Abstract

Green light has been observed for the first time to the authors’ knowledge by bulk phase-matched second-harmonic generation from a stretched main chain polyurea. The polyurea was synthesized from 4,4’-diphenylmethane diisocyanate and 4,4’-methylene bis(cyclohexylamine). The spin-coated film has an initial positive birefringence. Drawing further increased the birefringence, and the film can be used for phase matching just as in biaxial single crystals. The drawn and poled polymer films belong to the 2mm point group. Three independent nonlinear-optic coefficients were determined. The type I phase-matching characteristics were calculated and confirmed by experiments. We demonstrate that a highly effective second-harmonic-generation device with a long optical path length can be obtained by use of bulk phase-matchable poled polymer.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. D. Boyd, A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and D. A. Kleinman, “Second-harmonic generation of light with double refraction,” Phys. Rev. A 137, 1305 (1965).
  2. M. V. Hobden, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in biaxial crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4365 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. J. Williams, Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Materials, ACS Symp. Ser. 233, (1983), and references therein.
    [Crossref]
  4. K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. A. Mortazavi, A. Knoesen, S. K. Kowel, B. G. Higgins, and A. Dienes, “Second-harmonic generation and absorption studies of polymer-dye films oriented by corona poling at elevated temperatures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 733 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  6. T. L. Penner, H. R. Motschmann, N. J. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyllimba, and D. J. Williams, “Efficient phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in an organic waveguide,” Nature (London) 367, 49 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. I. Chen, S. Marturunkakul, L. Li, R. J. Jeng, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Dipolar relaxation in a second-order nonlinear optical interpenetrating polymer network,” Macromolecules 26, 7379 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  8. W. K. Chan, Y. M. Chen, Z. H. Peng, and L. P. Yu, “Rational designs of multifunctional polymers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 11735 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Willson, and G. C. Bjorklund, “Novel second-order nonlinear optical polymers via chemical cross-linking-induced vitrification under electric field,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  10. G. D. Green, J. I. Weinschenk, J. E. Mulvancy, and H. K. Hall, “Synthesis of polyesters containing a nonrandomly placed highly polar repeat unit,” Macromolecules 20, 722 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  11. W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, Y. Zhang, S. P. Karna, P. N. Prasad, A. C. Griffin, and A. M. Bhatti, “Second-order nonlinear optical effects in novel side-chain liquid crystalline polymers and monomers under bias of an applied dc electric field,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1832 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  12. G. A. Lindsay, J. D. Stenger-Smith, R. A. Henry, J. M. Hoover, R. A. Nissan, and K. J. Wynne, “Main-chain accordion polymers for nonlinear optics,” Macromolecules 25, 6075 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  13. D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, O. Reiser, R. J. Twieg, and C. A. Walsh, “The design, synthesis, and evaluation of chromophores for second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 410 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  14. C. Z. Xu, B. Wu, M. W. Becker, L. R. Dalton, P. M. Ranon, Y. Q. Shi, and W. H. Steier, “Main-chain second-order nonlinear optical polymer: random incorporation of amino-sulfone chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1439 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Stähelin, C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, and W. Volksen, “Orientational decay in poled second-order nonlinear optical guest-host polymers: temperature dependence and effects of poling geometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8471 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  16. R. Norwood and G. Khanarian, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  17. O. Sugihara, T. Kinoshita, M. Okabe, S. Kunioka, Y. Nonaka, and K. Sasaki, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in a poled dye/polymer waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2957, (1991); G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, E. G. J. Staring, and A. H. J. Venhuizen, “Efficient modal dispersion phase-matched frequency doubling in poled polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2483 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. R. Sounik, G. Khanarian, J. Popolo, and S. Meyer, “Zero dispersion nonlinear optical polymeric materials containing stilbene and napthalocyanine dyes,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1253 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  19. Y. Shuto, H. Takara, M. Amano, and T. Kaino, “Non-collinearly phase-matched second harmonic generation in stilbene-dye-attached polymer thin films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 2508 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  20. K. Clays, N. J. Armstrong, and T. L. Penner, “Blue and green Čerenkov-type second-harmonic generation in a polymeric Langmuir–Blodgett waveguide,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 886 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  21. M. G. Kuzyk, K. D. Singer, H. E. Zahn, and L. A. King, “Second-order nonlinear-optical tensor properties of poled films under stress,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 742 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  22. X. T. Tao, T. Watanabe, S. Shimoda, D. C. Zou, H. Sato, and S. Miyata, “Lambda-type main chain polymer for second harmonic generation,” Chem. Mater. 6, 1961 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  23. See, for example, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev. 94, 31 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  24. G. Khanarian, M. A. Mortazavi, and A. J. East, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation from free-standing periodically stacked polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1462 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  25. X. T. Tao, T. Watanabe, D. C. Zou, S. Shimoda, H. Sato, and S. Miyata, “Polyurea with large positive birefringence for second-harmonic generation,” Macromolecules 28, 2637 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  26. J. B. Land, H. G. Olf, and A. Perterlin, “Nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray determination of structure of poly(vinylidene fluoride),” J. Polym. Sci. A-1 4, 941 (1966); H. Kawai, “The piezoelectricity of poly(vinylidene fluoride),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 8, 975 (1969); J. G. Bergman, H. McFee, and G. R. Crane, “Pyroelectricity and optical second harmonic generation in polyvinylidene fluoride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 203 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  27. B. Wyncke and F. Brehat, “Calculation of effective second-order nonlinear coefficients along the phase matching direction in acentric orthorhombic biaxial crystals,” J. Phys. B 22, 363 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  28. J. Jerphagnon and S. K. Kurtz, “Maker fringes: detailed comparison of theory and experiment for isotropic and uniaxial crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1667 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  29. See, for example, A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1975).

