holograms in LiNbO3," Phys. Status Solidi A 53, 171–180 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  33. V. V. Kulikov and S. I. Stepanov, "Mechanisms of holographic recording and thermal fixing in photorefractive LiNbO3/sub> :Fe," Sov. Phys. Solid State 21, 1849–1851 (1979).
  34. J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, "Holographic pattern fixing in electro-optic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540–542 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  35. A. Yariv, S. Orlov, G. Rakuljic, and V. Leyva, "Holographic fixing, readout, and storage dynamics in photorefractive materials," Opt. Lett. 20, 1334–1336 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. R. Mu¨ller, L. Arizmendi, M. Carrascosa, and J. M. Cabrera, "Time evolution of grating decay during photorefractive fixing processes in LiNbO3/sub> ," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 308–312(1995).
    [CrossRef]
  37. D. Psaltis, "Holographic storage," Photorefractive Materials, Effects and Devices Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), invited talk TI1.
  38. A. C. Strasser, E. S. Maniloff, K. M. Johnson, and S. D. D. Goggin, "Procedure for recording multiple-exposure holograms with equal diffraction efficiency in photorefractive media," Opt. Lett. 14, 6–8 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. D. Psaltis, D. Brady, and K. Wagner, "Adaptive optical network using photorefractive crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 1752–1759 (1988).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

S. A. Milligan, J. H. Parker, Jr., and M. L. DeLong, "Scanning radiometric imager (SRI)," in Proceedings of the IEEE 1996 National Aerospace and Electronics Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. 750–757.

M. P. Dierking and M. Karim, "Solid-block stationary Fourier-transform spectrometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 84–89 (1996).

1995

R. De Vré, J. F. Heanue, K. Gürken, and L. Hesselink, "Bragg detuning effects in photorefractive crystals," in Pho-torefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 475–478.

D. Psaltis and F. Mok, "Holographic memories," Sci. Am. 11, 70–76 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. DeLong and B. Duncan, "Laser threat discrimination based on volume holographic memory," in Proceedings of the IEEE 1995 National Aerospace and Electronics Conference (NAECON, Dayton, Ohio, 1995), pp. 831–838.

R. Mu¨ller, L. Arizmendi, M. Carrascosa, and J. M. Cabrera, "Time evolution of grating decay during photorefractive fixing processes in LiNbO3/sub> ," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 308–312(1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Psaltis, "Holographic storage," Photorefractive Materials, Effects and Devices Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), invited talk TI1.

A. Yariv, S. Orlov, G. Rakuljic, and V. Leyva, "Holographic fixing, readout, and storage dynamics in photorefractive materials," Opt. Lett. 20, 1334–1336 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

S. Tao, D. R. Selviah, and J. E. Midwinter, "Spatioangular multiplexed storage in 750 holograms in an Fe:LiNbO3/sub> crystal," Opt. Lett. 18, 912–914 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Mok, "Angle-multiplexed storage of 5000 holograms in lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 18, 915–917 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lee, "Perturbative integral expansion method of analyzing crosstalks in volume holographic interconnections," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2103–2113 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. DeLong and J. Parker, Jr., "Skylight laser warning receiver: laboratory and field test performance results (U)," Wright Laboratory Tech. Rep. WL-TR-93-1105 (Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson, AFB, Ohio, 1993).

1992

1991

1990

1989

A. C. Strasser, E. S. Maniloff, K. M. Johnson, and S. D. D. Goggin, "Procedure for recording multiple-exposure holograms with equal diffraction efficiency in photorefractive media," Opt. Lett. 14, 6–8 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. DeLong, A. Stephens, and R. Cunningham, "Two advanced laser warning systems: laboratory performance results (U)," in Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh Infrared Information Symposium on Infrared Countermeasures Conference, (Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, Md., 1989).

1988

H.-C. Külich, E. Krätzig, and R. A. Rupp, "Hologram stabilization in photorefractive crystals," in Nonlinear Optical Materials, G. Roosen, ed., Proc. SPIE 1017, 176–179 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Matull and R. A. Rupp, "Microphotometric investigation of fixed holograms," J. Phys. D 21, 1556–1565 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Psaltis, D. Brady, and K. Wagner, "Adaptive optical network using photorefractive crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 1752–1759 (1988).

