Abstract

Polarization contrast is presented in fluorescence images of a Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer obtained with a scanning near-field optical microscope operated in reflection. A tapered optical fiber is used both to excite and to collect the fluorescence. The lateral resolution in the reflection fluorescence image is estimated at 200 nm. Shear-force detection controls the tip-to-surface distance and simultaneously gives a topographic map. Direct correlation between topography and the fluorescent domain is thus obtained. We show that the fluorescence is polarized along the molecular orientation in the Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer. Thus we demonstrate the study of the polarization direction in the reflection mode.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. A. Synge, "Method for extending microscopic radiation into the ultra-microscopic region," Philos. Mag. 6, 356–358 (1928).
  2. E. A. Ash and G. Nicholls, "Super-resolution aperture scanning microscope," Nature (London) 237, 510–512 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  3. U. Ch. Fischer, U. Dürig, and D. W. Pohl, "Near-field optical scanning microscopy and enhanced spectroscopy with submicron apertures," Scan. Microsc. Suppl. 1, 47–52 (1987).
  4. D. W. Pohl, U. Ch. Fischer, and U. Dürig, "Scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 152, 853–861 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. A. Massey, "Microscopy and pattern generation with scanned evanescent waves," Appl. Opt. 23, 658–660 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Girard and M. Spajer, "Model for reflection near-field optical microscopy," Appl. Opt. 29, 3726–3733 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Dereux, J-P. Vigneron, P. Lambin, and A. A. Lucas, "Theory of near-field optics with application to SNOM and optical binding," Physica B 175, 65–67 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. van Labeke and D. Barchiesi, "Scanning-tunnelling optical microscopy: a theoretical macroscopic approach," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 732–739 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. W. Pohl, in Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy, C. J. R. Sheppard and T. Mulvey, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1991), pp. 243–312.
  10. E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, and J. S. Weiner, "Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, and M. Vaez-Iravani, "Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Betzig, A. Lewis, A. Harootunian, M. Isaacson, and E. Kratschmer, "Near-field scanning optical microscopy," Biophys. J. 49, 269–279 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E. Betzig and R. Chichester, "Single molecules observed by near-field scanning optical microscopy," Science 262, 1422–1424 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. Kopelman and W. Tan, "Near-field optics: imaging single molecules," Science 262, 1382–1384 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. C. Martin, and R. A. Keller, "Alterations of single molecule fluorescence lifetimes in near-field optical microscopy," Science 265, 364–367 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. N. F. van Hulst, M. H. P. Moers, and E. Borgonjon, "Applications of near field optical microscopy," in Proceedings of the Workshop on Photon and Local Probes, in NATO ASI series E (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, to be published).
  17. M. H. P. Moers, N. F. van Hulst, A. G. T. Ruiter, and B. Bölger, "Optical contrast in near-field techniques," Ultra-microscopy 57, 298–302 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. H. P. Moers, H. E. Gaub, and N. F. van Hulst, "Polydiacetylene monolayers studied with a fluorescence scanning near-field optical microscope," Langmuir 10, 2774–2777 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Courjon, J. M. Vigoureux, M. Spajer, K. Sarayeddine, and S. Leblanc, "External and internal reflection nearfield microscopy: experiments and results," Appl. Opt. 29, 3734–3740 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Spajer, D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, A. Jalocha, and J. M. Vigoureux, "Microscopie en champ proche par reflexion," J. Phys. III 1, 1–12 (1991).
  21. M. Spajer and A. Jalocha, "The reflection near field optical microscope an alternative to STOM," in Near Field Optics, D. W. Pohl and C. Courjon, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 87–94.
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Jalocha and C. Pieralli, "A scanning optical profilometer using the SNOM architecture," Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 793–804 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Berntsen, E. Bolezhovnaya, and S. Bolezhovnyi, "Macroscopic self-consistent model for external-reflection near-field microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 878–885 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  24. N. F. van Hulst, M. P. H. Moers, O. F. J. Noordman, T. Faulkner, F. B. Segerink, K. O. van der Werf, B. G. de Grooth, and B. Bölger, "Operation of a scanning near-field optical microscope in reflection in combination with a scanning force microscope," in Scanning Probe Microscopies, S. Manne, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1639, 36–43 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  25. N. F. van Hulst, M. H. P. Moers, and B. Bölger, "Near-field optical microscopy in transmission & reflection modes in combination with force microscopy," J. Microsc. 171, 95–105 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Jalocha and N. F. van Hulst, "Dielectric and fluorescent samples imaged by scanning near-field optical microscopy in reflection," Opt. Commun. (to be published).
  27. P. J. Moyer and M. A. Paesler, "Shear force/reflection near-field scanning optical microscopy," in Scanning Probe Microscopies II, C. C. Williams, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1855, 58–66 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  28. H. Bielefeld, I. Hörsch, G. Krausch, M. Lux-Steiner, J. Mlynek, and O. Marti, "Reflection-scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy of opaque samples," Appl. Phys. A 59, 103–108 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  29. B. M. Goettgens, R. W. Tillmann, M. Radmacher, and H. E. Gaub, "Molecular order in polymerizable Langmuir–Blodgett films by microfluorescence and scanning force microscopy," Langmuir 8, 1768–1774 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. W. Tillmann, M. Radmacher, H. E. Gaub, P. Kenney, and H. O. Ribi, "Monomeric and polymeric molecular films from the diethylene glycol diamine pentacosadiynoic amide," J. Phys. Chem. 97, 2928–2932 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. H. P. Moers, N. F. van Hulst, A. G. T. Ruiter, and B. Bölger, "Optical contrast in near-field techniques," Ultra-microscopy 57, 298–302 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (4)

