Abstract

We report measurements of seventh-harmonic generation in xenon, using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser operating at ∼763 nm, at intensities of as much as 2 × 1014 W/cm2. Several atomic levels in xenon are nearly resonant with the seventh harmonic; as a consequence, the phase mismatch exhibits strong variations as a function of frequency. As a result of the tight-focusing condition, these variations are mapped directly onto the spectrum of the harmonic radiation. We have measured the pressure and the intensity dependences of the harmonic signal, and we report an unusual recurrence of the signal at moderately high pressures, which may also be related to resonance effects. The tight-focusing geometry, in which the variations in the phase mismatch may most easily be observed, affords the opportunity for investigations of the spectroscopy of bound states in the presence of extremely high fields.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  27. R. Rosman, G. Gibson, K. Boyer, H. Jara, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, and C. K. Rhodes, "Fifth-harmonic production in neon and argon with picosecond 248-nm radiation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1237–1242 (1988).
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  28. A. L'Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonic generation," J. Phys. B 24, 3315–3341 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. L'Huillier, X. F. Li, and L. A. Lomprè, "Propagation effects in high-order harmonic generation in rare gases," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 527–536 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  30. K. C. Kulander and B. W. Shore, "Calculations of multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064-nm radiation in Xe," Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 524–526 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. K. C. Kulander, "Time-dependent theory of multiphoton ionization of xenon," Phys. Rev. A 38, 778–787 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, "Supercontinuum generation in gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268–2271 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. H. G. Muller, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, P. Agostini, G. Petite, A. Antonetti, M. Franco, and A. Migus, "Multiphoton ionization of xenon with 100-fs laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 565–568 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  35. M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, W. V. Davis, and K. Rzazewski, "Anomalies in optical harmonic generation using high-intensity laser radiation," Phys. Rev. A 41, 3822–3825 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. A. L'Huillier, Ph. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Calculations of high-order harmonic-generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm," Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778–2790 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  37. J. E. Muffett, C.-G. Wahlström, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, "Numerical modeling of the spatial profiles of high-order harmonics," J. Phys. B 27, 5693–5706 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  41. X. Xiong, "Generation of broadly tunable, narrow-bandwidth, and intense coherent vacuum ultraviolet radiation in rare gases," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Maryland, College Park, Md., 1991).
  42. H. Puell, K. Spanner, W. Falkenstein, W. Kaiser, and C. R. Vidal, "Third-harmonic generation of mode-locked Nd:glass laser pulses in phase-matched Rb–Xe mixtures," Phys. Rev. A 14, 2240–2257 (1976).
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  44. M. P. de Boer and H. G. Muller, "A systematic study of ac Stark shifts in xenon at super-high laser intensities," J. Phys. B 27, 721–732 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  45. H. Rottke, D. Feldmann, B. Wolff-Rottke, and H. Welge, "Atomic hydrogen in intense short laser pulses: a series of photoelectron peaks from above-threshold ionization," J. Phys. B 26, 15–22 (1993); M. Dörr, D. Feldmann, R. M. Potvliege, H. Rottke, R. Shakeshaft, K. H. Welge, and B. Wolff-Rottke, "The energy spectrum of photoelectrons produced by multiphoton ionization of atomic hydrogen," J. Phys. B 25, 275–280 (1992); M. Dörr, R. M. Potvliege, and R. Shakeshaft, "Multiphoton processes in an intense laser field. III. Resonant ionization of hydrogen by subpicosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. A 41, 558–561 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  46. H. J. Lehmeier, W. Leupacher, and A. Penzkofer, "Nonresonant third order hyperpolarizability of rare gases and N2/sub> determined by third harmonic generation," Opt. Commun. 56, 67–72 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  47. M. Ghelfenstein, R. Lopez-Delgado, and H. Szwarc, "Time-resolved excitation spectra of xenon vapor in the 1500 Å region," Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 312–319 (1977); R. S. Mulliken, "Potential curves of diatomic rare-gas molecules and their ions, with particular reference to Xe2," J. Chem. Phys. 52, 5170–5180 (1970).
    [CrossRef]

1995

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nguyen, L. B. DaSilva, and M. D. Perry, "Energy-yield and conversion-efficiency measurements of high-order harmonic radiation," Phys. Rev. A 51, 902–905 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Peatross and D. D. Meyerhofer, "Angular distribution of high-order harmonics emitted from rare gases at low density," Phys. Rev. A 51, 906–909 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. E. Muffett, C.-G. Wahlström, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, "Numerical modeling of the spatial profiles of high-order harmonics," J. Phys. B 27, 5693–5706 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. P. de Boer and H. G. Muller, "A systematic study of ac Stark shifts in xenon at super-high laser intensities," J. Phys. B 27, 721–732 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Kondo, T. Tamida, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, "High-order harmonic generation and ionization using ultrashort KrF and Ti:sapphire lasers," Phys. Rev. A 49, 3881–3889 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Salières, T. Ditmire, K. S. Budil, M. D. Perry, and A. L'Huillier, "Spatial profiles of high-order harmonics generated by a femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser," J. Phys. B 27, L217–L222 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. K. Crane, M. D. Perry, D. Strickland, S. Herman, and R. W. Falcone, "Coherent and incoherent XUV emissions in helium and neon, laser-driven plasmas," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 82–89 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L'Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C.-G. Wahlström, "High-order harmonic-generation cutoff," Phys. Rev. A 48, 3433–3436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon III, "High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766–769 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L'Huillier and Ph. Balcou, "High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-ps 1053-nm laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C.-G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L'Huillier, "High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser," Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709–4720 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ph. Balcou and A. L'Huillier, "Phase-matching effects in strong-field harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. A 47, 1447–1459 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rottke, D. Feldmann, B. Wolff-Rottke, and H. Welge, "Atomic hydrogen in intense short laser pulses: a series of photoelectron peaks from above-threshold ionization," J. Phys. B 26, 15–22 (1993); M. Dörr, D. Feldmann, R. M. Potvliege, H. Rottke, R. Shakeshaft, K. H. Welge, and B. Wolff-Rottke, "The energy spectrum of photoelectrons produced by multiphoton ionization of atomic hydrogen," J. Phys. B 25, 275–280 (1992); M. Dörr, R. M. Potvliege, and R. Shakeshaft, "Multiphoton processes in an intense laser field. III. Resonant ionization of hydrogen by subpicosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. A 41, 558–561 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Chuang, L. Zheng, and D. D. Meyerhofer, "Propagation of light pulses in a chirped-pulse-amplification laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 270–280 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