1980

J. Feinberg, D. Heiman, A. R. Tanguay, and R. W. Hell-warth, "Photorefractive effects and light-induced charge migration in barium titanate," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1297– 1305 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

W. Meyer, P. Würfel, R. Munser, and G. Müller-Vogt, "Kinetics of fixation of phase holograms in LiNbO3," Phys. Status Solidi A 53, 171–180 (1979).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Kulikov and S. I. Stepanov, "Mechanisms of holographic recording and thermal fixing in photorefractive LiNbO3/sub> :Fe," Sov. Phys. Solid State 21, 1849–1851 (1979).

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, "Holographic storage in electro-optic crystals. I. Steady State," Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1971

J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, "Holographic pattern fixing in electro-optic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540–542 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969

H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory of thick hologram gratings," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
[CrossRef]

De Vré, R.

R. De Vré, J. F. Heanue, K. Gürken, and L. Hesselink, "Bragg detuning effects in photorefractive crystals," in Pho-torefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 475–478.

Agulló-López, F.

Amodei, J. J.

J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, "Holographic pattern fixing in electro-optic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540–542 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Anderberg, B.

B. Anderberg and M. L. Wolbarsht, Laser Weapons: The Dawn of a New Military Age (Plenum, New York, 1992), p. 218.

Arizmendi, L.

R. Mu¨ller, L. Arizmendi, M. Carrascosa, and J. M. Cabrera, "Time evolution of grating decay during photorefractive fixing processes in LiNbO3/sub> ," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 308–312(1995).
[CrossRef]

Bann, S.

Barker, R. C.

Bashaw, M. C.

Boj, S.

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1992), pp. 411–423.

Brady, D.

D. Brady and D. Psaltis, "Control of volume holograms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1167–1182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Psaltis, D. Brady, and K. Wagner, "Adaptive optical network using photorefractive crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 1752–1759 (1988).

Cabrera, J. M.

R. Mu¨ller, L. Arizmendi, M. Carrascosa, and J. M. Cabrera, "Time evolution of grating decay during photorefractive fixing processes in LiNbO3/sub> ," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 308–312(1995).
[CrossRef]

Carrascosa, M.

R. Mu¨ller, L. Arizmendi, M. Carrascosa, and J. M. Cabrera, "Time evolution of grating decay during photorefractive fixing processes in LiNbO3/sub> ," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 308–312(1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Carrascosa and F. Agulló-López, "Theoretical modeling of the fixing and developing of holographic gratings in LiNbO3/sub> ," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2317–2322 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, R.

M. DeLong, A. Stephens, and R. Cunningham, "Two advanced laser warning systems: laboratory performance results (U)," in Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh Infrared Information Symposium on Infrared Countermeasures Conference, (Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, Md., 1989).

DeLong, M.

M. DeLong and B. Duncan, "Laser threat discrimination based on volume holographic memory," in Proceedings of the IEEE 1995 National Aerospace and Electronics Conference (NAECON, Dayton, Ohio, 1995), pp. 831–838.

M. DeLong and J. Parker, Jr., "Skylight laser warning receiver: laboratory and field test performance results (U)," Wright Laboratory Tech. Rep. WL-TR-93-1105 (Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson, AFB, Ohio, 1993).

M. DeLong and J. Parker, "Laboratory performance results: E-Systems’ AVR-3 laser warning receiver (U)," Wright Laboratory Tech. Rep. WL-TR-92-1093, Vol. 1, and WL-TR-92-1094, Vol. 2 (1992).

M. DeLong, A. Stephens, and R. Cunningham, "Two advanced laser warning systems: laboratory performance results (U)," in Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh Infrared Information Symposium on Infrared Countermeasures Conference, (Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, Md., 1989).

DeLong, M. L.

S. A. Milligan, J. H. Parker, Jr., and M. L. DeLong, "Scanning radiometric imager (SRI)," in Proceedings of the IEEE 1996 National Aerospace and Electronics Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. 750–757.

Dierking, M. P.

M. P. Dierking and M. Karim, "Solid-block stationary Fourier-transform spectrometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 84–89 (1996).

Dube, R. R.

Duncan, B.

M. DeLong and B. Duncan, "Laser threat discrimination based on volume holographic memory," in Proceedings of the IEEE 1995 National Aerospace and Electronics Conference (NAECON, Dayton, Ohio, 1995), pp. 831–838.

Fainman, Y.

Feinberg, J.

J. Feinberg, D. Heiman, A. R. Tanguay, and R. W. Hell-warth, "Photorefractive effects and light-induced charge migration in barium titanate," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1297– 1305 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ford, J. E.

Goggin, S. D. D.

Gu, C.

Gürken, K.

R. De Vré, J. F. Heanue, K. Gürken, and L. Hesselink, "Bragg detuning effects in photorefractive crystals," in Pho-torefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 475–478.

