Abstract

We have investigated how high-order harmonics generated in rare gases depend on the atomic density. The peak and the profile of the atomic density in the interaction region were measured as a function of the backing pressure and the distance from the nozzle by a differential interferometry technique. The conversion efficiency for the harmonics in the plateau was found to increase approximately quadratically over the entire range of peak pressures investigated (3–80 mbar). The intensity of the harmonics in the cutoff region, in contrast, increased only until an optimum peak pressure was reached, beyond which it decreased. This optimum peak pressure was found to be dependent on both the laser intensity and the process order. To understand this effect, we have performed extensive propagation calculations of both the fundamental and the harmonic fields, using ionization rates and dipole moments from a tunnel ionization model. We obtained good agreement with the experimental results. The observed effect is attributed to ionization-induced defocusing of the fundamental laser beam, which reduces the peak intensity obtained in the medium and shortens the extent of the plateau.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. A. L’Huillier and Ph. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-ps 1053-nm laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, “Terawatt to petawatt subpicosecond lasers,” Science 264, 917 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. R. Haight and D. R. Peale, “Antibonding state on the Ge(111):As surface: spectroscopy and dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3979 (1993); “Tunable photoemission with harmonics of subpicosecond lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1853 (1994); R. Haight and P. F. Seidler, “High resolution atomic core level spectroscopy with laser harmonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 517 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases: a new source in photoionization,” Z. Phys. D 34, 107 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “Two-colour time-resolved spectroscopy of helium using high-order harmonics,”J. Phys. B 28, L53 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. Erman, A. Karawajczyk, E. Rachlew-Käallne, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Autoionization widths of the NO Rydberg-valence state complex in the 11–12 eV region,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 239, 6 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. C.-G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. Ph. Balcou, C. Cornaggia, A. S. L. Gomes, L. A. Lompré, and A. L’Huillier, “Optimizing high-order harmonic generation in strong fields,” J. Phys. B 25, 4467 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C.-G. Wahlström, “High-order harmonic generation cutoff,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3433 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  12. Y. Akiyama, K. Midorikawa, Y. Matsunawa, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, “Generation of high-order harmonics using laser-produced rare-gas-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2176 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. C.-G. Wahlström, S. Borgström, J. Larsson, and S.-G. Pettersson, “High-order harmonic generation in laser-produced ions using a near infrared laser,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 585 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. C. Rae, “Ionization-induced defocusing of intense laser pulses in high-pressure gases,” Opt. Commun. 97, 25 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  15. L.-A. Lompré, A. L’Huillier, P. Monot, M. Ferray, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “High-order harmonic generation in xenon: intensity and propagation effects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 754 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. C. Rae, K. Burnett, and J. Cooper, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in a rapidly ionizing medium,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 3438 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. X. F. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L.-A. Lompré, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 5751 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. R. Rosman, G. Gibson, K. Boyer, H. Jara, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, and C. K. Rhodes, “Fifth-harmonic production in neon and argon with picosecond 248-nm radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1237 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. Svanberg, J. Larsson, A. Persson, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Lund High-Power Laser Facility—systems and first results,” Phys. Scr. 49, 187 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  20. G. W. Faris and H. M. Hertz, “Tunable differential interferometer for optical tomography,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4662 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. A. L’Huillier, Ph. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Calculations of high-order harmonic generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. L. A. Lompré, M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, and G. Mainfray, “Optical determination of the characteristics of a pulsed-gas jet,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1791 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  24. C. Fleurier and J. Chapelle, “Inversion of Abel’s integral equation—application to plasma spectroscopy,” Comp. Phys. Commun. 7, 200 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  25. P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. P. Monot, T. Auguste, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Defocusing effects of a picosecond terawatt laser pulse in an underdense plasma,” Opt. Commun. 89, 145 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  27. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993); see also K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and J. L. Krause, “Dynamics of short-pulse excitation, ionization and harmonics conversion,” in Super-Intense Laser-Atom Physics, B. Piraux, A. L’Huillier, and K. Rzażewski, eds., NATO Advanced Science Institutes Series B: Physics (Plenum, New York, 1993), Vol. 316, p. 95.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. W. F. Chan, G. Cooper, X. Guo, and C. E. Brion, “Absolute optical oscillator strengths for the electronic excitation of atoms at high resolution. II. The photoabsorption of neon,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1420 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, and L. A. Lompré, “Propagation effects in high-order harmonic generation in rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 527 (1990).
    [Crossref]