M. H. P. Moers, H. E. Gaub, and N. F. van Hulst, "Polydiacetylene monolayers studied with a fluorescence scanning near-field optical microscope," Langmuir 10, 2774–2777 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. C. Martin, and R. A. Keller, "Alterations of single molecule fluorescence lifetimes in near-field optical microscopy," Science 265, 364–367 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Jalocha and C. Pieralli, "A scanning optical profilometer using the SNOM architecture," Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 793–804 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Bielefeld, I. Hörsch, G. Krausch, M. Lux-Steiner, J. Mlynek, and O. Marti, "Reflection-scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy of opaque samples," Appl. Phys. A 59, 103–108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (5)

N. F. van Hulst, M. H. P. Moers, and B. Bölger, "Near-field optical microscopy in transmission & reflection modes in combination with force microscopy," J. Microsc. 171, 95–105 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig and R. Chichester, "Single molecules observed by near-field scanning optical microscopy," Science 262, 1422–1424 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kopelman and W. Tan, "Near-field optics: imaging single molecules," Science 262, 1382–1384 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Tillmann, M. Radmacher, H. E. Gaub, P. Kenney, and H. O. Ribi, "Monomeric and polymeric molecular films from the diethylene glycol diamine pentacosadiynoic amide," J. Phys. Chem. 97, 2928–2932 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Berntsen, E. Bolezhovnaya, and S. Bolezhovnyi, "Macroscopic self-consistent model for external-reflection near-field microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 878–885 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (4)

D. van Labeke and D. Barchiesi, "Scanning-tunnelling optical microscopy: a theoretical macroscopic approach," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 732–739 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, and J. S. Weiner, "Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, and M. Vaez-Iravani, "Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Goettgens, R. W. Tillmann, M. Radmacher, and H. E. Gaub, "Molecular order in polymerizable Langmuir–Blodgett films by microfluorescence and scanning force microscopy," Langmuir 8, 1768–1774 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

A. Dereux, J-P. Vigneron, P. Lambin, and A. A. Lucas, "Theory of near-field optics with application to SNOM and optical binding," Physica B 175, 65–67 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Spajer, D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, A. Jalocha, and J. M. Vigoureux, "Microscopie en champ proche par reflexion," J. Phys. III 1, 1–12 (1991).