J. K. Crane, M. D. Perry, S. Herman, and R. W. Falcone, "High-field harmonic generation in helium," Opt. Lett. 17, 1256–1258 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L'Huillier, Ph. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Calculations of high-order harmonic-generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm," Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778–2790 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Miyazaki and H. Sakai, "High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with intense subpicosecond dye laser pulses," J. Phys. B 25, L83–L89 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

N. Sarukura, K. Hata, T. Adachi, R. Nodomi, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, "Coherent soft x-ray generation by the harmonics of an ultrahigh-power KrF laser," Phys. Rev. A 43, 1669–1672 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xiong, "Generation of broadly tunable, narrow-bandwidth, and intense coherent vacuum ultraviolet radiation in rare gases," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Maryland, College Park, Md., 1991).

A. L'Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonic generation," J. Phys. B 24, 3315–3341 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Sher, J. Benerofe, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, "2-Hz 109-nm mirrorless laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 114–116 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

A. L'Huillier, X. F. Li, and L. A. Lomprè, "Propagation effects in high-order harmonic generation in rare gases," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 527–536 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, W. V. Davis, and K. Rzazewski, "Anomalies in optical harmonic generation using high-intensity laser radiation," Phys. Rev. A 41, 3822–3825 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

K. C. Kulander and B. W. Shore, "Calculations of multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064-nm radiation in Xe," Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 524–526 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

K. C. Kulander, "Time-dependent theory of multiphoton ionization of xenon," Phys. Rev. A 38, 778–787 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Muller, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, P. Agostini, G. Petite, A. Antonetti, M. Franco, and A. Migus, "Multiphoton ionization of xenon with 100-fs laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 565–568 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ferray, A. L'Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lomprè, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases," J. Phys. B 21, L31–L35 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. L'Huillier, L. A. Lomprè, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "Third-harmonic generation in xenon in a pulsed jet and a gas cell," Europhys. Lett. 5, 601–606 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Rosman, G. Gibson, K. Boyer, H. Jara, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, and C. K. Rhodes, "Fifth-harmonic production in neon and argon with picosecond 248-nm radiation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1237–1242 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

1986

H. C. Kapteyn, R. W. Lee, and R. W. Falcone, "Observation of a short-wavelength laser pumped by Auger decay," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2939–2942 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, "Supercontinuum generation in gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268–2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

H. J. Lehmeier, W. Leupacher, and A. Penzkofer, "Nonresonant third order hyperpolarizability of rare gases and N2/sub> determined by third harmonic generation," Opt. Commun. 56, 67–72 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983

1982

R. A. Ganeev, I. A. Kulagin, T. Usmanov, and S. T. Khudaiberganov, "Investigation of the generation of λ = 118.2 nm coherent radiation in rare gases," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1637–1640 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980

1979

R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, V. P. Myerscough, and D. W. Koopman, "Third-harmonic generation in argon, krypton, and xenon: bandwidth limitations in the vicinity of Lyman-α," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 444–451 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

L. J. Zych and J. F. Young, "Limitation of 3547 to 1182 Å conversion efficiency in Xe," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 147–149 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Reintjes, C.-Y. She, and R. C. Eckardt, "Generation of coherent radiation in the XUV by fifth- and seventh-order frequency conversion in rare gases," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 581–596 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

J. Geiger, "Energy loss spectra of xenon and krypton and their analysis by energy-dependent multichannel quantum defect theory," Z. Phys. A 282, 129–141 (1977); J. Berkowitz, Photoabsorption, Photoionization, and Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1979), Chap. 5.
[CrossRef]

M. Ghelfenstein, R. Lopez-Delgado, and H. Szwarc, "Time-resolved excitation spectra of xenon vapor in the 1500 Å region," Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 312–319 (1977); R. S. Mulliken, "Potential curves of diatomic rare-gas molecules and their ions, with particular reference to Xe2," J. Chem. Phys. 52, 5170–5180 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1976

H. Puell, K. Spanner, W. Falkenstein, W. Kaiser, and C. R. Vidal, "Third-harmonic generation of mode-locked Nd:glass laser pulses in phase-matched Rb–Xe mixtures," Phys. Rev. A 14, 2240–2257 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975

G. C. Bjorklund, "Effects of focusing on third-order nonlinear processes in isotropic media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 287–296 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1969

J. F. Ward and G. H. C. New, "Optical third harmonic generation in gases by a focused laser beam," Phys. Rev. 185, 57–72 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, T.

N. Sarukura, K. Hata, T. Adachi, R. Nodomi, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, "Coherent soft x-ray generation by the harmonics of an ultrahigh-power KrF laser," Phys. Rev. A 43, 1669–1672 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agostini, P.

H. G. Muller, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, P. Agostini, G. Petite, A. Antonetti, M. Franco, and A. Migus, "Multiphoton ionization of xenon with 100-fs laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 565–568 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antonetti, A.

H. G. Muller, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, P. Agostini, G. Petite, A. Antonetti, M. Franco, and A. Migus, "Multiphoton ionization of xenon with 100-fs laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 565–568 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, Ph.

A. L'Huillier and Ph. Balcou, "High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-ps 1053-nm laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Balcou and A. L'Huillier, "Phase-matching effects in strong-field harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. A 47, 1447–1459 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L'Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C.-G. Wahlström, "High-order harmonic-generation cutoff," Phys. Rev. A 48, 3433–3436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C.-G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L'Huillier, "High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser," Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709–4720 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L'Huillier, Ph. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Calculations of high-order harmonic-generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm," Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778–2790 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Benerofe, J.