1995 (5)

Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases: a new source in photoionization,” Z. Phys. D 34, 107 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “Two-colour time-resolved spectroscopy of helium using high-order harmonics,”J. Phys. B 28, L53 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Erman, A. Karawajczyk, E. Rachlew-Käallne, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Autoionization widths of the NO Rydberg-valence state complex in the 11–12 eV region,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 239, 6 (1995).
[Crossref]

C.-G. Wahlström, S. Borgström, J. Larsson, and S.-G. Pettersson, “High-order harmonic generation in laser-produced ions using a near infrared laser,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 585 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (4)

S. C. Rae, K. Burnett, and J. Cooper, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in a rapidly ionizing medium,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 3438 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Svanberg, J. Larsson, A. Persson, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Lund High-Power Laser Facility—systems and first results,” Phys. Scr. 49, 187 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, “Terawatt to petawatt subpicosecond lasers,” Science 264, 917 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (7)

R. Haight and D. R. Peale, “Antibonding state on the Ge(111):As surface: spectroscopy and dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3979 (1993); “Tunable photoemission with harmonics of subpicosecond lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1853 (1994); R. Haight and P. F. Seidler, “High resolution atomic core level spectroscopy with laser harmonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 517 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier and Ph. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-ps 1053-nm laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774 (1993).
[Crossref]

S. C. Rae, “Ionization-induced defocusing of intense laser pulses in high-pressure gases,” Opt. Commun. 97, 25 (1993).
[Crossref]

C.-G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C.-G. Wahlström, “High-order harmonic generation cutoff,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3433 (1993).
[Crossref]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993); see also K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and J. L. Krause, “Dynamics of short-pulse excitation, ionization and harmonics conversion,” in Super-Intense Laser-Atom Physics, B. Piraux, A. L’Huillier, and K. Rzażewski, eds., NATO Advanced Science Institutes Series B: Physics (Plenum, New York, 1993), Vol. 316, p. 95.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (6)

W. F. Chan, G. Cooper, X. Guo, and C. E. Brion, “Absolute optical oscillator strengths for the electronic excitation of atoms at high resolution. II. The photoabsorption of neon,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1420 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Monot, T. Auguste, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Defocusing effects of a picosecond terawatt laser pulse in an underdense plasma,” Opt. Commun. 89, 145 (1992).
[Crossref]

Y. Akiyama, K. Midorikawa, Y. Matsunawa, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, “Generation of high-order harmonics using laser-produced rare-gas-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2176 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ph. Balcou, C. Cornaggia, A. S. L. Gomes, L. A. Lompré, and A. L’Huillier, “Optimizing high-order harmonic generation in strong fields,” J. Phys. B 25, 4467 (1992).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, Ph. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Calculations of high-order harmonic generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

1989 (2)

G. W. Faris and H. M. Hertz, “Tunable differential interferometer for optical tomography,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4662 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. F. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L.-A. Lompré, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 5751 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

R. Rosman, G. Gibson, K. Boyer, H. Jara, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, and C. K. Rhodes, “Fifth-harmonic production in neon and argon with picosecond 248-nm radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1237 (1988).
[Crossref]

L. A. Lompré, M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, and G. Mainfray, “Optical determination of the characteristics of a pulsed-gas jet,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1791 (1988).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

C. Fleurier and J. Chapelle, “Inversion of Abel’s integral equation—application to plasma spectroscopy,” Comp. Phys. Commun. 7, 200 (1974).
[Crossref]

Akiyama, Y.

Y. Akiyama, K. Midorikawa, Y. Matsunawa, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, “Generation of high-order harmonics using laser-produced rare-gas-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2176 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Auguste, T.

P. Monot, T. Auguste, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Defocusing effects of a picosecond terawatt laser pulse in an underdense plasma,” Opt. Commun. 89, 145 (1992).
[Crossref]

Balcou, Ph.

Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases: a new source in photoionization,” Z. Phys. D 34, 107 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C.-G. Wahlström, “High-order harmonic generation cutoff,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3433 (1993).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier and Ph. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-ps 1053-nm laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ph. Balcou, C. Cornaggia, A. S. L. Gomes, L. A. Lompré, and A. L’Huillier, “Optimizing high-order harmonic generation in strong fields,” J. Phys. B 25, 4467 (1992).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, Ph. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Calculations of high-order harmonic generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778 (1992).
[Crossref]

Borgström, S.

C.-G. Wahlström, S. Borgström, J. Larsson, and S.-G. Pettersson, “High-order harmonic generation in laser-produced ions using a near infrared laser,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 585 (1995).
[Crossref]

Boyer, K.

Brion, C. E.

W. F. Chan, G. Cooper, X. Guo, and C. E. Brion, “Absolute optical oscillator strengths for the electronic excitation of atoms at high resolution. II. The photoabsorption of neon,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1420 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Budil, K. S.

Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases: a new source in photoionization,” Z. Phys. D 34, 107 (1995).
[Crossref]

Burnett, K.

S. C. Rae, K. Burnett, and J. Cooper, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in a rapidly ionizing medium,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 3438 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Candel, S.

A. L’Huillier, Ph. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Calculations of high-order harmonic generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chan, W. F.

W. F. Chan, G. Cooper, X. Guo, and C. E. Brion, “Absolute optical oscillator strengths for the electronic excitation of atoms at high resolution. II. The photoabsorption of neon,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1420 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chapelle, J.

C. Fleurier and J. Chapelle, “Inversion of Abel’s integral equation—application to plasma spectroscopy,” Comp. Phys. Commun. 7, 200 (1974).
[Crossref]

Cooper, G.

W. F. Chan, G. Cooper, X. Guo, and C. E. Brion, “Absolute optical oscillator strengths for the electronic excitation of atoms at high resolution. II. The photoabsorption of neon,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1420 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cooper, J.

S. C. Rae, K. Burnett, and J. Cooper, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in a rapidly ionizing medium,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 3438 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corkum, P.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993); see also K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and J. L. Krause, “Dynamics of short-pulse excitation, ionization and harmonics conversion,” in Super-Intense Laser-Atom Physics, B. Piraux, A. L’Huillier, and K. Rzażewski, eds., NATO Advanced Science Institutes Series B: Physics (Plenum, New York, 1993), Vol. 316, p. 95.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cornaggia, C.

Ph. Balcou, C. Cornaggia, A. S. L. Gomes, L. A. Lompré, and A. L’Huillier, “Optimizing high-order harmonic generation in strong fields,” J. Phys. B 25, 4467 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ditmire, T.

Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases: a new source in photoionization,” Z. Phys. D 34, 107 (1995).
[Crossref]

Erman, P.

P. Erman, A. Karawajczyk, E. Rachlew-Käallne, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Autoionization widths of the NO Rydberg-valence state complex in the 11–12 eV region,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 239, 6 (1995).
[Crossref]

Faris, G. W.

Ferray, M.

L.-A. Lompré, A. L’Huillier, P. Monot, M. Ferray, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “High-order harmonic generation in xenon: intensity and propagation effects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 754 (1990).
[Crossref]

X. F. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L.-A. Lompré, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 5751 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Lompré, M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, and G. Mainfray, “Optical determination of the characteristics of a pulsed-gas jet,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1791 (1988).
[Crossref]

Fleurier, C.

C. Fleurier and J. Chapelle, “Inversion of Abel’s integral equation—application to plasma spectroscopy,” Comp. Phys. Commun. 7, 200 (1974).
[Crossref]

Gibson, G.

Gomes, A. S. L.

Ph. Balcou, C. Cornaggia, A. S. L. Gomes, L. A. Lompré, and A. L’Huillier, “Optimizing high-order harmonic generation in strong fields,” J. Phys. B 25, 4467 (1992).
[Crossref]

Gordon, C. L.

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, X.

W. F. Chan, G. Cooper, X. Guo, and C. E. Brion, “Absolute optical oscillator strengths for the electronic excitation of atoms at high resolution. II. The photoabsorption of neon,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1420 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haight, R.