1990 (2)

1988 (1)

D. W. Pohl, U. Ch. Fischer, and U. Dürig, "Scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 152, 853–861 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

U. Ch. Fischer, U. Dürig, and D. W. Pohl, "Near-field optical scanning microscopy and enhanced spectroscopy with submicron apertures," Scan. Microsc. Suppl. 1, 47–52 (1987).

1986 (1)

E. Betzig, A. Lewis, A. Harootunian, M. Isaacson, and E. Kratschmer, "Near-field scanning optical microscopy," Biophys. J. 49, 269–279 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

1972 (1)

E. A. Ash and G. Nicholls, "Super-resolution aperture scanning microscope," Nature (London) 237, 510–512 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1928 (1)

E. A. Synge, "Method for extending microscopic radiation into the ultra-microscopic region," Philos. Mag. 6, 356–358 (1928).

Ambrose, W. P.

W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. C. Martin, and R. A. Keller, "Alterations of single molecule fluorescence lifetimes in near-field optical microscopy," Science 265, 364–367 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ash, E. A.

E. A. Ash and G. Nicholls, "Super-resolution aperture scanning microscope," Nature (London) 237, 510–512 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Barchiesi, D.

Berntsen, S.

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig and R. Chichester, "Single molecules observed by near-field scanning optical microscopy," Science 262, 1422–1424 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, and J. S. Weiner, "Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, A. Lewis, A. Harootunian, M. Isaacson, and E. Kratschmer, "Near-field scanning optical microscopy," Biophys. J. 49, 269–279 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bielefeld, H.

H. Bielefeld, I. Hörsch, G. Krausch, M. Lux-Steiner, J. Mlynek, and O. Marti, "Reflection-scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy of opaque samples," Appl. Phys. A 59, 103–108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bolezhovnaya, E.

Bolezhovnyi, S.

Bölger, B.

M. H. P. Moers, N. F. van Hulst, A. G. T. Ruiter, and B. Bölger, "Optical contrast in near-field techniques," Ultra-microscopy 57, 298–302 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. F. van Hulst, M. H. P. Moers, and B. Bölger, "Near-field optical microscopy in transmission & reflection modes in combination with force microscopy," J. Microsc. 171, 95–105 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. F. van Hulst, M. P. H. Moers, O. F. J. Noordman, T. Faulkner, F. B. Segerink, K. O. van der Werf, B. G. de Grooth, and B. Bölger, "Operation of a scanning near-field optical microscope in reflection in combination with a scanning force microscope," in Scanning Probe Microscopies, S. Manne, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1639, 36–43 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Borgonjon, E.

N. F. van Hulst, M. H. P. Moers, and E. Borgonjon, "Applications of near field optical microscopy," in Proceedings of the Workshop on Photon and Local Probes, in NATO ASI series E (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, to be published).

Chen, Y.

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, and M. Vaez-Iravani, "Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chichester, R.

E. Betzig and R. Chichester, "Single molecules observed by near-field scanning optical microscopy," Science 262, 1422–1424 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Courjon, D.

M. Spajer, D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, A. Jalocha, and J. M. Vigoureux, "Microscopie en champ proche par reflexion," J. Phys. III 1, 1–12 (1991).

D. Courjon, J. M. Vigoureux, M. Spajer, K. Sarayeddine, and S. Leblanc, "External and internal reflection nearfield microscopy: experiments and results," Appl. Opt. 29, 3734–3740 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

A. Dereux, J-P. Vigneron, P. Lambin, and A. A. Lucas, "Theory of near-field optics with application to SNOM and optical binding," Physica B 175, 65–67 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dürig, U.