1995 (1)

X. T. Tao, T. Watanabe, D. C. Zou, S. Shimoda, H. Sato, and S. Miyata, “Polyurea with large positive birefringence for second-harmonic generation,” Macromolecules 28, 2637 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (3)

X. T. Tao, T. Watanabe, S. Shimoda, D. C. Zou, H. Sato, and S. Miyata, “Lambda-type main chain polymer for second harmonic generation,” Chem. Mater. 6, 1961 (1994).
[Crossref]

See, for example, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev. 94, 31 (1994).
[Crossref]

T. L. Penner, H. R. Motschmann, N. J. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyllimba, and D. J. Williams, “Efficient phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in an organic waveguide,” Nature (London) 367, 49 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (7)

J. I. Chen, S. Marturunkakul, L. Li, R. J. Jeng, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Dipolar relaxation in a second-order nonlinear optical interpenetrating polymer network,” Macromolecules 26, 7379 (1993).
[Crossref]

W. K. Chan, Y. M. Chen, Z. H. Peng, and L. P. Yu, “Rational designs of multifunctional polymers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 11735 (1993).
[Crossref]

C. Z. Xu, B. Wu, M. W. Becker, L. R. Dalton, P. M. Ranon, Y. Q. Shi, and W. H. Steier, “Main-chain second-order nonlinear optical polymer: random incorporation of amino-sulfone chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1439 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. Stähelin, C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, and W. Volksen, “Orientational decay in poled second-order nonlinear optical guest-host polymers: temperature dependence and effects of poling geometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8471 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. R. Sounik, G. Khanarian, J. Popolo, and S. Meyer, “Zero dispersion nonlinear optical polymeric materials containing stilbene and napthalocyanine dyes,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1253 (1993).
[Crossref]

G. Khanarian, M. A. Mortazavi, and A. J. East, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation from free-standing periodically stacked polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1462 (1993).
[Crossref]

K. Clays, N. J. Armstrong, and T. L. Penner, “Blue and green Čerenkov-type second-harmonic generation in a polymeric Langmuir–Blodgett waveguide,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 886 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (3)

W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, Y. Zhang, S. P. Karna, P. N. Prasad, A. C. Griffin, and A. M. Bhatti, “Second-order nonlinear optical effects in novel side-chain liquid crystalline polymers and monomers under bias of an applied dc electric field,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1832 (1992).
[Crossref]

G. A. Lindsay, J. D. Stenger-Smith, R. A. Henry, J. M. Hoover, R. A. Nissan, and K. J. Wynne, “Main-chain accordion polymers for nonlinear optics,” Macromolecules 25, 6075 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, O. Reiser, R. J. Twieg, and C. A. Walsh, “The design, synthesis, and evaluation of chromophores for second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 410 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

R. Norwood and G. Khanarian, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (5)

M. A. Mortazavi, A. Knoesen, S. K. Kowel, B. G. Higgins, and A. Dienes, “Second-harmonic generation and absorption studies of polymer-dye films oriented by corona poling at elevated temperatures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 733 (1989).
[Crossref]

Y. Shuto, H. Takara, M. Amano, and T. Kaino, “Non-collinearly phase-matched second harmonic generation in stilbene-dye-attached polymer thin films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 2508 (1989).
[Crossref]

M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Willson, and G. C. Bjorklund, “Novel second-order nonlinear optical polymers via chemical cross-linking-induced vitrification under electric field,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
[Crossref]

M. G. Kuzyk, K. D. Singer, H. E. Zahn, and L. A. King, “Second-order nonlinear-optical tensor properties of poled films under stress,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 742 (1989).
[Crossref]