R. Haight and D. R. Peale, “Antibonding state on the Ge(111):As surface: spectroscopy and dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3979 (1993); “Tunable photoemission with harmonics of subpicosecond lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1853 (1994); R. Haight and P. F. Seidler, “High resolution atomic core level spectroscopy with laser harmonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 517 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hertz, H. M.

Ivanov, M. Yu.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C.-G. Wahlström, “High-order harmonic generation cutoff,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3433 (1993).
[Crossref]

Jara, H.

Karawajczyk, A.

P. Erman, A. Karawajczyk, E. Rachlew-Käallne, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Autoionization widths of the NO Rydberg-valence state complex in the 11–12 eV region,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 239, 6 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kmetec, J. D.

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krause, J. L.

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kulander, K. C.

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, Ph. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Calculations of high-order harmonic generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778 (1992).
[Crossref]

L’Huillier, A.

P. Erman, A. Karawajczyk, E. Rachlew-Käallne, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Autoionization widths of the NO Rydberg-valence state complex in the 11–12 eV region,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 239, 6 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “Two-colour time-resolved spectroscopy of helium using high-order harmonics,”J. Phys. B 28, L53 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases: a new source in photoionization,” Z. Phys. D 34, 107 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C.-G. Wahlström, “High-order harmonic generation cutoff,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3433 (1993).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier and Ph. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-ps 1053-nm laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ph. Balcou, C. Cornaggia, A. S. L. Gomes, L. A. Lompré, and A. L’Huillier, “Optimizing high-order harmonic generation in strong fields,” J. Phys. B 25, 4467 (1992).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, Ph. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Calculations of high-order harmonic generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778 (1992).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, and L. A. Lompré, “Propagation effects in high-order harmonic generation in rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 527 (1990).
[Crossref]

L.-A. Lompré, A. L’Huillier, P. Monot, M. Ferray, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “High-order harmonic generation in xenon: intensity and propagation effects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 754 (1990).
[Crossref]

X. F. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L.-A. Lompré, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 5751 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Lompré, M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, and G. Mainfray, “Optical determination of the characteristics of a pulsed-gas jet,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1791 (1988).
[Crossref]

Larsson, J.

C.-G. Wahlström, S. Borgström, J. Larsson, and S.-G. Pettersson, “High-order harmonic generation in laser-produced ions using a near infrared laser,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 585 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “Two-colour time-resolved spectroscopy of helium using high-order harmonics,”J. Phys. B 28, L53 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Svanberg, J. Larsson, A. Persson, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Lund High-Power Laser Facility—systems and first results,” Phys. Scr. 49, 187 (1994).
[Crossref]

C.-G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C.-G. Wahlström, “High-order harmonic generation cutoff,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3433 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lewenstein, M.

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C.-G. Wahlström, “High-order harmonic generation cutoff,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3433 (1993).
[Crossref]

Li, X. F.

A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, and L. A. Lompré, “Propagation effects in high-order harmonic generation in rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 527 (1990).
[Crossref]

X. F. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L.-A. Lompré, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 5751 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Lompré, M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, and G. Mainfray, “Optical determination of the characteristics of a pulsed-gas jet,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1791 (1988).
[Crossref]

Lompré, L. A.

P. Monot, T. Auguste, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Defocusing effects of a picosecond terawatt laser pulse in an underdense plasma,” Opt. Commun. 89, 145 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ph. Balcou, C. Cornaggia, A. S. L. Gomes, L. A. Lompré, and A. L’Huillier, “Optimizing high-order harmonic generation in strong fields,” J. Phys. B 25, 4467 (1992).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, and L. A. Lompré, “Propagation effects in high-order harmonic generation in rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 527 (1990).
[Crossref]

L. A. Lompré, M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, and G. Mainfray, “Optical determination of the characteristics of a pulsed-gas jet,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1791 (1988).
[Crossref]

Lompré, L.-A.

L.-A. Lompré, A. L’Huillier, P. Monot, M. Ferray, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “High-order harmonic generation in xenon: intensity and propagation effects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 754 (1990).
[Crossref]

X. F. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L.-A. Lompré, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 5751 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luk, T. S.