D. W. Pohl, U. Ch. Fischer, and U. Dürig, "Scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 152, 853–861 (1988).
[CrossRef]

U. Ch. Fischer, U. Dürig, and D. W. Pohl, "Near-field optical scanning microscopy and enhanced spectroscopy with submicron apertures," Scan. Microsc. Suppl. 1, 47–52 (1987).

Faulkner, T.

N. F. van Hulst, M. P. H. Moers, O. F. J. Noordman, T. Faulkner, F. B. Segerink, K. O. van der Werf, B. G. de Grooth, and B. Bölger, "Operation of a scanning near-field optical microscope in reflection in combination with a scanning force microscope," in Scanning Probe Microscopies, S. Manne, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1639, 36–43 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Finn, P. L.

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, and J. S. Weiner, "Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, U. Ch.

D. W. Pohl, U. Ch. Fischer, and U. Dürig, "Scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 152, 853–861 (1988).
[CrossRef]

U. Ch. Fischer, U. Dürig, and D. W. Pohl, "Near-field optical scanning microscopy and enhanced spectroscopy with submicron apertures," Scan. Microsc. Suppl. 1, 47–52 (1987).

Gaub, H. E.

M. H. P. Moers, H. E. Gaub, and N. F. van Hulst, "Polydiacetylene monolayers studied with a fluorescence scanning near-field optical microscope," Langmuir 10, 2774–2777 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Tillmann, M. Radmacher, H. E. Gaub, P. Kenney, and H. O. Ribi, "Monomeric and polymeric molecular films from the diethylene glycol diamine pentacosadiynoic amide," J. Phys. Chem. 97, 2928–2932 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Goettgens, R. W. Tillmann, M. Radmacher, and H. E. Gaub, "Molecular order in polymerizable Langmuir–Blodgett films by microfluorescence and scanning force microscopy," Langmuir 8, 1768–1774 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Girard, C.

Goettgens, B. M.

B. M. Goettgens, R. W. Tillmann, M. Radmacher, and H. E. Gaub, "Molecular order in polymerizable Langmuir–Blodgett films by microfluorescence and scanning force microscopy," Langmuir 8, 1768–1774 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Goodwin, P. M.

W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. C. Martin, and R. A. Keller, "Alterations of single molecule fluorescence lifetimes in near-field optical microscopy," Science 265, 364–367 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grooth, B. G. de

N. F. van Hulst, M. P. H. Moers, O. F. J. Noordman, T. Faulkner, F. B. Segerink, K. O. van der Werf, B. G. de Grooth, and B. Bölger, "Operation of a scanning near-field optical microscope in reflection in combination with a scanning force microscope," in Scanning Probe Microscopies, S. Manne, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1639, 36–43 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Harootunian, A.

E. Betzig, A. Lewis, A. Harootunian, M. Isaacson, and E. Kratschmer, "Near-field scanning optical microscopy," Biophys. J. 49, 269–279 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hörsch, I.

H. Bielefeld, I. Hörsch, G. Krausch, M. Lux-Steiner, J. Mlynek, and O. Marti, "Reflection-scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy of opaque samples," Appl. Phys. A 59, 103–108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hulst, N. F. van

M. H. P. Moers, N. F. van Hulst, A. G. T. Ruiter, and B. Bölger, "Optical contrast in near-field techniques," Ultra-microscopy 57, 298–302 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. H. P. Moers, H. E. Gaub, and N. F. van Hulst, "Polydiacetylene monolayers studied with a fluorescence scanning near-field optical microscope," Langmuir 10, 2774–2777 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. F. van Hulst, M. H. P. Moers, and B. Bölger, "Near-field optical microscopy in transmission & reflection modes in combination with force microscopy," J. Microsc. 171, 95–105 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Jalocha and N. F. van Hulst, "Dielectric and fluorescent samples imaged by scanning near-field optical microscopy in reflection," Opt. Commun. (to be published).

N. F. van Hulst, M. H. P. Moers, and E. Borgonjon, "Applications of near field optical microscopy," in Proceedings of the Workshop on Photon and Local Probes, in NATO ASI series E (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, to be published).