B. Wyncke and F. Brehat, “Calculation of effective second-order nonlinear coefficients along the phase matching direction in acentric orthorhombic biaxial crystals,” J. Phys. B 22, 363 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

G. D. Green, J. I. Weinschenk, J. E. Mulvancy, and H. K. Hall, “Synthesis of polyesters containing a nonrandomly placed highly polar repeat unit,” Macromolecules 20, 722 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

D. J. Williams, Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Materials, ACS Symp. Ser. 233, (1983), and references therein.
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

J. Jerphagnon and S. K. Kurtz, “Maker fringes: detailed comparison of theory and experiment for isotropic and uniaxial crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1667 (1970).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

M. V. Hobden, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in biaxial crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4365 (1967).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

J. B. Land, H. G. Olf, and A. Perterlin, “Nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray determination of structure of poly(vinylidene fluoride),” J. Polym. Sci. A-1 4, 941 (1966); H. Kawai, “The piezoelectricity of poly(vinylidene fluoride),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 8, 975 (1969); J. G. Bergman, H. McFee, and G. R. Crane, “Pyroelectricity and optical second harmonic generation in polyvinylidene fluoride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 203 (1971).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

G. D. Boyd, A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and D. A. Kleinman, “Second-harmonic generation of light with double refraction,” Phys. Rev. A 137, 1305 (1965).

Amano, M.

Y. Shuto, H. Takara, M. Amano, and T. Kaino, “Non-collinearly phase-matched second harmonic generation in stilbene-dye-attached polymer thin films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 2508 (1989).
[Crossref]

Armstrong, N. J.

T. L. Penner, H. R. Motschmann, N. J. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyllimba, and D. J. Williams, “Efficient phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in an organic waveguide,” Nature (London) 367, 49 (1994).
[Crossref]

K. Clays, N. J. Armstrong, and T. L. Penner, “Blue and green Čerenkov-type second-harmonic generation in a polymeric Langmuir–Blodgett waveguide,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 886 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ashkin, A.

G. D. Boyd, A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and D. A. Kleinman, “Second-harmonic generation of light with double refraction,” Phys. Rev. A 137, 1305 (1965).

Becker, M. W.

C. Z. Xu, B. Wu, M. W. Becker, L. R. Dalton, P. M. Ranon, Y. Q. Shi, and W. H. Steier, “Main-chain second-order nonlinear optical polymer: random incorporation of amino-sulfone chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1439 (1993).
[Crossref]

Bhatti, A. M.

Bjorklund, G. C.

M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Willson, and G. C. Bjorklund, “Novel second-order nonlinear optical polymers via chemical cross-linking-induced vitrification under electric field,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
[Crossref]

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd, A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and D. A. Kleinman, “Second-harmonic generation of light with double refraction,” Phys. Rev. A 137, 1305 (1965).

Brehat, F.

B. Wyncke and F. Brehat, “Calculation of effective second-order nonlinear coefficients along the phase matching direction in acentric orthorhombic biaxial crystals,” J. Phys. B 22, 363 (1989).
[Crossref]

Burland, D. M.

See, for example, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev. 94, 31 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. Stähelin, C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, and W. Volksen, “Orientational decay in poled second-order nonlinear optical guest-host polymers: temperature dependence and effects of poling geometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8471 (1993).
[Crossref]

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, O. Reiser, R. J. Twieg, and C. A. Walsh, “The design, synthesis, and evaluation of chromophores for second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 410 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chan, W. K.

W. K. Chan, Y. M. Chen, Z. H. Peng, and L. P. Yu, “Rational designs of multifunctional polymers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 11735 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. I.

J. I. Chen, S. Marturunkakul, L. Li, R. J. Jeng, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Dipolar relaxation in a second-order nonlinear optical interpenetrating polymer network,” Macromolecules 26, 7379 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. M.

W. K. Chan, Y. M. Chen, Z. H. Peng, and L. P. Yu, “Rational designs of multifunctional polymers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 11735 (1993).
[Crossref]

Clays, K.

Dalton, L. R.

C. Z. Xu, B. Wu, M. W. Becker, L. R. Dalton, P. M. Ranon, Y. Q. Shi, and W. H. Steier, “Main-chain second-order nonlinear optical polymer: random incorporation of amino-sulfone chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1439 (1993).
[Crossref]

Dienes, A.

Dziedzic, J. M.

G. D. Boyd, A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and D. A. Kleinman, “Second-harmonic generation of light with double refraction,” Phys. Rev. A 137, 1305 (1965).

East, A. J.

G. Khanarian, M. A. Mortazavi, and A. J. East, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation from free-standing periodically stacked polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1462 (1993).
[Crossref]

Eich, M.