Macklin, J. J.

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mainfray, G.

P. Monot, T. Auguste, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Defocusing effects of a picosecond terawatt laser pulse in an underdense plasma,” Opt. Commun. 89, 145 (1992).
[Crossref]

L.-A. Lompré, A. L’Huillier, P. Monot, M. Ferray, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “High-order harmonic generation in xenon: intensity and propagation effects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 754 (1990).
[Crossref]

X. F. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L.-A. Lompré, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 5751 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Lompré, M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, and G. Mainfray, “Optical determination of the characteristics of a pulsed-gas jet,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1791 (1988).
[Crossref]

Manus, C.

P. Monot, T. Auguste, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Defocusing effects of a picosecond terawatt laser pulse in an underdense plasma,” Opt. Commun. 89, 145 (1992).
[Crossref]

L.-A. Lompré, A. L’Huillier, P. Monot, M. Ferray, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “High-order harmonic generation in xenon: intensity and propagation effects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 754 (1990).
[Crossref]

Matsunawa, Y.

Y. Akiyama, K. Midorikawa, Y. Matsunawa, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, “Generation of high-order harmonics using laser-produced rare-gas-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2176 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McIntyre, I. A.

McPherson, A.

Mevel, E.

J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “Two-colour time-resolved spectroscopy of helium using high-order harmonics,”J. Phys. B 28, L53 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Erman, A. Karawajczyk, E. Rachlew-Käallne, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Autoionization widths of the NO Rydberg-valence state complex in the 11–12 eV region,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 239, 6 (1995).
[Crossref]

Midorikawa, K.

Y. Akiyama, K. Midorikawa, Y. Matsunawa, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, “Generation of high-order harmonics using laser-produced rare-gas-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2176 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Monot, P.

P. Monot, T. Auguste, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Defocusing effects of a picosecond terawatt laser pulse in an underdense plasma,” Opt. Commun. 89, 145 (1992).
[Crossref]

L.-A. Lompré, A. L’Huillier, P. Monot, M. Ferray, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “High-order harmonic generation in xenon: intensity and propagation effects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 754 (1990).
[Crossref]

Mourou, G.

M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, “Terawatt to petawatt subpicosecond lasers,” Science 264, 917 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagata, Y.

Y. Akiyama, K. Midorikawa, Y. Matsunawa, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, “Generation of high-order harmonics using laser-produced rare-gas-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2176 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Obara, M.

Y. Akiyama, K. Midorikawa, Y. Matsunawa, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, “Generation of high-order harmonics using laser-produced rare-gas-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2176 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peale, D. R.

R. Haight and D. R. Peale, “Antibonding state on the Ge(111):As surface: spectroscopy and dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3979 (1993); “Tunable photoemission with harmonics of subpicosecond lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1853 (1994); R. Haight and P. F. Seidler, “High resolution atomic core level spectroscopy with laser harmonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 517 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perry, M. D.

Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases: a new source in photoionization,” Z. Phys. D 34, 107 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, “Terawatt to petawatt subpicosecond lasers,” Science 264, 917 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Persson, A.

S. Svanberg, J. Larsson, A. Persson, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Lund High-Power Laser Facility—systems and first results,” Phys. Scr. 49, 187 (1994).
[Crossref]

C.-G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pettersson, S.-G.

C.-G. Wahlström, S. Borgström, J. Larsson, and S.-G. Pettersson, “High-order harmonic generation in laser-produced ions using a near infrared laser,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 585 (1995).
[Crossref]

Rachlew-Käallne, E.

P. Erman, A. Karawajczyk, E. Rachlew-Käallne, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Autoionization widths of the NO Rydberg-valence state complex in the 11–12 eV region,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 239, 6 (1995).
[Crossref]

Rae, S. C.

S. C. Rae, K. Burnett, and J. Cooper, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in a rapidly ionizing medium,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 3438 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Rae, “Ionization-induced defocusing of intense laser pulses in high-pressure gases,” Opt. Commun. 97, 25 (1993).
[Crossref]

Rhodes, C. K.

Rosman, R.

Salières, P.