N. F. van Hulst, M. P. H. Moers, O. F. J. Noordman, T. Faulkner, F. B. Segerink, K. O. van der Werf, B. G. de Grooth, and B. Bölger, "Operation of a scanning near-field optical microscope in reflection in combination with a scanning force microscope," in Scanning Probe Microscopies, S. Manne, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1639, 36–43 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Isaacson, M.

E. Betzig, A. Lewis, A. Harootunian, M. Isaacson, and E. Kratschmer, "Near-field scanning optical microscopy," Biophys. J. 49, 269–279 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jalocha, A.

A. Jalocha and C. Pieralli, "A scanning optical profilometer using the SNOM architecture," Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 793–804 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Spajer, D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, A. Jalocha, and J. M. Vigoureux, "Microscopie en champ proche par reflexion," J. Phys. III 1, 1–12 (1991).

A. Jalocha and N. F. van Hulst, "Dielectric and fluorescent samples imaged by scanning near-field optical microscopy in reflection," Opt. Commun. (to be published).

M. Spajer and A. Jalocha, "The reflection near field optical microscope an alternative to STOM," in Near Field Optics, D. W. Pohl and C. Courjon, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 87–94.
[CrossRef]

Keller, R. A.

W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. C. Martin, and R. A. Keller, "Alterations of single molecule fluorescence lifetimes in near-field optical microscopy," Science 265, 364–367 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kenney, P.

R. W. Tillmann, M. Radmacher, H. E. Gaub, P. Kenney, and H. O. Ribi, "Monomeric and polymeric molecular films from the diethylene glycol diamine pentacosadiynoic amide," J. Phys. Chem. 97, 2928–2932 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kopelman, R.

R. Kopelman and W. Tan, "Near-field optics: imaging single molecules," Science 262, 1382–1384 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kratschmer, E.

E. Betzig, A. Lewis, A. Harootunian, M. Isaacson, and E. Kratschmer, "Near-field scanning optical microscopy," Biophys. J. 49, 269–279 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausch, G.

H. Bielefeld, I. Hörsch, G. Krausch, M. Lux-Steiner, J. Mlynek, and O. Marti, "Reflection-scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy of opaque samples," Appl. Phys. A 59, 103–108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Labeke, D. van

Lambin, P.

A. Dereux, J-P. Vigneron, P. Lambin, and A. A. Lucas, "Theory of near-field optics with application to SNOM and optical binding," Physica B 175, 65–67 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Leblanc, S.

Lewis, A.

E. Betzig, A. Lewis, A. Harootunian, M. Isaacson, and E. Kratschmer, "Near-field scanning optical microscopy," Biophys. J. 49, 269–279 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lucas, A. A.

A. Dereux, J-P. Vigneron, P. Lambin, and A. A. Lucas, "Theory of near-field optics with application to SNOM and optical binding," Physica B 175, 65–67 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lux-Steiner, M.

H. Bielefeld, I. Hörsch, G. Krausch, M. Lux-Steiner, J. Mlynek, and O. Marti, "Reflection-scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy of opaque samples," Appl. Phys. A 59, 103–108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Marti, O.

H. Bielefeld, I. Hörsch, G. Krausch, M. Lux-Steiner, J. Mlynek, and O. Marti, "Reflection-scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy of opaque samples," Appl. Phys. A 59, 103–108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J. C.

W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. C. Martin, and R. A. Keller, "Alterations of single molecule fluorescence lifetimes in near-field optical microscopy," Science 265, 364–367 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massey, G. A.

Mlynek, J.

H. Bielefeld, I. Hörsch, G. Krausch, M. Lux-Steiner, J. Mlynek, and O. Marti, "Reflection-scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy of opaque samples," Appl. Phys. A 59, 103–108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moers, M. H. P.