M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Willson, and G. C. Bjorklund, “Novel second-order nonlinear optical polymers via chemical cross-linking-induced vitrification under electric field,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ezenyllimba, M. C.

T. L. Penner, H. R. Motschmann, N. J. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyllimba, and D. J. Williams, “Efficient phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in an organic waveguide,” Nature (London) 367, 49 (1994).
[Crossref]

Green, G. D.

G. D. Green, J. I. Weinschenk, J. E. Mulvancy, and H. K. Hall, “Synthesis of polyesters containing a nonrandomly placed highly polar repeat unit,” Macromolecules 20, 722 (1987).
[Crossref]

Griffin, A. C.

Hall, H. K.

G. D. Green, J. I. Weinschenk, J. E. Mulvancy, and H. K. Hall, “Synthesis of polyesters containing a nonrandomly placed highly polar repeat unit,” Macromolecules 20, 722 (1987).
[Crossref]

Henry, R. A.

G. A. Lindsay, J. D. Stenger-Smith, R. A. Henry, J. M. Hoover, R. A. Nissan, and K. J. Wynne, “Main-chain accordion polymers for nonlinear optics,” Macromolecules 25, 6075 (1992).
[Crossref]

Higgins, B. G.

Hobden, M. V.

M. V. Hobden, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in biaxial crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4365 (1967).
[Crossref]

Hoover, J. M.

G. A. Lindsay, J. D. Stenger-Smith, R. A. Henry, J. M. Hoover, R. A. Nissan, and K. J. Wynne, “Main-chain accordion polymers for nonlinear optics,” Macromolecules 25, 6075 (1992).
[Crossref]

Jeng, R. J.

J. I. Chen, S. Marturunkakul, L. Li, R. J. Jeng, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Dipolar relaxation in a second-order nonlinear optical interpenetrating polymer network,” Macromolecules 26, 7379 (1993).
[Crossref]

Jerphagnon, J.

J. Jerphagnon and S. K. Kurtz, “Maker fringes: detailed comparison of theory and experiment for isotropic and uniaxial crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1667 (1970).
[Crossref]

Kaino, T.

Y. Shuto, H. Takara, M. Amano, and T. Kaino, “Non-collinearly phase-matched second harmonic generation in stilbene-dye-attached polymer thin films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 2508 (1989).
[Crossref]

Karna, S. P.

Khanarian, G.

G. Khanarian, M. A. Mortazavi, and A. J. East, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation from free-standing periodically stacked polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1462 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. R. Sounik, G. Khanarian, J. Popolo, and S. Meyer, “Zero dispersion nonlinear optical polymeric materials containing stilbene and napthalocyanine dyes,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1253 (1993).
[Crossref]

R. Norwood and G. Khanarian, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977 (1990).
[Crossref]

King, L. A.

Kinoshita, T.

Kleinman, D. A.

G. D. Boyd, A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and D. A. Kleinman, “Second-harmonic generation of light with double refraction,” Phys. Rev. A 137, 1305 (1965).

Knoesen, A.

Kowel, S. K.

Kumar, J.

J. I. Chen, S. Marturunkakul, L. Li, R. J. Jeng, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Dipolar relaxation in a second-order nonlinear optical interpenetrating polymer network,” Macromolecules 26, 7379 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kunioka, S.

Kurtz, S. K.

J. Jerphagnon and S. K. Kurtz, “Maker fringes: detailed comparison of theory and experiment for isotropic and uniaxial crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1667 (1970).
[Crossref]

Kuzyk, M. G.

Lalama, S. J.

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
[Crossref]

Land, J. B.

J. B. Land, H. G. Olf, and A. Perterlin, “Nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray determination of structure of poly(vinylidene fluoride),” J. Polym. Sci. A-1 4, 941 (1966); H. Kawai, “The piezoelectricity of poly(vinylidene fluoride),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 8, 975 (1969); J. G. Bergman, H. McFee, and G. R. Crane, “Pyroelectricity and optical second harmonic generation in polyvinylidene fluoride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 203 (1971).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

J. I. Chen, S. Marturunkakul, L. Li, R. J. Jeng, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Dipolar relaxation in a second-order nonlinear optical interpenetrating polymer network,” Macromolecules 26, 7379 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lindsay, G. A.

G. A. Lindsay, J. D. Stenger-Smith, R. A. Henry, J. M. Hoover, R. A. Nissan, and K. J. Wynne, “Main-chain accordion polymers for nonlinear optics,” Macromolecules 25, 6075 (1992).
[Crossref]

Marturunkakul, S.

J. I. Chen, S. Marturunkakul, L. Li, R. J. Jeng, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Dipolar relaxation in a second-order nonlinear optical interpenetrating polymer network,” Macromolecules 26, 7379 (1993).
[Crossref]

Meyer, S.

