Abstract

Guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering (GAWBS) in PANDA fibers has been investigated experimentally. It is shown that for PANDA fibers both the TR2m modes and the R0m modes induce polarized GAWBS in the low-frequency region. Theoretical calculations agree with the observed frequency shifts of the depolarized GAWBS that are due to the TR2m modes from the polarized GAWBS.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. M. Shelby, P. D. Drummond, and S. J. Carter, Phys. Rev. A 42, 2966–2976 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, and M. Shirasaki, Appl. Phys. B 55, 242–249 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Shirasaki and H. A. Haus, Opt. Lett. 17, 1225–1227 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Bergman, C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, and M. Shirasaki, Opt. Lett. 18, 643–645 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and M. Shirasaki, Opt. Lett. 19, 290–292 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Sakai, R. J. Hawkins, and S. R. Friberg, Opt. Lett. 15, 239–241 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. R. Friberg, S. Machida, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3165–3168 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, and P. W. Bayer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 939–942 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, and P. W. Bayer, Phys. Rev. B 31, 5244–5252 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. H. Perlmutter, M. D. Levenson, R. M. Shelby, and M. B. Weissman, Phys. Rev. B 42, 5294–5305 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Shiraki and M. Ohashi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1177–1180 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. J. Poustie, Opt. Lett. 17, 574–576 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. J. Poustie, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 691–696 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. Nishizawa, S. Kume, M. Mori, T. Goto, and A. Miyauchi, Opt. Lett. 19, 1424–1426 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Zemanek, Jr., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 51, 265–283 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. N. Thurston, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64, 1–37 (1978).
    [CrossRef]

Bayer, P. W.

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, and P. W. Bayer, Phys. Rev. B 31, 5244–5252 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, and P. W. Bayer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 939–942 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergman, K.

K. Bergman, C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, and M. Shirasaki, Opt. Lett. 18, 643–645 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, and M. Shirasaki, Appl. Phys. B 55, 242–249 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and M. Shirasaki, Opt. Lett. 19, 290–292 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carter, S. J.

R. M. Shelby, P. D. Drummond, and S. J. Carter, Phys. Rev. A 42, 2966–2976 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doerr, C. R.

K. Bergman, C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, and M. Shirasaki, Opt. Lett. 18, 643–645 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drummond, P. D.

R. M. Shelby, P. D. Drummond, and S. J. Carter, Phys. Rev. A 42, 2966–2976 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friberg, S. R.

Y. Sakai, R. J. Hawkins, and S. R. Friberg, Opt. Lett. 15, 239–241 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Friberg, S. Machida, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3165–3168 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goto, T.

N. Nishizawa, S. Kume, M. Mori, T. Goto, and A. Miyauchi, Opt. Lett. 19, 1424–1426 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haus, H. A.

K. Bergman, C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, and M. Shirasaki, Opt. Lett. 18, 643–645 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, and M. Shirasaki, Appl. Phys. B 55, 242–249 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and M. Shirasaki, Opt. Lett. 19, 290–292 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shirasaki and H. A. Haus, Opt. Lett. 17, 1225–1227 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawkins, R. J.

Y. Sakai, R. J. Hawkins, and S. R. Friberg, Opt. Lett. 15, 239–241 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and M. Shirasaki, Opt. Lett. 19, 290–292 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kume, S.

N. Nishizawa, S. Kume, M. Mori, T. Goto, and A. Miyauchi, Opt. Lett. 19, 1424–1426 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levenson, M. D.

S. H. Perlmutter, M. D. Levenson, R. M. Shelby, and M. B. Weissman, Phys. Rev. B 42, 5294–5305 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, and P. W. Bayer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 939–942 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, and P. W. Bayer, Phys. Rev. B 31, 5244–5252 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Machida, S.

S. R. Friberg, S. Machida, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3165–3168 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyauchi, A.

N. Nishizawa, S. Kume, M. Mori, T. Goto, and A. Miyauchi, Opt. Lett. 19, 1424–1426 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mori, M.

N. Nishizawa, S. Kume, M. Mori, T. Goto, and A. Miyauchi, Opt. Lett. 19, 1424–1426 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishizawa, N.

N. Nishizawa, S. Kume, M. Mori, T. Goto, and A. Miyauchi, Opt. Lett. 19, 1424–1426 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohashi, M.

K. Shiraki and M. Ohashi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1177–1180 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Perlmutter, S. H.

S. H. Perlmutter, M. D. Levenson, R. M. Shelby, and M. B. Weissman, Phys. Rev. B 42, 5294–5305 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Poustie, A. J.

A. J. Poustie, Opt. Lett. 17, 574–576 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Poustie, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 691–696 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, Y.

Y. Sakai, R. J. Hawkins, and S. R. Friberg, Opt. Lett. 15, 239–241 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shelby, R. M.