M. H. P. Moers, N. F. van Hulst, A. G. T. Ruiter, and B. Bölger, "Optical contrast in near-field techniques," Ultra-microscopy 57, 298–302 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. H. P. Moers, H. E. Gaub, and N. F. van Hulst, "Polydiacetylene monolayers studied with a fluorescence scanning near-field optical microscope," Langmuir 10, 2774–2777 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. F. van Hulst, M. H. P. Moers, and B. Bölger, "Near-field optical microscopy in transmission & reflection modes in combination with force microscopy," J. Microsc. 171, 95–105 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. F. van Hulst, M. H. P. Moers, and E. Borgonjon, "Applications of near field optical microscopy," in Proceedings of the Workshop on Photon and Local Probes, in NATO ASI series E (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, to be published).

Moers, M. P. H.

N. F. van Hulst, M. P. H. Moers, O. F. J. Noordman, T. Faulkner, F. B. Segerink, K. O. van der Werf, B. G. de Grooth, and B. Bölger, "Operation of a scanning near-field optical microscope in reflection in combination with a scanning force microscope," in Scanning Probe Microscopies, S. Manne, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1639, 36–43 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Moyer, P. J.

P. J. Moyer and M. A. Paesler, "Shear force/reflection near-field scanning optical microscopy," in Scanning Probe Microscopies II, C. C. Williams, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1855, 58–66 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nicholls, G.

E. A. Ash and G. Nicholls, "Super-resolution aperture scanning microscope," Nature (London) 237, 510–512 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Noordman, O. F. J.

N. F. van Hulst, M. P. H. Moers, O. F. J. Noordman, T. Faulkner, F. B. Segerink, K. O. van der Werf, B. G. de Grooth, and B. Bölger, "Operation of a scanning near-field optical microscope in reflection in combination with a scanning force microscope," in Scanning Probe Microscopies, S. Manne, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1639, 36–43 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Paesler, M. A.

P. J. Moyer and M. A. Paesler, "Shear force/reflection near-field scanning optical microscopy," in Scanning Probe Microscopies II, C. C. Williams, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1855, 58–66 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pieralli, C.

A. Jalocha and C. Pieralli, "A scanning optical profilometer using the SNOM architecture," Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 793–804 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

D. W. Pohl, U. Ch. Fischer, and U. Dürig, "Scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 152, 853–861 (1988).
[CrossRef]

U. Ch. Fischer, U. Dürig, and D. W. Pohl, "Near-field optical scanning microscopy and enhanced spectroscopy with submicron apertures," Scan. Microsc. Suppl. 1, 47–52 (1987).

D. W. Pohl, in Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy, C. J. R. Sheppard and T. Mulvey, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1991), pp. 243–312.

Radmacher, M.

R. W. Tillmann, M. Radmacher, H. E. Gaub, P. Kenney, and H. O. Ribi, "Monomeric and polymeric molecular films from the diethylene glycol diamine pentacosadiynoic amide," J. Phys. Chem. 97, 2928–2932 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Goettgens, R. W. Tillmann, M. Radmacher, and H. E. Gaub, "Molecular order in polymerizable Langmuir–Blodgett films by microfluorescence and scanning force microscopy," Langmuir 8, 1768–1774 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ribi, H. O.

R. W. Tillmann, M. Radmacher, H. E. Gaub, P. Kenney, and H. O. Ribi, "Monomeric and polymeric molecular films from the diethylene glycol diamine pentacosadiynoic amide," J. Phys. Chem. 97, 2928–2932 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ruiter, A. G. T.

M. H. P. Moers, N. F. van Hulst, A. G. T. Ruiter, and B. Bölger, "Optical contrast in near-field techniques," Ultra-microscopy 57, 298–302 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sarayeddine, K.

M. Spajer, D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, A. Jalocha, and J. M. Vigoureux, "Microscopie en champ proche par reflexion," J. Phys. III 1, 1–12 (1991).