J. R. Sounik, G. Khanarian, J. Popolo, and S. Meyer, “Zero dispersion nonlinear optical polymeric materials containing stilbene and napthalocyanine dyes,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1253 (1993).
[Crossref]

Miller, R. D.

See, for example, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev. 94, 31 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. Stähelin, C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, and W. Volksen, “Orientational decay in poled second-order nonlinear optical guest-host polymers: temperature dependence and effects of poling geometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8471 (1993).
[Crossref]

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, O. Reiser, R. J. Twieg, and C. A. Walsh, “The design, synthesis, and evaluation of chromophores for second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 410 (1992).
[Crossref]

Miyata, S.

X. T. Tao, T. Watanabe, D. C. Zou, S. Shimoda, H. Sato, and S. Miyata, “Polyurea with large positive birefringence for second-harmonic generation,” Macromolecules 28, 2637 (1995).
[Crossref]

X. T. Tao, T. Watanabe, S. Shimoda, D. C. Zou, H. Sato, and S. Miyata, “Lambda-type main chain polymer for second harmonic generation,” Chem. Mater. 6, 1961 (1994).
[Crossref]

Mortazavi, M. A.

G. Khanarian, M. A. Mortazavi, and A. J. East, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation from free-standing periodically stacked polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1462 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. A. Mortazavi, A. Knoesen, S. K. Kowel, B. G. Higgins, and A. Dienes, “Second-harmonic generation and absorption studies of polymer-dye films oriented by corona poling at elevated temperatures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 733 (1989).
[Crossref]

Motschmann, H. R.

T. L. Penner, H. R. Motschmann, N. J. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyllimba, and D. J. Williams, “Efficient phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in an organic waveguide,” Nature (London) 367, 49 (1994).
[Crossref]

Mulvancy, J. E.

G. D. Green, J. I. Weinschenk, J. E. Mulvancy, and H. K. Hall, “Synthesis of polyesters containing a nonrandomly placed highly polar repeat unit,” Macromolecules 20, 722 (1987).
[Crossref]

Nissan, R. A.

G. A. Lindsay, J. D. Stenger-Smith, R. A. Henry, J. M. Hoover, R. A. Nissan, and K. J. Wynne, “Main-chain accordion polymers for nonlinear optics,” Macromolecules 25, 6075 (1992).
[Crossref]

Nonaka, Y.

Norwood, R.

R. Norwood and G. Khanarian, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977 (1990).
[Crossref]

Okabe, M.

Olf, H. G.

J. B. Land, H. G. Olf, and A. Perterlin, “Nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray determination of structure of poly(vinylidene fluoride),” J. Polym. Sci. A-1 4, 941 (1966); H. Kawai, “The piezoelectricity of poly(vinylidene fluoride),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 8, 975 (1969); J. G. Bergman, H. McFee, and G. R. Crane, “Pyroelectricity and optical second harmonic generation in polyvinylidene fluoride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 203 (1971).
[Crossref]

Peng, Z. H.

W. K. Chan, Y. M. Chen, Z. H. Peng, and L. P. Yu, “Rational designs of multifunctional polymers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 11735 (1993).
[Crossref]

Penner, T. L.

T. L. Penner, H. R. Motschmann, N. J. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyllimba, and D. J. Williams, “Efficient phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in an organic waveguide,” Nature (London) 367, 49 (1994).
[Crossref]

K. Clays, N. J. Armstrong, and T. L. Penner, “Blue and green Čerenkov-type second-harmonic generation in a polymeric Langmuir–Blodgett waveguide,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 886 (1993).
[Crossref]

Perterlin, A.

J. B. Land, H. G. Olf, and A. Perterlin, “Nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray determination of structure of poly(vinylidene fluoride),” J. Polym. Sci. A-1 4, 941 (1966); H. Kawai, “The piezoelectricity of poly(vinylidene fluoride),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 8, 975 (1969); J. G. Bergman, H. McFee, and G. R. Crane, “Pyroelectricity and optical second harmonic generation in polyvinylidene fluoride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 203 (1971).
[Crossref]

Popolo, J.

J. R. Sounik, G. Khanarian, J. Popolo, and S. Meyer, “Zero dispersion nonlinear optical polymeric materials containing stilbene and napthalocyanine dyes,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1253 (1993).
[Crossref]

Prasad, P. N.

Ranon, P. M.

C. Z. Xu, B. Wu, M. W. Becker, L. R. Dalton, P. M. Ranon, Y. Q. Shi, and W. H. Steier, “Main-chain second-order nonlinear optical polymer: random incorporation of amino-sulfone chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1439 (1993).
[Crossref]

Reck, B.