Bjorklund, G. C.

G. C. Bjorklund, "Effects of focusing on third-order nonlinear processes in isotropic media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 287–296 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Boer, M. P. de

M. P. de Boer and H. G. Muller, "A systematic study of ac Stark shifts in xenon at super-high laser intensities," J. Phys. B 27, 721–732 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bokor, J.

Boyd, R. W.

M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, W. V. Davis, and K. Rzazewski, "Anomalies in optical harmonic generation using high-intensity laser radiation," Phys. Rev. A 41, 3822–3825 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyer, K.

Bucksbaum, P. H.

Budil, K. S.

P. Salières, T. Ditmire, K. S. Budil, M. D. Perry, and A. L'Huillier, "Spatial profiles of high-order harmonics generated by a femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser," J. Phys. B 27, L217–L222 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Candel, S.

A. L'Huillier, Ph. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Calculations of high-order harmonic-generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm," Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778–2790 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Chuang, L. Zheng, and D. D. Meyerhofer, "Propagation of light pulses in a chirped-pulse-amplification laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 270–280 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, "Supercontinuum generation in gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268–2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crane, J. K.

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nguyen, L. B. DaSilva, and M. D. Perry, "Energy-yield and conversion-efficiency measurements of high-order harmonic radiation," Phys. Rev. A 51, 902–905 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Crane, M. D. Perry, D. Strickland, S. Herman, and R. W. Falcone, "Coherent and incoherent XUV emissions in helium and neon, laser-driven plasmas," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 82–89 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Crane, M. D. Perry, S. Herman, and R. W. Falcone, "High-field harmonic generation in helium," Opt. Lett. 17, 1256–1258 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DaSilva, L. B.

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nguyen, L. B. DaSilva, and M. D. Perry, "Energy-yield and conversion-efficiency measurements of high-order harmonic radiation," Phys. Rev. A 51, 902–905 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Davis, W. V.

M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, W. V. Davis, and K. Rzazewski, "Anomalies in optical harmonic generation using high-intensity laser radiation," Phys. Rev. A 41, 3822–3825 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ditmire, T.

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nguyen, L. B. DaSilva, and M. D. Perry, "Energy-yield and conversion-efficiency measurements of high-order harmonic radiation," Phys. Rev. A 51, 902–905 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Salières, T. Ditmire, K. S. Budil, M. D. Perry, and A. L'Huillier, "Spatial profiles of high-order harmonics generated by a femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser," J. Phys. B 27, L217–L222 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Eckardt, R. C.

J. Reintjes, C.-Y. She, and R. C. Eckardt, "Generation of coherent radiation in the XUV by fifth- and seventh-order frequency conversion in rare gases," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 581–596 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Egger, H.

Falcone, R. W.

J. K. Crane, M. D. Perry, D. Strickland, S. Herman, and R. W. Falcone, "Coherent and incoherent XUV emissions in helium and neon, laser-driven plasmas," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 82–89 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Crane, M. D. Perry, S. Herman, and R. W. Falcone, "High-field harmonic generation in helium," Opt. Lett. 17, 1256–1258 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kapteyn, R. W. Lee, and R. W. Falcone, "Observation of a short-wavelength laser pumped by Auger decay," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2939–2942 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falkenstein, W.

H. Puell, K. Spanner, W. Falkenstein, W. Kaiser, and C. R. Vidal, "Third-harmonic generation of mode-locked Nd:glass laser pulses in phase-matched Rb–Xe mixtures," Phys. Rev. A 14, 2240–2257 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, D.

H. Rottke, D. Feldmann, B. Wolff-Rottke, and H. Welge, "Atomic hydrogen in intense short laser pulses: a series of photoelectron peaks from above-threshold ionization," J. Phys. B 26, 15–22 (1993); M. Dörr, D. Feldmann, R. M. Potvliege, H. Rottke, R. Shakeshaft, K. H. Welge, and B. Wolff-Rottke, "The energy spectrum of photoelectrons produced by multiphoton ionization of atomic hydrogen," J. Phys. B 25, 275–280 (1992); M. Dörr, R. M. Potvliege, and R. Shakeshaft, "Multiphoton processes in an intense laser field. III. Resonant ionization of hydrogen by subpicosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. A 41, 558–561 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ferray, M.

A. L'Huillier, L. A. Lomprè, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "Third-harmonic generation in xenon in a pulsed jet and a gas cell," Europhys. Lett. 5, 601–606 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Ferray, A. L'Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lomprè, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases," J. Phys. B 21, L31–L35 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

H. G. Muller, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, P. Agostini, G. Petite, A. Antonetti, M. Franco, and A. Migus, "Multiphoton ionization of xenon with 100-fs laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 565–568 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freeman, R. R.

Ganeev, R. A.

R. A. Ganeev, I. A. Kulagin, T. Usmanov, and S. T. Khudaiberganov, "Investigation of the generation of λ = 118.2 nm coherent radiation in rare gases," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1637–1640 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Geiger, J.

J. Geiger, "Energy loss spectra of xenon and krypton and their analysis by energy-dependent multichannel quantum defect theory," Z. Phys. A 282, 129–141 (1977); J. Berkowitz, Photoabsorption, Photoionization, and Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1979), Chap. 5.
[CrossRef]

Ghelfenstein, M.

M. Ghelfenstein, R. Lopez-Delgado, and H. Szwarc, "Time-resolved excitation spectra of xenon vapor in the 1500 Å region," Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 312–319 (1977); R. S. Mulliken, "Potential curves of diatomic rare-gas molecules and their ions, with particular reference to Xe2," J. Chem. Phys. 52, 5170–5180 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, G.

Gordon, C. L.

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon III, "High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766–769 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, S. E.

Hata, K.