D. Courjon, J. M. Vigoureux, M. Spajer, K. Sarayeddine, and S. Leblanc, "External and internal reflection nearfield microscopy: experiments and results," Appl. Opt. 29, 3734–3740 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segerink, F. B.

N. F. van Hulst, M. P. H. Moers, O. F. J. Noordman, T. Faulkner, F. B. Segerink, K. O. van der Werf, B. G. de Grooth, and B. Bölger, "Operation of a scanning near-field optical microscope in reflection in combination with a scanning force microscope," in Scanning Probe Microscopies, S. Manne, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1639, 36–43 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Spajer, M.

M. Spajer, D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, A. Jalocha, and J. M. Vigoureux, "Microscopie en champ proche par reflexion," J. Phys. III 1, 1–12 (1991).

D. Courjon, J. M. Vigoureux, M. Spajer, K. Sarayeddine, and S. Leblanc, "External and internal reflection nearfield microscopy: experiments and results," Appl. Opt. 29, 3734–3740 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Girard and M. Spajer, "Model for reflection near-field optical microscopy," Appl. Opt. 29, 3726–3733 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Spajer and A. Jalocha, "The reflection near field optical microscope an alternative to STOM," in Near Field Optics, D. W. Pohl and C. Courjon, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 87–94.
[CrossRef]

Synge, E. A.

E. A. Synge, "Method for extending microscopic radiation into the ultra-microscopic region," Philos. Mag. 6, 356–358 (1928).

Tan, W.

R. Kopelman and W. Tan, "Near-field optics: imaging single molecules," Science 262, 1382–1384 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tillmann, R. W.

R. W. Tillmann, M. Radmacher, H. E. Gaub, P. Kenney, and H. O. Ribi, "Monomeric and polymeric molecular films from the diethylene glycol diamine pentacosadiynoic amide," J. Phys. Chem. 97, 2928–2932 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Goettgens, R. W. Tillmann, M. Radmacher, and H. E. Gaub, "Molecular order in polymerizable Langmuir–Blodgett films by microfluorescence and scanning force microscopy," Langmuir 8, 1768–1774 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Toledo-Crow, R.

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, and M. Vaez-Iravani, "Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vaez-Iravani, M.

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, and M. Vaez-Iravani, "Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vigneron, J-P.

A. Dereux, J-P. Vigneron, P. Lambin, and A. A. Lucas, "Theory of near-field optics with application to SNOM and optical binding," Physica B 175, 65–67 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vigoureux, J. M.

M. Spajer, D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, A. Jalocha, and J. M. Vigoureux, "Microscopie en champ proche par reflexion," J. Phys. III 1, 1–12 (1991).

D. Courjon, J. M. Vigoureux, M. Spajer, K. Sarayeddine, and S. Leblanc, "External and internal reflection nearfield microscopy: experiments and results," Appl. Opt. 29, 3734–3740 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiner, J. S.

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, and J. S. Weiner, "Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Werf, K. O. van der

N. F. van Hulst, M. P. H. Moers, O. F. J. Noordman, T. Faulkner, F. B. Segerink, K. O. van der Werf, B. G. de Grooth, and B. Bölger, "Operation of a scanning near-field optical microscope in reflection in combination with a scanning force microscope," in Scanning Probe Microscopies, S. Manne, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1639, 36–43 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P. C.

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, and M. Vaez-Iravani, "Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

H. Bielefeld, I. Hörsch, G. Krausch, M. Lux-Steiner, J. Mlynek, and O. Marti, "Reflection-scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy of opaque samples," Appl. Phys. A 59, 103–108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, and J. S. Weiner, "Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, and M. Vaez-Iravani, "Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

E. Betzig, A. Lewis, A. Harootunian, M. Isaacson, and E. Kratschmer, "Near-field scanning optical microscopy," Biophys. J. 49, 269–279 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (2)

D. W. Pohl, U. Ch. Fischer, and U. Dürig, "Scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 152, 853–861 (1988).
[CrossRef]