M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Willson, and G. C. Bjorklund, “Novel second-order nonlinear optical polymers via chemical cross-linking-induced vitrification under electric field,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
[Crossref]

Reiser, O.

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, O. Reiser, R. J. Twieg, and C. A. Walsh, “The design, synthesis, and evaluation of chromophores for second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 410 (1992).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, K.

Sato, H.

X. T. Tao, T. Watanabe, D. C. Zou, S. Shimoda, H. Sato, and S. Miyata, “Polyurea with large positive birefringence for second-harmonic generation,” Macromolecules 28, 2637 (1995).
[Crossref]

X. T. Tao, T. Watanabe, S. Shimoda, D. C. Zou, H. Sato, and S. Miyata, “Lambda-type main chain polymer for second harmonic generation,” Chem. Mater. 6, 1961 (1994).
[Crossref]

Shi, Y. Q.

C. Z. Xu, B. Wu, M. W. Becker, L. R. Dalton, P. M. Ranon, Y. Q. Shi, and W. H. Steier, “Main-chain second-order nonlinear optical polymer: random incorporation of amino-sulfone chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1439 (1993).
[Crossref]

Shimoda, S.

X. T. Tao, T. Watanabe, D. C. Zou, S. Shimoda, H. Sato, and S. Miyata, “Polyurea with large positive birefringence for second-harmonic generation,” Macromolecules 28, 2637 (1995).
[Crossref]

X. T. Tao, T. Watanabe, S. Shimoda, D. C. Zou, H. Sato, and S. Miyata, “Lambda-type main chain polymer for second harmonic generation,” Chem. Mater. 6, 1961 (1994).
[Crossref]

Shuto, Y.

Y. Shuto, H. Takara, M. Amano, and T. Kaino, “Non-collinearly phase-matched second harmonic generation in stilbene-dye-attached polymer thin films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 2508 (1989).
[Crossref]

Singer, K. D.

M. G. Kuzyk, K. D. Singer, H. E. Zahn, and L. A. King, “Second-order nonlinear-optical tensor properties of poled films under stress,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 742 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
[Crossref]

Sohn, J. E.

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
[Crossref]

Sounik, J. R.

J. R. Sounik, G. Khanarian, J. Popolo, and S. Meyer, “Zero dispersion nonlinear optical polymeric materials containing stilbene and napthalocyanine dyes,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1253 (1993).
[Crossref]

Stähelin, M.

M. Stähelin, C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, and W. Volksen, “Orientational decay in poled second-order nonlinear optical guest-host polymers: temperature dependence and effects of poling geometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8471 (1993).
[Crossref]

Steier, W. H.

C. Z. Xu, B. Wu, M. W. Becker, L. R. Dalton, P. M. Ranon, Y. Q. Shi, and W. H. Steier, “Main-chain second-order nonlinear optical polymer: random incorporation of amino-sulfone chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1439 (1993).
[Crossref]

Stenger-Smith, J. D.

G. A. Lindsay, J. D. Stenger-Smith, R. A. Henry, J. M. Hoover, R. A. Nissan, and K. J. Wynne, “Main-chain accordion polymers for nonlinear optics,” Macromolecules 25, 6075 (1992).
[Crossref]

Sugihara, O.

Takara, H.

Y. Shuto, H. Takara, M. Amano, and T. Kaino, “Non-collinearly phase-matched second harmonic generation in stilbene-dye-attached polymer thin films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 2508 (1989).
[Crossref]

Tao, X. T.

X. T. Tao, T. Watanabe, D. C. Zou, S. Shimoda, H. Sato, and S. Miyata, “Polyurea with large positive birefringence for second-harmonic generation,” Macromolecules 28, 2637 (1995).
[Crossref]

X. T. Tao, T. Watanabe, S. Shimoda, D. C. Zou, H. Sato, and S. Miyata, “Lambda-type main chain polymer for second harmonic generation,” Chem. Mater. 6, 1961 (1994).
[Crossref]

Tripathy, S. K.

J. I. Chen, S. Marturunkakul, L. Li, R. J. Jeng, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Dipolar relaxation in a second-order nonlinear optical interpenetrating polymer network,” Macromolecules 26, 7379 (1993).
[Crossref]

Twieg, R. J.

M. Stähelin, C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, and W. Volksen, “Orientational decay in poled second-order nonlinear optical guest-host polymers: temperature dependence and effects of poling geometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8471 (1993).
[Crossref]

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, O. Reiser, R. J. Twieg, and C. A. Walsh, “The design, synthesis, and evaluation of chromophores for second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 410 (1992).
[Crossref]

Volksen, W.

M. Stähelin, C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, and W. Volksen, “Orientational decay in poled second-order nonlinear optical guest-host polymers: temperature dependence and effects of poling geometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8471 (1993).
[Crossref]

Walsh, C. A.