N. Sarukura, K. Hata, T. Adachi, R. Nodomi, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, "Coherent soft x-ray generation by the harmonics of an ultrahigh-power KrF laser," Phys. Rev. A 43, 1669–1672 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawkins, R. T.

Herman, S.

J. K. Crane, M. D. Perry, D. Strickland, S. Herman, and R. W. Falcone, "Coherent and incoherent XUV emissions in helium and neon, laser-driven plasmas," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 82–89 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Crane, M. D. Perry, S. Herman, and R. W. Falcone, "High-field harmonic generation in helium," Opt. Lett. 17, 1256–1258 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heuvell, H. B. van Linden van den

H. G. Muller, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, P. Agostini, G. Petite, A. Antonetti, M. Franco, and A. Migus, "Multiphoton ionization of xenon with 100-fs laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 565–568 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutchinson, M. H. R.

J. E. Muffett, C.-G. Wahlström, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, "Numerical modeling of the spatial profiles of high-order harmonics," J. Phys. B 27, 5693–5706 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, M. Yu.

A. L'Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C.-G. Wahlström, "High-order harmonic-generation cutoff," Phys. Rev. A 48, 3433–3436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jara, H.

Johann, U.

Kaiser, W.

H. Puell, K. Spanner, W. Falkenstein, W. Kaiser, and C. R. Vidal, "Third-harmonic generation of mode-locked Nd:glass laser pulses in phase-matched Rb–Xe mixtures," Phys. Rev. A 14, 2240–2257 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

H. C. Kapteyn, R. W. Lee, and R. W. Falcone, "Observation of a short-wavelength laser pumped by Auger decay," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2939–2942 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khudaiberganov, S. T.

R. A. Ganeev, I. A. Kulagin, T. Usmanov, and S. T. Khudaiberganov, "Investigation of the generation of λ = 118.2 nm coherent radiation in rare gases," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1637–1640 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kmetec, J. D.

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon III, "High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766–769 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kondo, K.

K. Kondo, T. Tamida, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, "High-order harmonic generation and ionization using ultrashort KrF and Ti:sapphire lasers," Phys. Rev. A 49, 3881–3889 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koopman, D. W.

R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, V. P. Myerscough, and D. W. Koopman, "Third-harmonic generation in argon, krypton, and xenon: bandwidth limitations in the vicinity of Lyman-α," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 444–451 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kulagin, I. A.

R. A. Ganeev, I. A. Kulagin, T. Usmanov, and S. T. Khudaiberganov, "Investigation of the generation of λ = 118.2 nm coherent radiation in rare gases," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1637–1640 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kulander, K. C.

A. L'Huillier, Ph. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Calculations of high-order harmonic-generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm," Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778–2790 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. L'Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonic generation," J. Phys. B 24, 3315–3341 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Kulander and B. W. Shore, "Calculations of multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064-nm radiation in Xe," Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 524–526 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Kulander, "Time-dependent theory of multiphoton ionization of xenon," Phys. Rev. A 38, 778–787 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langer, H.

H. Langer, H. Puell, and H. Röhr, "Lyman alpha (1216 Å) generation in krypton," Opt. Commun. 34, 137–142 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, J.

C.-G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L'Huillier, "High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser," Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709–4720 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L'Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C.-G. Wahlström, "High-order harmonic-generation cutoff," Phys. Rev. A 48, 3433–3436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. W.

H. C. Kapteyn, R. W. Lee, and R. W. Falcone, "Observation of a short-wavelength laser pumped by Auger decay," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2939–2942 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lehmeier, H. J.

H. J. Lehmeier, W. Leupacher, and A. Penzkofer, "Nonresonant third order hyperpolarizability of rare gases and N2/sub> determined by third harmonic generation," Opt. Commun. 56, 67–72 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Leupacher, W.

H. J. Lehmeier, W. Leupacher, and A. Penzkofer, "Nonresonant third order hyperpolarizability of rare gases and N2/sub> determined by third harmonic generation," Opt. Commun. 56, 67–72 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lewenstein, M.

A. L'Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C.-G. Wahlström, "High-order harmonic-generation cutoff," Phys. Rev. A 48, 3433–3436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L'Huillier, A.

P. Salières, T. Ditmire, K. S. Budil, M. D. Perry, and A. L'Huillier, "Spatial profiles of high-order harmonics generated by a femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser," J. Phys. B 27, L217–L222 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Balcou and A. L'Huillier, "Phase-matching effects in strong-field harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. A 47, 1447–1459 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L'Huillier and Ph. Balcou, "High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-ps 1053-nm laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L'Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C.-G. Wahlström, "High-order harmonic-generation cutoff," Phys. Rev. A 48, 3433–3436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C.-G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L'Huillier, "High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser," Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709–4720 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L'Huillier, Ph. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Calculations of high-order harmonic-generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm," Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778–2790 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. L'Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonic generation," J. Phys. B 24, 3315–3341 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. L'Huillier, X. F. Li, and L. A. Lomprè, "Propagation effects in high-order harmonic generation in rare gases," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 527–536 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. L'Huillier, L. A. Lomprè, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "Third-harmonic generation in xenon in a pulsed jet and a gas cell," Europhys. Lett. 5, 601–606 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Ferray, A. L'Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lomprè, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases," J. Phys. B 21, L31–L35 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. F.

A. L'Huillier, X. F. Li, and L. A. Lomprè, "Propagation effects in high-order harmonic generation in rare gases," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 527–536 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Ferray, A. L'Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lomprè, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases," J. Phys. B 21, L31–L35 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. L'Huillier, L. A. Lomprè, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "Third-harmonic generation in xenon in a pulsed jet and a gas cell," Europhys. Lett. 5, 601–606 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lomprè, L. A.

A. L'Huillier, X. F. Li, and L. A. Lomprè, "Propagation effects in high-order harmonic generation in rare gases," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 527–536 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. L'Huillier, L. A. Lomprè, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "Third-harmonic generation in xenon in a pulsed jet and a gas cell," Europhys. Lett. 5, 601–606 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Ferray, A. L'Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lomprè, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases," J. Phys. B 21, L31–L35 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Delgado, R.