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, and P. W. Bayer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 939–942 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Perlmutter, M. D. Levenson, R. M. Shelby, and M. B. Weissman, Phys. Rev. B 42, 5294–5305 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, and P. W. Bayer, Phys. Rev. B 31, 5244–5252 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Shelby, P. D. Drummond, and S. J. Carter, Phys. Rev. A 42, 2966–2976 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiraki, K.

K. Shiraki and M. Ohashi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1177–1180 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shirasaki, M.

K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, and M. Shirasaki, Appl. Phys. B 55, 242–249 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergman, C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, and M. Shirasaki, Opt. Lett. 18, 643–645 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and M. Shirasaki, Opt. Lett. 19, 290–292 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shirasaki and H. A. Haus, Opt. Lett. 17, 1225–1227 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thurston, R. N.

R. N. Thurston, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64, 1–37 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Weissman, M. B.

S. H. Perlmutter, M. D. Levenson, R. M. Shelby, and M. B. Weissman, Phys. Rev. B 42, 5294–5305 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

S. R. Friberg, S. Machida, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3165–3168 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zemanek, J.

J. Zemanek, Jr., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 51, 265–283 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. M. Shelby, P. D. Drummond, and S. J. Carter, Phys. Rev. A 42, 2966–2976 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, and M. Shirasaki, Appl. Phys. B 55, 242–249 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Shirasaki and H. A. Haus, Opt. Lett. 17, 1225–1227 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bergman, C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, and M. Shirasaki, Opt. Lett. 18, 643–645 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and M. Shirasaki, Opt. Lett. 19, 290–292 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sakai, R. J. Hawkins, and S. R. Friberg, Opt. Lett. 15, 239–241 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Friberg, S. Machida, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3165–3168 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, and P. W. Bayer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 939–942 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, and P. W. Bayer, Phys. Rev. B 31, 5244–5252 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Perlmutter, M. D. Levenson, R. M. Shelby, and M. B. Weissman, Phys. Rev. B 42, 5294–5305 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiraki and M. Ohashi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1177–1180 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Poustie, Opt. Lett. 17, 574–576 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Poustie, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 691–696 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. Nishizawa, S. Kume, M. Mori, T. Goto, and A. Miyauchi, Opt. Lett. 19, 1424–1426 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zemanek, Jr., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 51, 265–283 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Thurston, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64, 1–37 (1978).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for measurement of polarized GAWBS with a fiber loop mirror. A, B, ports; P, polarizer; λ/2, half-wave plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for measurement of depolarized GAWBS. P, polarizer; λ/2, half-wave plate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Observed spectra of polarized and depolarized GAWBS in a 2-m unjacketed PANDA fiber at room temperature and the theoretical cutoff (zero-wave vector) frequencies of R0m and TR2m modes in conventional single-mode fibers when vd = 5996 m/s, α = 0.6203, and a = 64.47 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Observed spectra of polarized and depolarized GAWBS in the PANDA fiber at (a) 19 and (b) 39 MHz. The resolution bandwidth is 100 kHz, and the video bandwidth is 100 Hz.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Two waveforms of doubly degenerate TR2m modes for the first branch (m = 1).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Frequency shift for the five lowest branches of TR2m modes when vd = 5996 m/s, α = 0.6203, and a = 64.47 μm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Observed Polarized and Depolarized GAWBS Frequencies in PANDA Fiber

Equations (4)

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| A 11 A 12 A 13 A 21 A 22 A 23 A 31 A 32 A 33 | = 0 ,
A 11 = [ n 2 - 1 - ( Ω 2 / 2 ) + ( γ a ) 2 ] J n ( h a ) , A 12 = [ n 2 - 1 - ( k a ) 2 ] J n ( k a ) , A 13 = 2 ( n 2 - 1 ) [ k a J n - 1 ( k a ) - n J n ( k a ) ] - ( k a ) 2 J n ( k a ) , A 21 = h a J n - 1 ( h a ) - ( n + 1 ) J n ( h a ) , A 22 = k a J n - 1 ( k a ) - ( n + 1 ) J n ( k a ) , A 23 = [ 2 n 2 + 2 n - ( k a ) 2 ] J n ( k a ) - 2 k a J n - 1 ( k a ) , A 31 = h a J n - 1 ( h a ) - n J n ( h a ) , A 32 = { 1 - [ Ω 2 / 2 ( γ a ) 2 ] } [ k a J n - 1 ( k a ) - n J n ( k a ) ] , A 33 = n 2 J n ( k a ) , Ω = ω a / v s .
( h a ) 2 = α 2 Ω 2 - ( γ a ) 2 ,             ( k a ) 2 = Ω 2 - ( γ a ) 2 ,
α 2 = ( v s / v d ) 2 .

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