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases: a new source in photoionization,” Z. Phys. D 34, 107 (1995).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C.-G. Wahlström, “High-order harmonic generation cutoff,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3433 (1993).
[Crossref]

C.-G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schafer, K. J.

A. L’Huillier, Ph. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Calculations of high-order harmonic generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solem, J. C.

Starczewski, T.

C.-G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Svanberg, S.

J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “Two-colour time-resolved spectroscopy of helium using high-order harmonics,”J. Phys. B 28, L53 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Svanberg, J. Larsson, A. Persson, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Lund High-Power Laser Facility—systems and first results,” Phys. Scr. 49, 187 (1994).
[Crossref]

C.-G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tashiro, H.

Y. Akiyama, K. Midorikawa, Y. Matsunawa, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, “Generation of high-order harmonics using laser-produced rare-gas-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2176 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toyoda, K.

Y. Akiyama, K. Midorikawa, Y. Matsunawa, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, “Generation of high-order harmonics using laser-produced rare-gas-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2176 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wahlström, C.-G.

C.-G. Wahlström, S. Borgström, J. Larsson, and S.-G. Pettersson, “High-order harmonic generation in laser-produced ions using a near infrared laser,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 585 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Erman, A. Karawajczyk, E. Rachlew-Käallne, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Autoionization widths of the NO Rydberg-valence state complex in the 11–12 eV region,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 239, 6 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “Two-colour time-resolved spectroscopy of helium using high-order harmonics,”J. Phys. B 28, L53 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Svanberg, J. Larsson, A. Persson, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Lund High-Power Laser Facility—systems and first results,” Phys. Scr. 49, 187 (1994).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C.-G. Wahlström, “High-order harmonic generation cutoff,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3433 (1993).
[Crossref]

C.-G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zerne, R.

P. Erman, A. Karawajczyk, E. Rachlew-Käallne, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Autoionization widths of the NO Rydberg-valence state complex in the 11–12 eV region,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 239, 6 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “Two-colour time-resolved spectroscopy of helium using high-order harmonics,”J. Phys. B 28, L53 (1995).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Erman, A. Karawajczyk, E. Rachlew-Käallne, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Autoionization widths of the NO Rydberg-valence state complex in the 11–12 eV region,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 239, 6 (1995).
[Crossref]

Comp. Phys. Commun. (1)

C. Fleurier and J. Chapelle, “Inversion of Abel’s integral equation—application to plasma spectroscopy,” Comp. Phys. Commun. 7, 200 (1974).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. A. Lompré, M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, and G. Mainfray, “Optical determination of the characteristics of a pulsed-gas jet,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1791 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. B (2)

Ph. Balcou, C. Cornaggia, A. S. L. Gomes, L. A. Lompré, and A. L’Huillier, “Optimizing high-order harmonic generation in strong fields,” J. Phys. B 25, 4467 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “Two-colour time-resolved spectroscopy of helium using high-order harmonics,”J. Phys. B 28, L53 (1995).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

S. C. Rae, “Ionization-induced defocusing of intense laser pulses in high-pressure gases,” Opt. Commun. 97, 25 (1993).
[Crossref]

P. Monot, T. Auguste, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Defocusing effects of a picosecond terawatt laser pulse in an underdense plasma,” Opt. Commun. 89, 145 (1992).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (8)

W. F. Chan, G. Cooper, X. Guo, and C. E. Brion, “Absolute optical oscillator strengths for the electronic excitation of atoms at high resolution. II. The photoabsorption of neon,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1420 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, Ph. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Calculations of high-order harmonic generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-G. Wahlström, S. Borgström, J. Larsson, and S.-G. Pettersson, “High-order harmonic generation in laser-produced ions using a near infrared laser,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 585 (1995).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C.-G. Wahlström, “High-order harmonic generation cutoff,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3433 (1993).
[Crossref]

S. C. Rae, K. Burnett, and J. Cooper, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in a rapidly ionizing medium,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 3438 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. F. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L.-A. Lompré, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 5751 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier and Ph. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-ps 1053-nm laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774 (1993).
[Crossref]