See, for example, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev. 94, 31 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. Stähelin, C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, and W. Volksen, “Orientational decay in poled second-order nonlinear optical guest-host polymers: temperature dependence and effects of poling geometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8471 (1993).
[Crossref]

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, O. Reiser, R. J. Twieg, and C. A. Walsh, “The design, synthesis, and evaluation of chromophores for second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 410 (1992).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, T.

X. T. Tao, T. Watanabe, D. C. Zou, S. Shimoda, H. Sato, and S. Miyata, “Polyurea with large positive birefringence for second-harmonic generation,” Macromolecules 28, 2637 (1995).
[Crossref]

X. T. Tao, T. Watanabe, S. Shimoda, D. C. Zou, H. Sato, and S. Miyata, “Lambda-type main chain polymer for second harmonic generation,” Chem. Mater. 6, 1961 (1994).
[Crossref]

Weinschenk, J. I.

G. D. Green, J. I. Weinschenk, J. E. Mulvancy, and H. K. Hall, “Synthesis of polyesters containing a nonrandomly placed highly polar repeat unit,” Macromolecules 20, 722 (1987).
[Crossref]

Wijekoon, W. M. K. P.

Williams, D. J.

T. L. Penner, H. R. Motschmann, N. J. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyllimba, and D. J. Williams, “Efficient phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in an organic waveguide,” Nature (London) 367, 49 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. J. Williams, Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Materials, ACS Symp. Ser. 233, (1983), and references therein.
[Crossref]

Willson, C. G.

M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Willson, and G. C. Bjorklund, “Novel second-order nonlinear optical polymers via chemical cross-linking-induced vitrification under electric field,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
[Crossref]

Wu, B.

C. Z. Xu, B. Wu, M. W. Becker, L. R. Dalton, P. M. Ranon, Y. Q. Shi, and W. H. Steier, “Main-chain second-order nonlinear optical polymer: random incorporation of amino-sulfone chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1439 (1993).
[Crossref]

Wyncke, B.

B. Wyncke and F. Brehat, “Calculation of effective second-order nonlinear coefficients along the phase matching direction in acentric orthorhombic biaxial crystals,” J. Phys. B 22, 363 (1989).
[Crossref]

Wynne, K. J.

G. A. Lindsay, J. D. Stenger-Smith, R. A. Henry, J. M. Hoover, R. A. Nissan, and K. J. Wynne, “Main-chain accordion polymers for nonlinear optics,” Macromolecules 25, 6075 (1992).
[Crossref]

Xu, C. Z.

C. Z. Xu, B. Wu, M. W. Becker, L. R. Dalton, P. M. Ranon, Y. Q. Shi, and W. H. Steier, “Main-chain second-order nonlinear optical polymer: random incorporation of amino-sulfone chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1439 (1993).
[Crossref]

Yariv, A.

See, for example, A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1975).

Yoon, D. Y.

M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Willson, and G. C. Bjorklund, “Novel second-order nonlinear optical polymers via chemical cross-linking-induced vitrification under electric field,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
[Crossref]

Yu, L. P.

W. K. Chan, Y. M. Chen, Z. H. Peng, and L. P. Yu, “Rational designs of multifunctional polymers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 11735 (1993).
[Crossref]

Zahn, H. E.

Zhang, Y.

Zou, D. C.

X. T. Tao, T. Watanabe, D. C. Zou, S. Shimoda, H. Sato, and S. Miyata, “Polyurea with large positive birefringence for second-harmonic generation,” Macromolecules 28, 2637 (1995).
[Crossref]

X. T. Tao, T. Watanabe, S. Shimoda, D. C. Zou, H. Sato, and S. Miyata, “Lambda-type main chain polymer for second harmonic generation,” Chem. Mater. 6, 1961 (1994).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. Norwood and G. Khanarian, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977 (1990).
[Crossref]

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
[Crossref]

G. Khanarian, M. A. Mortazavi, and A. J. East, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation from free-standing periodically stacked polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1462 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (3)

X. T. Tao, T. Watanabe, S. Shimoda, D. C. Zou, H. Sato, and S. Miyata, “Lambda-type main chain polymer for second harmonic generation,” Chem. Mater. 6, 1961 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. R. Sounik, G. Khanarian, J. Popolo, and S. Meyer, “Zero dispersion nonlinear optical polymeric materials containing stilbene and napthalocyanine dyes,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1253 (1993).
[Crossref]

C. Z. Xu, B. Wu, M. W. Becker, L. R. Dalton, P. M. Ranon, Y. Q. Shi, and W. H. Steier, “Main-chain second-order nonlinear optical polymer: random incorporation of amino-sulfone chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1439 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chem. Rev. (1)