Heanue, J. F.

R. De Vré, J. F. Heanue, K. Gürken, and L. Hesselink, "Bragg detuning effects in photorefractive crystals," in Pho-torefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 475–478.

Heiman, D.

J. Feinberg, D. Heiman, A. R. Tanguay, and R. W. Hell-warth, "Photorefractive effects and light-induced charge migration in barium titanate," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1297– 1305 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hell-warth, R. W.

J. Feinberg, D. Heiman, A. R. Tanguay, and R. W. Hell-warth, "Photorefractive effects and light-induced charge migration in barium titanate," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1297– 1305 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hesselink, L.

R. De Vré, J. F. Heanue, K. Gürken, and L. Hesselink, "Bragg detuning effects in photorefractive crystals," in Pho-torefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 475–478.

Hong, J.

Huignard, J.-P.

Johnson, K.

E. Maniloff and K. Johnson, "Maximized photorefractive holographic storage," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 4702–4707 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K. M.

Karim, M.

M. P. Dierking and M. Karim, "Solid-block stationary Fourier-transform spectrometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 84–89 (1996).

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory of thick hologram gratings," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Krätzig, E.

H.-C. Külich and E. Krätzig, "Reconstruction of volume holograms at different wavelengths," in Nonlinear Optical Materials III, P. Guenter, ed., Proc. SPIE 1273, 60–67 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Külich, E. Krätzig, and R. A. Rupp, "Hologram stabilization in photorefractive crystals," in Nonlinear Optical Materials, G. Roosen, ed., Proc. SPIE 1017, 176–179 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kukhtarev, N. V.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, "Holographic storage in electro-optic crystals. I. Steady State," Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Külich, H.-C.

H.-C. Külich, "Transfer function for image formation of objects reconstructed from volume holograms with different wavelengths," Appl. Opt. 31, 2461–2477 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-C. Külich, "Reconstructing volume holograms without image field losses," Appl. Opt. 30, 2850–2857 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-C. Külich and E. Krätzig, "Reconstruction of volume holograms at different wavelengths," in Nonlinear Optical Materials III, P. Guenter, ed., Proc. SPIE 1273, 60–67 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Külich, E. Krätzig, and R. A. Rupp, "Hologram stabilization in photorefractive crystals," in Nonlinear Optical Materials, G. Roosen, ed., Proc. SPIE 1017, 176–179 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kulikov, V. V.

V. V. Kulikov and S. I. Stepanov, "Mechanisms of holographic recording and thermal fixing in photorefractive LiNbO3/sub> :Fe," Sov. Phys. Solid State 21, 1849–1851 (1979).

Lee, H.

H. Lee, "Perturbative integral expansion method of analyzing crosstalks in volume holographic interconnections," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2103–2113 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

Leyva, V.

Ma, J.

Ma, T.-P.

Maniloff, E.

E. Maniloff and K. Johnson, "Maximized photorefractive holographic storage," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 4702–4707 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Maniloff, E. S.

Markov, V. B.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, "Holographic storage in electro-optic crystals. I. Steady State," Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Matull, R.

R. Matull and R. A. Rupp, "Microphotometric investigation of fixed holograms," J. Phys. D 21, 1556–1565 (1988).
[CrossRef]

McMichael, I.

Meyer, W.

W. Meyer, P. Würfel, R. Munser, and G. Müller-Vogt, "Kinetics of fixation of phase holograms in LiNbO3," Phys. Status Solidi A 53, 171–180 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Midwinter, J. E.

Milligan, S. A.

S. A. Milligan, J. H. Parker, Jr., and M. L. DeLong, "Scanning radiometric imager (SRI)," in Proceedings of the IEEE 1996 National Aerospace and Electronics Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. 750–757.

Mok, F.

Mroczkowski, S.

Müller-Vogt, G.

W. Meyer, P. Würfel, R. Munser, and G. Müller-Vogt, "Kinetics of fixation of phase holograms in LiNbO3," Phys. Status Solidi A 53, 171–180 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Munser, R.

W. Meyer, P. Würfel, R. Munser, and G. Müller-Vogt, "Kinetics of fixation of phase holograms in LiNbO3," Phys. Status Solidi A 53, 171–180 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Muüller, R.

R. Mu¨ller, L. Arizmendi, M. Carrascosa, and J. M. Cabrera, "Time evolution of grating decay during photorefractive fixing processes in LiNbO3/sub> ," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 308–312(1995).
[CrossRef]

Odulov, S. G.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, "Holographic storage in electro-optic crystals. I. Steady State," Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Orlov, S.