R. Haight and D. R. Peale, “Antibonding state on the Ge(111):As surface: spectroscopy and dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3979 (1993); “Tunable photoemission with harmonics of subpicosecond lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1853 (1994); R. Haight and P. F. Seidler, “High resolution atomic core level spectroscopy with laser harmonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 517 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Akiyama, K. Midorikawa, Y. Matsunawa, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, “Generation of high-order harmonics using laser-produced rare-gas-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2176 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993); see also K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and J. L. Krause, “Dynamics of short-pulse excitation, ionization and harmonics conversion,” in Super-Intense Laser-Atom Physics, B. Piraux, A. L’Huillier, and K. Rzażewski, eds., NATO Advanced Science Institutes Series B: Physics (Plenum, New York, 1993), Vol. 316, p. 95.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Scr. (1)

S. Svanberg, J. Larsson, A. Persson, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Lund High-Power Laser Facility—systems and first results,” Phys. Scr. 49, 187 (1994).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, “Terawatt to petawatt subpicosecond lasers,” Science 264, 917 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Phys. D (1)

Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases: a new source in photoionization,” Z. Phys. D 34, 107 (1995).
[Crossref]

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic showing the principle of the interferometric technique used for gas jet diagnostics.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized density profiles at three different laser-nozzle distances: 0 (solid curve), 0.75 mm (dashed curve), and 1.2 mm (dotted curve). The backing pressure was adjusted to yield the same peak pressure (27 mbar) at the different distances.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Peak pressure as a function of backing pressure at three laser-nozzle distances: 0 (squares), 0.75 mm (circles), and 1.2 mm (triangles).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Peak pressure as a function of the distance from the nozzle. The backing pressures were 1270 mbar (squares), 800 mbar (circles), and 600 mbar (triangles).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Harmonic spectra in the cutoff region in Ne at three different peak pressures: 7, 30, and 80 mbar.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Number of photons at different harmonic frequencies (from the 57th, at the end of the plateau, to the 71st, in the cutoff) as a function of pressure. The laser intensity was 6 × 1014 W/cm2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Same as Fig. 6, but at a higher laser intensity (1.5 × 1015 W/cm2). The background level is indicated by the dotted curve at the bottom.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Number of photons at the 67th harmonic frequency as a function of pressure, at different laser intensities (6, 7.5, 10, 15 × 1014 W/cm2, from the bottom curve to the top curve, respectively).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Normalized harmonic spectra in Ar at 10 mbar (dashed curve) and 60 mbar (solid curve). The laser intensity was 4 × 1014 W/cm2.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Pressure-dependent blue shift and blue broadening for the 21st harmonic generated in Ar at 7 × 1014 W/cm2. The peak pressures were 5 mbar (solid curve), 45 mbar (dashed curve), and 80 mbar (dotted curve).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Number of photons at the 21st harmonic frequency as a function of pressure. The laser intensity was 4 × 1014 W/cm2. The squares indicate the experimental points.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Number of photons at different harmonic frequencies in Ar as a function of the length of the medium. The laser intensity was 7 × 1014 W/cm2; the peak pressure, 14 mbar.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Theoretical number of photons at the 63rd, the 67th, and the 75th harmonic frequencies as a function of pressure.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Theoretical number of photons at the 67th harmonic frequency as a function of pressure at different laser intensities: 6, 7, 8, 9 × 1014 W/cm2, from the bottom curve to the top curve, (see Fig. 8 for comparison).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Theoretical number of photons at the 63rd, the 67th, and the 75th harmonic frequencies as a function of pressure without taking into account defocusing.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Illustration of ionization-induced defocusing of the fundamental laser pulse as it propagates through the partially ionized medium.

Equations (4)

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2 E 1 + 2 i k 1 E 1 z + 2 k 1 δ k 1 E 1 = 0 ,
δ k 1 ( r , z , t ) = 2 π e 2 N e ( r , z , t ) / m ω c ,
2 E q + 2 i k q E q z + 2 k q ( δ k q + Δ k q ) E q = 4 π ( q ω / c ) 2 P q .
2 E q + 2 i k q E q z + 2 k q ( δ k q q δ k 1 ) E q = 4 π ( q ω / c ) 2 P q ,

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