Abstract

The force that is produced from the momentum change of a stream of photons incident upon micrometer-sized spheres is developed from a ray-optic model. The resulting force component expressions, axial and radial with respect to the photon stream center and incident direction, are in a form that makes them suitable for computer modeling of the levitation phenomena. Simulated results presented are in excellent agreement with published experimental observations.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Ashkin, "Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure," Phys. Rev. 24, 156–159 (1970).
  2. For a review of the literature on applications see R. Gussgard, T. Lindmo, and I. Brevik, "Calculation of the trapping force in a strongly focused laser beam," Theor. Phys. Semin. Trondheim (Norway) 7, 1–41 (1991).
  3. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, "Observation of a single beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles," Opt. Lett. 11, 288–289 (1986).
  4. J. S. Kim and S. S. Lee, "Scattering of laser beams and the optical potential well for a homogeneous sphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 303–312 (1983).
  5. S. Chang and S. S. Lee, "Optical torque on a homogeneous sphere levitated in circularly polarized fundamental-mode laser beam," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1853–1860 (1985).
  6. J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, and S. A. Schaub, "Theoretical determination of the net radiation force and torque for a spherical particle illuminated by a focused laser beam," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4594–4602 (1989).
  7. G. Roosen and C. Imbert, "Optical levitation by means of two horizontal laser beams: A theoretical and experimental study," Phys. Lett. 59A, 6–8 (1976).
  8. G. Roosen and C. Imbert, "The TEM01 mode laser beam—a powerful tool for optical levitation of various types of spheres," Opt. Commun. 26, 432–436 (1978).
  9. G. Roosen, "La lévitation optique de sphère," Can. J. Phys. 57, 1260–1279 (1979).
  10. J. Taylor and C. Zafiratos, Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1991), p. 150.
  11. B. E. Saleh and M. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991).
  12. J. Pochelle, J. Raffy, Y. Combemale, M. Papuchon, G. Roosen, and M. Plantegenest, "Optical levitation using single mode fibers and its application to self-centering of microlenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 350–352 (1984).
  13. A. Ashkin and J. Dziedzic, "Optical levitation by radiation pressure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 283–285 (1971).

1989 (1)

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, and S. A. Schaub, "Theoretical determination of the net radiation force and torque for a spherical particle illuminated by a focused laser beam," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4594–4602 (1989).

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

J. Pochelle, J. Raffy, Y. Combemale, M. Papuchon, G. Roosen, and M. Plantegenest, "Optical levitation using single mode fibers and its application to self-centering of microlenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 350–352 (1984).

1983 (1)

1979 (1)

G. Roosen, "La lévitation optique de sphère," Can. J. Phys. 57, 1260–1279 (1979).

1978 (1)

G. Roosen and C. Imbert, "The TEM01 mode laser beam—a powerful tool for optical levitation of various types of spheres," Opt. Commun. 26, 432–436 (1978).

1976 (1)

G. Roosen and C. Imbert, "Optical levitation by means of two horizontal laser beams: A theoretical and experimental study," Phys. Lett. 59A, 6–8 (1976).

1971 (1)

A. Ashkin and J. Dziedzic, "Optical levitation by radiation pressure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 283–285 (1971).

1970 (1)

A. Ashkin, "Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure," Phys. Rev. 24, 156–159 (1970).

Alexander, D. R.

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, and S. A. Schaub, "Theoretical determination of the net radiation force and torque for a spherical particle illuminated by a focused laser beam," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4594–4602 (1989).

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, "Observation of a single beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles," Opt. Lett. 11, 288–289 (1986).

A. Ashkin and J. Dziedzic, "Optical levitation by radiation pressure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 283–285 (1971).

A. Ashkin, "Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure," Phys. Rev. 24, 156–159 (1970).

Barton, J. P.

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, and S. A. Schaub, "Theoretical determination of the net radiation force and torque for a spherical particle illuminated by a focused laser beam," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4594–4602 (1989).

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Brevik, I.

For a review of the literature on applications see R. Gussgard, T. Lindmo, and I. Brevik, "Calculation of the trapping force in a strongly focused laser beam," Theor. Phys. Semin. Trondheim (Norway) 7, 1–41 (1991).

Chang, S.

Chu, S.

Combemale, Y.

J. Pochelle, J. Raffy, Y. Combemale, M. Papuchon, G. Roosen, and M. Plantegenest, "Optical levitation using single mode fibers and its application to self-centering of microlenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 350–352 (1984).

Dziedzic, J.