M. Ghelfenstein, R. Lopez-Delgado, and H. Szwarc, "Time-resolved excitation spectra of xenon vapor in the 1500 Å region," Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 312–319 (1977); R. S. Mulliken, "Potential curves of diatomic rare-gas molecules and their ions, with particular reference to Xe2," J. Chem. Phys. 52, 5170–5180 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Luk, T. S.

Macklin, J. J.

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon III, "High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766–769 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahon, R.

R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, V. P. Myerscough, and D. W. Koopman, "Third-harmonic generation in argon, krypton, and xenon: bandwidth limitations in the vicinity of Lyman-α," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 444–451 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mainfray, G.

M. Ferray, A. L'Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lomprè, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases," J. Phys. B 21, L31–L35 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. L'Huillier, L. A. Lomprè, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "Third-harmonic generation in xenon in a pulsed jet and a gas cell," Europhys. Lett. 5, 601–606 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Malcuit, M. S.

M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, W. V. Davis, and K. Rzazewski, "Anomalies in optical harmonic generation using high-intensity laser radiation," Phys. Rev. A 41, 3822–3825 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manus, C.

A. L'Huillier, L. A. Lomprè, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "Third-harmonic generation in xenon in a pulsed jet and a gas cell," Europhys. Lett. 5, 601–606 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Ferray, A. L'Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lomprè, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases," J. Phys. B 21, L31–L35 (1988).
[CrossRef]

McIlrath, T. J.

R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, V. P. Myerscough, and D. W. Koopman, "Third-harmonic generation in argon, krypton, and xenon: bandwidth limitations in the vicinity of Lyman-α," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 444–451 (1979).
[CrossRef]

McIntyre, I. A.

McPherson, A.

Meyerhofer, D. D.

J. Peatross and D. D. Meyerhofer, "Angular distribution of high-order harmonics emitted from rare gases at low density," Phys. Rev. A 51, 906–909 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Chuang, L. Zheng, and D. D. Meyerhofer, "Propagation of light pulses in a chirped-pulse-amplification laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 270–280 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Migus, A.

H. G. Muller, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, P. Agostini, G. Petite, A. Antonetti, M. Franco, and A. Migus, "Multiphoton ionization of xenon with 100-fs laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 565–568 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyazaki, K.

K. Miyazaki and H. Sakai, "High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with intense subpicosecond dye laser pulses," J. Phys. B 25, L83–L89 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Muffett, J. E.

J. E. Muffett, C.-G. Wahlström, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, "Numerical modeling of the spatial profiles of high-order harmonics," J. Phys. B 27, 5693–5706 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Muller, H. G.

M. P. de Boer and H. G. Muller, "A systematic study of ac Stark shifts in xenon at super-high laser intensities," J. Phys. B 27, 721–732 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Muller, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, P. Agostini, G. Petite, A. Antonetti, M. Franco, and A. Migus, "Multiphoton ionization of xenon with 100-fs laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 565–568 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myerscough, V. P.

R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, V. P. Myerscough, and D. W. Koopman, "Third-harmonic generation in argon, krypton, and xenon: bandwidth limitations in the vicinity of Lyman-α," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 444–451 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Nabekawa, Y.

K. Kondo, T. Tamida, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, "High-order harmonic generation and ionization using ultrashort KrF and Ti:sapphire lasers," Phys. Rev. A 49, 3881–3889 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New, G. H. C.

J. F. Ward and G. H. C. New, "Optical third harmonic generation in gases by a focused laser beam," Phys. Rev. 185, 57–72 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nguyen, L. B. DaSilva, and M. D. Perry, "Energy-yield and conversion-efficiency measurements of high-order harmonic radiation," Phys. Rev. A 51, 902–905 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nodomi, R.

N. Sarukura, K. Hata, T. Adachi, R. Nodomi, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, "Coherent soft x-ray generation by the harmonics of an ultrahigh-power KrF laser," Phys. Rev. A 43, 1669–1672 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peatross, J.

J. Peatross and D. D. Meyerhofer, "Angular distribution of high-order harmonics emitted from rare gases at low density," Phys. Rev. A 51, 906–909 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Penzkofer, A.

H. J. Lehmeier, W. Leupacher, and A. Penzkofer, "Nonresonant third order hyperpolarizability of rare gases and N2/sub> determined by third harmonic generation," Opt. Commun. 56, 67–72 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nguyen, L. B. DaSilva, and M. D. Perry, "Energy-yield and conversion-efficiency measurements of high-order harmonic radiation," Phys. Rev. A 51, 902–905 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Salières, T. Ditmire, K. S. Budil, M. D. Perry, and A. L'Huillier, "Spatial profiles of high-order harmonics generated by a femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser," J. Phys. B 27, L217–L222 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Crane, M. D. Perry, D. Strickland, S. Herman, and R. W. Falcone, "Coherent and incoherent XUV emissions in helium and neon, laser-driven plasmas," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 82–89 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Crane, M. D. Perry, S. Herman, and R. W. Falcone, "High-field harmonic generation in helium," Opt. Lett. 17, 1256–1258 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Persson, A.

C.-G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L'Huillier, "High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser," Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709–4720 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petite, G.

H. G. Muller, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, P. Agostini, G. Petite, A. Antonetti, M. Franco, and A. Migus, "Multiphoton ionization of xenon with 100-fs laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 565–568 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puell, H.

H. Langer, H. Puell, and H. Röhr, "Lyman alpha (1216 Å) generation in krypton," Opt. Commun. 34, 137–142 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. Puell, K. Spanner, W. Falkenstein, W. Kaiser, and C. R. Vidal, "Third-harmonic generation of mode-locked Nd:glass laser pulses in phase-matched Rb–Xe mixtures," Phys. Rev. A 14, 2240–2257 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Pummer, H.

Reintjes, J.