See, for example, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev. 94, 31 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

W. K. Chan, Y. M. Chen, Z. H. Peng, and L. P. Yu, “Rational designs of multifunctional polymers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 11735 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Willson, and G. C. Bjorklund, “Novel second-order nonlinear optical polymers via chemical cross-linking-induced vitrification under electric field,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
[Crossref]

M. V. Hobden, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in biaxial crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4365 (1967).
[Crossref]

M. Stähelin, C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, and W. Volksen, “Orientational decay in poled second-order nonlinear optical guest-host polymers: temperature dependence and effects of poling geometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8471 (1993).
[Crossref]

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, O. Reiser, R. J. Twieg, and C. A. Walsh, “The design, synthesis, and evaluation of chromophores for second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 410 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Jerphagnon and S. K. Kurtz, “Maker fringes: detailed comparison of theory and experiment for isotropic and uniaxial crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1667 (1970).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

J. Phys. B (1)

B. Wyncke and F. Brehat, “Calculation of effective second-order nonlinear coefficients along the phase matching direction in acentric orthorhombic biaxial crystals,” J. Phys. B 22, 363 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Polym. Sci. A-1 (1)

J. B. Land, H. G. Olf, and A. Perterlin, “Nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray determination of structure of poly(vinylidene fluoride),” J. Polym. Sci. A-1 4, 941 (1966); H. Kawai, “The piezoelectricity of poly(vinylidene fluoride),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 8, 975 (1969); J. G. Bergman, H. McFee, and G. R. Crane, “Pyroelectricity and optical second harmonic generation in polyvinylidene fluoride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 203 (1971).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Shuto, H. Takara, M. Amano, and T. Kaino, “Non-collinearly phase-matched second harmonic generation in stilbene-dye-attached polymer thin films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 2508 (1989).
[Crossref]

Macromolecules (4)

G. A. Lindsay, J. D. Stenger-Smith, R. A. Henry, J. M. Hoover, R. A. Nissan, and K. J. Wynne, “Main-chain accordion polymers for nonlinear optics,” Macromolecules 25, 6075 (1992).
[Crossref]

G. D. Green, J. I. Weinschenk, J. E. Mulvancy, and H. K. Hall, “Synthesis of polyesters containing a nonrandomly placed highly polar repeat unit,” Macromolecules 20, 722 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. I. Chen, S. Marturunkakul, L. Li, R. J. Jeng, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Dipolar relaxation in a second-order nonlinear optical interpenetrating polymer network,” Macromolecules 26, 7379 (1993).
[Crossref]

X. T. Tao, T. Watanabe, D. C. Zou, S. Shimoda, H. Sato, and S. Miyata, “Polyurea with large positive birefringence for second-harmonic generation,” Macromolecules 28, 2637 (1995).
[Crossref]

Nature (London) (1)

T. L. Penner, H. R. Motschmann, N. J. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyllimba, and D. J. Williams, “Efficient phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in an organic waveguide,” Nature (London) 367, 49 (1994).
[Crossref]

Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Materials (1)

D. J. Williams, Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Materials, ACS Symp. Ser. 233, (1983), and references therein.
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

G. D. Boyd, A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and D. A. Kleinman, “Second-harmonic generation of light with double refraction,” Phys. Rev. A 137, 1305 (1965).

Other (1)

See, for example, A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1975).

Cited By

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Molecular structure of PU.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Geometry of a drawn polymer film.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive-index dispersions for poled PU with a draw ratio of 1.4.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Wide angle x-ray spectra of PU with a draw ratio of 1.4.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Maker fringes and sample orientations of poled PU with a draw ratio of 1.4 at a fundamental wavelength of 1.064 μm. (A) Rotation around the y axis, (b) rotation around the z axis.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated type-I phase-matching locus of PU with a draw ratio of 1.4 at a fundamental wavelength of 1.064 μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic view of the experimental setup for phase-matched SHG.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Phase-matched SH intensity as a function of rotation angles at a fundamental wavelength of 1.064 μm.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P NL = [ d 11 d 12 d 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 d 26 0 0 0 0 d 35 0 ] ( E 1 2 E 2 2 E 3 2 2 E 2 E 3 2 E 1 E 3 42 E 1 E 2 ) ,
d 12 = d 26 ,             d 13 = d 35 .
η = ( 2 ω 2 / c 3 ) [ d 2 / n 2 ω ( n ω ) 2 ] ( p ω / A ) L 2 × [ sin Δ K L / 2 ) / ( Δ K L / 2 ) ] 2 ,
sin 2 θ cos 2 φ n - 2 - n x - 2 + sin 2 θ sin 2 φ n - 2 - n y - 2 + cos 2 θ n - 2 - n z - 2 = 0 ,

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