Parker, J.

M. DeLong and J. Parker, "Laboratory performance results: E-Systems’ AVR-3 laser warning receiver (U)," Wright Laboratory Tech. Rep. WL-TR-92-1093, Vol. 1, and WL-TR-92-1094, Vol. 2 (1992).

Parker, Jr., J.

M. DeLong and J. Parker, Jr., "Skylight laser warning receiver: laboratory and field test performance results (U)," Wright Laboratory Tech. Rep. WL-TR-93-1105 (Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson, AFB, Ohio, 1993).

Parker, Jr., J. H.

S. A. Milligan, J. H. Parker, Jr., and M. L. DeLong, "Scanning radiometric imager (SRI)," in Proceedings of the IEEE 1996 National Aerospace and Electronics Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. 750–757.

Pauliat, G.

Psaltis, D.

D. Psaltis, "Holographic storage," Photorefractive Materials, Effects and Devices Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), invited talk TI1.

D. Psaltis and F. Mok, "Holographic memories," Sci. Am. 11, 70–76 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Brady and D. Psaltis, "Control of volume holograms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1167–1182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Psaltis, D. Brady, and K. Wagner, "Adaptive optical network using photorefractive crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 1752–1759 (1988).

Rajbenback, H.

Rakuljic, G.

Roosen, G.

Rupp, R. A.

H.-C. Külich, E. Krätzig, and R. A. Rupp, "Hologram stabilization in photorefractive crystals," in Nonlinear Optical Materials, G. Roosen, ed., Proc. SPIE 1017, 176–179 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Matull and R. A. Rupp, "Microphotometric investigation of fixed holograms," J. Phys. D 21, 1556–1565 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, H.

Saxena, R.

Selviah, D. R.

Soskin, M. S.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, "Holographic storage in electro-optic crystals. I. Steady State," Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979).
[CrossRef]

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Stoll, H. M.

Strasser, A. C.

Tackitt, M. C.

Taketomi, Y.

Tanguay, A. R.

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Yeh, P.

Appl. Opt.

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[CrossRef]

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M. P. Dierking and M. Karim, "Solid-block stationary Fourier-transform spectrometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 84–89 (1996).

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory of thick hologram gratings," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
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Ferroelectrics

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, "Holographic storage in electro-optic crystals. I. Steady State," Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. Feinberg, D. Heiman, A. R. Tanguay, and R. W. Hell-warth, "Photorefractive effects and light-induced charge migration in barium titanate," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1297– 1305 (1980).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

E. Maniloff and K. Johnson, "Maximized photorefractive holographic storage," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 4702–4707 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Mu¨ller, L. Arizmendi, M. Carrascosa, and J. M. Cabrera, "Time evolution of grating decay during photorefractive fixing processes in LiNbO3/sub> ," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 308–312(1995).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. D

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Visible cw-laser threat ground simulation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Crystal and taper configuration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Display interface design. Elev., elevation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Crystal orientation geometry showing the bisector angle θ and the beam intersection half-angle β, which together locate the propagation and the polarization directions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photorefractive-induced index perturbation Δn as a function of the internal two-beam crossing half-angle β and the crystal axis orientation θ, in Fe:LiNbO3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental layout schematic for hologram recording.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Diffraction efficiency as a function of recording time for equal-intensity plane waves (top curve) and the actual object image and plane-wave reference (bottom curve).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Samples of the reconstructed holographic image patterns (4 of 240).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Relative diffracted image irradiance as a function of elevation angle. Dashed line, approximate adjacent background level.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Diffraction efficiency predicted from the model.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Focal-plane detector output voltage response as a function of the crystal illumination level.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Kodak KAF-1300L Image Sensor Operation Parameters

Equations (7)

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Δ n = 1 2 n 3 r eff E sc ,
r eff = e ˆ 1 * · [ ε ( 0 ) · ( R · k ˆ g ) · ε ( 0 ) ] · e ˆ 2 .
E sc = i m k B T q k g 1 + k g Λ 0 2 ,
m = e ˆ 1 · e ˆ 2 * 2 E 1 E 2 * | E 1 | 2 + | E 2 | 2 .
Λ 0 2 = q 2 k B T N eff ( k ˆ g · ε dc · k ˆ g ) ,
R ( λ ) = A d V d N η λ h c .
V out = t int · λ min λ max R ( λ ) · I ( λ ) d λ .

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