J. Reintjes, "Frequency mixing in the extreme ultraviolet," Appl. Opt. 19, 3889–3896 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Reintjes, C.-Y. She, and R. C. Eckardt, "Generation of coherent radiation in the XUV by fifth- and seventh-order frequency conversion in rare gases," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 581–596 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Reintjes, Nonlinear Optical Parametric Processes in Liquids and Gases (Academic, New York, 1984), Chap. 3.

Rhodes, C. K.

Röhr, H.

H. Langer, H. Puell, and H. Röhr, "Lyman alpha (1216 Å) generation in krypton," Opt. Commun. 34, 137–142 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Rolland, C.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, "Supercontinuum generation in gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268–2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosman, R.

Rothschild, M.

Rottke, H.

H. Rottke, D. Feldmann, B. Wolff-Rottke, and H. Welge, "Atomic hydrogen in intense short laser pulses: a series of photoelectron peaks from above-threshold ionization," J. Phys. B 26, 15–22 (1993); M. Dörr, D. Feldmann, R. M. Potvliege, H. Rottke, R. Shakeshaft, K. H. Welge, and B. Wolff-Rottke, "The energy spectrum of photoelectrons produced by multiphoton ionization of atomic hydrogen," J. Phys. B 25, 275–280 (1992); M. Dörr, R. M. Potvliege, and R. Shakeshaft, "Multiphoton processes in an intense laser field. III. Resonant ionization of hydrogen by subpicosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. A 41, 558–561 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rzazewski, K.

M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, W. V. Davis, and K. Rzazewski, "Anomalies in optical harmonic generation using high-intensity laser radiation," Phys. Rev. A 41, 3822–3825 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakai, H.

K. Miyazaki and H. Sakai, "High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with intense subpicosecond dye laser pulses," J. Phys. B 25, L83–L89 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Salières, P.

P. Salières, T. Ditmire, K. S. Budil, M. D. Perry, and A. L'Huillier, "Spatial profiles of high-order harmonics generated by a femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser," J. Phys. B 27, L217–L222 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C.-G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L'Huillier, "High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser," Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709–4720 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L'Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C.-G. Wahlström, "High-order harmonic-generation cutoff," Phys. Rev. A 48, 3433–3436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sarukura, N.

N. Sarukura, K. Hata, T. Adachi, R. Nodomi, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, "Coherent soft x-ray generation by the harmonics of an ultrahigh-power KrF laser," Phys. Rev. A 43, 1669–1672 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schafer, K. J.

A. L'Huillier, Ph. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Calculations of high-order harmonic-generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm," Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778–2790 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. L'Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonic generation," J. Phys. B 24, 3315–3341 (1991).
[CrossRef]

She, C.-Y.

J. Reintjes, C.-Y. She, and R. C. Eckardt, "Generation of coherent radiation in the XUV by fifth- and seventh-order frequency conversion in rare gases," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 581–596 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sher, M. H.

Shore, B. W.

K. C. Kulander and B. W. Shore, "Calculations of multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064-nm radiation in Xe," Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 524–526 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solem, J. C.

Spanner, K.

H. Puell, K. Spanner, W. Falkenstein, W. Kaiser, and C. R. Vidal, "Third-harmonic generation of mode-locked Nd:glass laser pulses in phase-matched Rb–Xe mixtures," Phys. Rev. A 14, 2240–2257 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan-Rao, T.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, "Supercontinuum generation in gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268–2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starczewski, T.

C.-G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L'Huillier, "High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser," Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709–4720 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strickland, D.

J. K. Crane, M. D. Perry, D. Strickland, S. Herman, and R. W. Falcone, "Coherent and incoherent XUV emissions in helium and neon, laser-driven plasmas," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 82–89 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, S.

C.-G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L'Huillier, "High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser," Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709–4720 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szwarc, H.

M. Ghelfenstein, R. Lopez-Delgado, and H. Szwarc, "Time-resolved excitation spectra of xenon vapor in the 1500 Å region," Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 312–319 (1977); R. S. Mulliken, "Potential curves of diatomic rare-gas molecules and their ions, with particular reference to Xe2," J. Chem. Phys. 52, 5170–5180 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Tamida, T.

K. Kondo, T. Tamida, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, "High-order harmonic generation and ionization using ultrashort KrF and Ti:sapphire lasers," Phys. Rev. A 49, 3881–3889 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Usmanov, T.

R. A. Ganeev, I. A. Kulagin, T. Usmanov, and S. T. Khudaiberganov, "Investigation of the generation of λ = 118.2 nm coherent radiation in rare gases," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1637–1640 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Vidal, C. R.

H. Puell, K. Spanner, W. Falkenstein, W. Kaiser, and C. R. Vidal, "Third-harmonic generation of mode-locked Nd:glass laser pulses in phase-matched Rb–Xe mixtures," Phys. Rev. A 14, 2240–2257 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wahlström, C.-G.

J. E. Muffett, C.-G. Wahlström, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, "Numerical modeling of the spatial profiles of high-order harmonics," J. Phys. B 27, 5693–5706 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C.-G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L'Huillier, "High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser," Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709–4720 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L'Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C.-G. Wahlström, "High-order harmonic-generation cutoff," Phys. Rev. A 48, 3433–3436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ward, J. F.

J. F. Ward and G. H. C. New, "Optical third harmonic generation in gases by a focused laser beam," Phys. Rev. 185, 57–72 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

N. Sarukura, K. Hata, T. Adachi, R. Nodomi, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, "Coherent soft x-ray generation by the harmonics of an ultrahigh-power KrF laser," Phys. Rev. A 43, 1669–1672 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, S.

K. Kondo, T. Tamida, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, "High-order harmonic generation and ionization using ultrashort KrF and Ti:sapphire lasers," Phys. Rev. A 49, 3881–3889 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Sarukura, K. Hata, T. Adachi, R. Nodomi, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, "Coherent soft x-ray generation by the harmonics of an ultrahigh-power KrF laser," Phys. Rev. A 43, 1669–1672 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welge, H.