A. Ashkin and J. Dziedzic, "Optical levitation by radiation pressure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 283–285 (1971).

Dziedzic, J. M.

Gussgard, R.

For a review of the literature on applications see R. Gussgard, T. Lindmo, and I. Brevik, "Calculation of the trapping force in a strongly focused laser beam," Theor. Phys. Semin. Trondheim (Norway) 7, 1–41 (1991).

Imbert, C.

G. Roosen and C. Imbert, "The TEM01 mode laser beam—a powerful tool for optical levitation of various types of spheres," Opt. Commun. 26, 432–436 (1978).

G. Roosen and C. Imbert, "Optical levitation by means of two horizontal laser beams: A theoretical and experimental study," Phys. Lett. 59A, 6–8 (1976).

Kim, J. S.

Lee, S. S.

Lindmo, T.

For a review of the literature on applications see R. Gussgard, T. Lindmo, and I. Brevik, "Calculation of the trapping force in a strongly focused laser beam," Theor. Phys. Semin. Trondheim (Norway) 7, 1–41 (1991).

Papuchon, M.

J. Pochelle, J. Raffy, Y. Combemale, M. Papuchon, G. Roosen, and M. Plantegenest, "Optical levitation using single mode fibers and its application to self-centering of microlenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 350–352 (1984).

Plantegenest, M.

J. Pochelle, J. Raffy, Y. Combemale, M. Papuchon, G. Roosen, and M. Plantegenest, "Optical levitation using single mode fibers and its application to self-centering of microlenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 350–352 (1984).

Pochelle, J.

J. Pochelle, J. Raffy, Y. Combemale, M. Papuchon, G. Roosen, and M. Plantegenest, "Optical levitation using single mode fibers and its application to self-centering of microlenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 350–352 (1984).

Raffy, J.

J. Pochelle, J. Raffy, Y. Combemale, M. Papuchon, G. Roosen, and M. Plantegenest, "Optical levitation using single mode fibers and its application to self-centering of microlenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 350–352 (1984).

Roosen, G.

J. Pochelle, J. Raffy, Y. Combemale, M. Papuchon, G. Roosen, and M. Plantegenest, "Optical levitation using single mode fibers and its application to self-centering of microlenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 350–352 (1984).

G. Roosen, "La lévitation optique de sphère," Can. J. Phys. 57, 1260–1279 (1979).

G. Roosen and C. Imbert, "The TEM01 mode laser beam—a powerful tool for optical levitation of various types of spheres," Opt. Commun. 26, 432–436 (1978).

G. Roosen and C. Imbert, "Optical levitation by means of two horizontal laser beams: A theoretical and experimental study," Phys. Lett. 59A, 6–8 (1976).

Saleh, B. E.

B. E. Saleh and M. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991).

Schaub, S. A.

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, and S. A. Schaub, "Theoretical determination of the net radiation force and torque for a spherical particle illuminated by a focused laser beam," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4594–4602 (1989).

Taylor, J.

J. Taylor and C. Zafiratos, Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1991), p. 150.

Teich, M.

B. E. Saleh and M. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991).

Zafiratos, C.

J. Taylor and C. Zafiratos, Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1991), p. 150.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Pochelle, J. Raffy, Y. Combemale, M. Papuchon, G. Roosen, and M. Plantegenest, "Optical levitation using single mode fibers and its application to self-centering of microlenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 350–352 (1984).

A. Ashkin and J. Dziedzic, "Optical levitation by radiation pressure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 283–285 (1971).

Can. J. Phys. (1)

G. Roosen, "La lévitation optique de sphère," Can. J. Phys. 57, 1260–1279 (1979).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, and S. A. Schaub, "Theoretical determination of the net radiation force and torque for a spherical particle illuminated by a focused laser beam," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4594–4602 (1989).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. Roosen and C. Imbert, "The TEM01 mode laser beam—a powerful tool for optical levitation of various types of spheres," Opt. Commun. 26, 432–436 (1978).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Roosen and C. Imbert, "Optical levitation by means of two horizontal laser beams: A theoretical and experimental study," Phys. Lett. 59A, 6–8 (1976).

Phys. Rev. (1)

A. Ashkin, "Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure," Phys. Rev. 24, 156–159 (1970).

Other (3)

For a review of the literature on applications see R. Gussgard, T. Lindmo, and I. Brevik, "Calculation of the trapping force in a strongly focused laser beam," Theor. Phys. Semin. Trondheim (Norway) 7, 1–41 (1991).

J. Taylor and C. Zafiratos, Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1991), p. 150.

B. E. Saleh and M. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991).

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