H. Rottke, D. Feldmann, B. Wolff-Rottke, and H. Welge, "Atomic hydrogen in intense short laser pulses: a series of photoelectron peaks from above-threshold ionization," J. Phys. B 26, 15–22 (1993); M. Dörr, D. Feldmann, R. M. Potvliege, H. Rottke, R. Shakeshaft, K. H. Welge, and B. Wolff-Rottke, "The energy spectrum of photoelectrons produced by multiphoton ionization of atomic hydrogen," J. Phys. B 25, 275–280 (1992); M. Dörr, R. M. Potvliege, and R. Shakeshaft, "Multiphoton processes in an intense laser field. III. Resonant ionization of hydrogen by subpicosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. A 41, 558–561 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wolff-Rottke, B.

H. Rottke, D. Feldmann, B. Wolff-Rottke, and H. Welge, "Atomic hydrogen in intense short laser pulses: a series of photoelectron peaks from above-threshold ionization," J. Phys. B 26, 15–22 (1993); M. Dörr, D. Feldmann, R. M. Potvliege, H. Rottke, R. Shakeshaft, K. H. Welge, and B. Wolff-Rottke, "The energy spectrum of photoelectrons produced by multiphoton ionization of atomic hydrogen," J. Phys. B 25, 275–280 (1992); M. Dörr, R. M. Potvliege, and R. Shakeshaft, "Multiphoton processes in an intense laser field. III. Resonant ionization of hydrogen by subpicosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. A 41, 558–561 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, X.

X. Xiong, "Generation of broadly tunable, narrow-bandwidth, and intense coherent vacuum ultraviolet radiation in rare gases," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Maryland, College Park, Md., 1991).

Young, J. F.

M. H. Sher, J. Benerofe, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, "2-Hz 109-nm mirrorless laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 114–116 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Zych and J. F. Young, "Limitation of 3547 to 1182 Å conversion efficiency in Xe," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 147–149 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, L.

Y.-H. Chuang, L. Zheng, and D. D. Meyerhofer, "Propagation of light pulses in a chirped-pulse-amplification laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 270–280 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zych, L. J.

L. J. Zych and J. F. Young, "Limitation of 3547 to 1182 Å conversion efficiency in Xe," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 147–149 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Chem. Phys. Lett.

M. Ghelfenstein, R. Lopez-Delgado, and H. Szwarc, "Time-resolved excitation spectra of xenon vapor in the 1500 Å region," Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 312–319 (1977); R. S. Mulliken, "Potential curves of diatomic rare-gas molecules and their ions, with particular reference to Xe2," J. Chem. Phys. 52, 5170–5180 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett.

A. L'Huillier, L. A. Lomprè, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "Third-harmonic generation in xenon in a pulsed jet and a gas cell," Europhys. Lett. 5, 601–606 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

J. Reintjes, C.-Y. She, and R. C. Eckardt, "Generation of coherent radiation in the XUV by fifth- and seventh-order frequency conversion in rare gases," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 581–596 (1978).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Bjorklund, "Effects of focusing on third-order nonlinear processes in isotropic media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 287–296 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, V. P. Myerscough, and D. W. Koopman, "Third-harmonic generation in argon, krypton, and xenon: bandwidth limitations in the vicinity of Lyman-α," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 444–451 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Chuang, L. Zheng, and D. D. Meyerhofer, "Propagation of light pulses in a chirped-pulse-amplification laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 270–280 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Zych and J. F. Young, "Limitation of 3547 to 1182 Å conversion efficiency in Xe," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 147–149 (1978).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.

J. K. Crane, M. D. Perry, D. Strickland, S. Herman, and R. W. Falcone, "Coherent and incoherent XUV emissions in helium and neon, laser-driven plasmas," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 82–89 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. B

M. Ferray, A. L'Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lomprè, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases," J. Phys. B 21, L31–L35 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Miyazaki and H. Sakai, "High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with intense subpicosecond dye laser pulses," J. Phys. B 25, L83–L89 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Muffett, C.-G. Wahlström, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, "Numerical modeling of the spatial profiles of high-order harmonics," J. Phys. B 27, 5693–5706 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Salières, T. Ditmire, K. S. Budil, M. D. Perry, and A. L'Huillier, "Spatial profiles of high-order harmonics generated by a femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser," J. Phys. B 27, L217–L222 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. P. de Boer and H. G. Muller, "A systematic study of ac Stark shifts in xenon at super-high laser intensities," J. Phys. B 27, 721–732 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Rottke, D. Feldmann, B. Wolff-Rottke, and H. Welge, "Atomic hydrogen in intense short laser pulses: a series of photoelectron peaks from above-threshold ionization," J. Phys. B 26, 15–22 (1993); M. Dörr, D. Feldmann, R. M. Potvliege, H. Rottke, R. Shakeshaft, K. H. Welge, and B. Wolff-Rottke, "The energy spectrum of photoelectrons produced by multiphoton ionization of atomic hydrogen," J. Phys. B 25, 275–280 (1992); M. Dörr, R. M. Potvliege, and R. Shakeshaft, "Multiphoton processes in an intense laser field. III. Resonant ionization of hydrogen by subpicosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. A 41, 558–561 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. L'Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonic generation," J. Phys. B 24, 3315–3341 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

H. Langer, H. Puell, and H. Röhr, "Lyman alpha (1216 Å) generation in krypton," Opt. Commun. 34, 137–142 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lehmeier, W. Leupacher, and A. Penzkofer, "Nonresonant third order hyperpolarizability of rare gases and N2/sub> determined by third harmonic generation," Opt. Commun. 56, 67–72 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev.

J. F. Ward and G. H. C. New, "Optical third harmonic generation in gases by a focused laser beam," Phys. Rev. 185, 57–72 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

C.-G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L'Huillier, "High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser," Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709–4720 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ph. Balcou and A. L'Huillier, "Phase-matching effects in strong-field harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. A 47, 1447–1459 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Sarukura, K. Hata, T. Adachi, R. Nodomi, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, "Coherent soft x-ray generation by the harmonics of an ultrahigh-power KrF laser," Phys. Rev. A 43, 1669–1672 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kondo, T. Tamida, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, "High-order harmonic generation and ionization using ultrashort KrF and Ti:sapphire lasers," Phys. Rev. A 49, 3881–3889 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nguyen, L. B. DaSilva, and M. D. Perry, "Energy-yield and conversion-efficiency measurements of high-order harmonic radiation," Phys. Rev. A 51, 902–905 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. L'Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C.-G. Wahlström, "High-order harmonic-generation cutoff," Phys. Rev. A 48, 3433–3436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Kulander, "Time-dependent theory of multiphoton ionization of xenon," Phys. Rev. A 38, 778–787 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Puell, K. Spanner, W. Falkenstein, W. Kaiser, and C. R. Vidal, "Third-harmonic generation of mode-locked Nd:glass laser pulses in phase-matched Rb–Xe mixtures," Phys. Rev. A 14, 2240–2257 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Peatross and D. D. Meyerhofer, "Angular distribution of high-order harmonics emitted from rare gases at low density," Phys. Rev. A 51, 906–909 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, W. V. Davis, and K. Rzazewski, "Anomalies in optical harmonic generation using high-intensity laser radiation," Phys. Rev. A 41, 3822–3825 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L'Huillier, Ph. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Calculations of high-order harmonic-generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm," Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778–2790 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, "Supercontinuum generation in gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268–2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Muller, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, P. Agostini, G. Petite, A. Antonetti, M. Franco, and A. Migus, "Multiphoton ionization of xenon with 100-fs laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 565–568 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kapteyn, R. W. Lee, and R. W. Falcone, "Observation of a short-wavelength laser pumped by Auger decay," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2939–2942 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Kulander and B. W. Shore, "Calculations of multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064-nm radiation in Xe," Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 524–526 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon III, "High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766–769 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L'Huillier and Ph. Balcou, "High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-ps 1053-nm laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron.

R. A. Ganeev, I. A. Kulagin, T. Usmanov, and S. T. Khudaiberganov, "Investigation of the generation of λ = 118.2 nm coherent radiation in rare gases," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1637–1640 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. A

J. Geiger, "Energy loss spectra of xenon and krypton and their analysis by energy-dependent multichannel quantum defect theory," Z. Phys. A 282, 129–141 (1977); J. Berkowitz, Photoabsorption, Photoionization, and Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1979), Chap. 5.
[CrossRef]

Other

X. Xiong, "Generation of broadly tunable, narrow-bandwidth, and intense coherent vacuum ultraviolet radiation in rare gases," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Maryland, College Park, Md., 1991).

J. Reintjes, Nonlinear Optical Parametric Processes in Liquids and Gases (Academic, New York, 1984), Chap. 3.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectra of the radiation emitted in the vicinity of 110 nm, as a function of the wavelength of the fundamental, in (a) N2(3.4 Torr) and in (b) Xe (2 Torr). The wavelength of the fundamental used to generate each of the eight curves in this figure is shown. The data of (a) were taken with a pulse energy of 4 mJ; the data of (b) were taken with a pulse energy of 1.2 mJ.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectra of the radiation emitted in the vicinity of 110 nm at four different Xe pressures. The pulse energy is ∼1.2 mJ, and the laser wavelength is fixed at 763 nm. A–C in (b) label the three wavelength regions in which VUV radiation is observed. For these data the monochromator resolution was 2 Å.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intensity of the harmonic radiation emitted in each of the three wavelength regimes as a function of Xe pressure. The data were taken with a laser pulse energy of 1 mJ (corresponding to a peak intensity of ∼8.5 × 1013 W/cm2) at a wavelength of 763 nm. The dashed curve (for peak A), the solid curve (peak B), and the dotted curve (peak C) were calculated with the model described in the text.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectrum of the emitted radiation at several different laser pulse energies at pressures of (a) 0.8 Torr and (b) 10 Torr. The pulse energies corresponding to each measurement are shown.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Intensity of the seventh-harmonic radiation as a function of incident laser energy at several different Xe pressures for (a) peak A, (b) peak B, and (c) peak C. The peak laser intensity (assuming a diffraction-limited focus) is displayed on the upper horizontal axis. The solid curves are calculated from the model described in the text. The dashed curve in each figure shows the I7 behavior predicted by lowest-order perturbation theory.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Phase mismatch, log{|bΔk|}, as a function of wavelength for a Xe-gas pressure of 1 Torr. Shaded regions indicate where the mismatch Δk is negative. The solid horizontal bars indicate the measured positions (FWHM) of the three peaks from Fig. 2.

Equations (7)

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P 7 N 2 n 7 λ 1 4 [ χ ( 7 ) ] 2 ( 4 W 1 b λ 1 ) 4 W 1 3 [ Φ ( Δ k ) ] 2 ,
Φ ( Δ k ) = 2 π 5 ! ( b Δ k 2 ) 5 exp ( b Δ k / 2 ) Δ k < 0 , Φ ( Δ k ) = 0 Δ k 0 .
Δ k = 7 ( 2 π / λ ) ( n 7 1 ) ,
n 7 1 2 π N Re [ χ ( 1 ) ( 7 ω ) ] .
[ n 7 ( ν ) 1 ] = ( n 7 1 ) bnd + ( n 7 1 ) cont = N r e 2 π i f i ( ν i 2 ν 2 ) + N 2 π 2 σ ( ν s ) ( ν s 2 ν 2 ) d ν s ,
n 7 = n 7 ( 0 ) + n 7 ( 2 ) E 1 2 + n 7 ( 4 ) E 1 4 .
Δ k Δ k ( 0 ) + Δ k ( 2 ) + Δ k ( 4 ) = 7 ( 2 π / λ ) ( 2 π N ) { χ ( 1 ) + χ ( 3 ) E 1 2 + χ ( 5 ) E 1 4 } .

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