N. F. van Hulst, M. H. P. Moers, and B. Bölger, "Near-field optical microscopy in transmission & reflection modes in combination with force microscopy," J. Microsc. 171, 95–105 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

R. W. Tillmann, M. Radmacher, H. E. Gaub, P. Kenney, and H. O. Ribi, "Monomeric and polymeric molecular films from the diethylene glycol diamine pentacosadiynoic amide," J. Phys. Chem. 97, 2928–2932 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. III (1)

M. Spajer, D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, A. Jalocha, and J. M. Vigoureux, "Microscopie en champ proche par reflexion," J. Phys. III 1, 1–12 (1991).

Langmuir (2)

M. H. P. Moers, H. E. Gaub, and N. F. van Hulst, "Polydiacetylene monolayers studied with a fluorescence scanning near-field optical microscope," Langmuir 10, 2774–2777 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Goettgens, R. W. Tillmann, M. Radmacher, and H. E. Gaub, "Molecular order in polymerizable Langmuir–Blodgett films by microfluorescence and scanning force microscopy," Langmuir 8, 1768–1774 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

E. A. Ash and G. Nicholls, "Super-resolution aperture scanning microscope," Nature (London) 237, 510–512 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Mag. (1)

E. A. Synge, "Method for extending microscopic radiation into the ultra-microscopic region," Philos. Mag. 6, 356–358 (1928).

Physica B (1)

A. Dereux, J-P. Vigneron, P. Lambin, and A. A. Lucas, "Theory of near-field optics with application to SNOM and optical binding," Physica B 175, 65–67 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

A. Jalocha and C. Pieralli, "A scanning optical profilometer using the SNOM architecture," Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 793–804 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scan. Microsc. Suppl. (1)

U. Ch. Fischer, U. Dürig, and D. W. Pohl, "Near-field optical scanning microscopy and enhanced spectroscopy with submicron apertures," Scan. Microsc. Suppl. 1, 47–52 (1987).

Science (3)

E. Betzig and R. Chichester, "Single molecules observed by near-field scanning optical microscopy," Science 262, 1422–1424 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kopelman and W. Tan, "Near-field optics: imaging single molecules," Science 262, 1382–1384 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. C. Martin, and R. A. Keller, "Alterations of single molecule fluorescence lifetimes in near-field optical microscopy," Science 265, 364–367 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultra-microscopy (1)

M. H. P. Moers, N. F. van Hulst, A. G. T. Ruiter, and B. Bölger, "Optical contrast in near-field techniques," Ultra-microscopy 57, 298–302 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

D. W. Pohl, in Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy, C. J. R. Sheppard and T. Mulvey, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1991), pp. 243–312.

N. F. van Hulst, M. H. P. Moers, and E. Borgonjon, "Applications of near field optical microscopy," in Proceedings of the Workshop on Photon and Local Probes, in NATO ASI series E (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, to be published).

M. Spajer and A. Jalocha, "The reflection near field optical microscope an alternative to STOM," in Near Field Optics, D. W. Pohl and C. Courjon, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 87–94.
[CrossRef]

N. F. van Hulst, M. P. H. Moers, O. F. J. Noordman, T. Faulkner, F. B. Segerink, K. O. van der Werf, B. G. de Grooth, and B. Bölger, "Operation of a scanning near-field optical microscope in reflection in combination with a scanning force microscope," in Scanning Probe Microscopies, S. Manne, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1639, 36–43 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Jalocha and N. F. van Hulst, "Dielectric and fluorescent samples imaged by scanning near-field optical microscopy in reflection," Opt. Commun. (to be published).

P. J. Moyer and M. A. Paesler, "Shear force/reflection near-field scanning optical microscopy," in Scanning Probe Microscopies II, C. C. Williams, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1855, 58–66 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reflection setup for fluorescence and shear force detection. The high-pass filter (HPF) blocks λexc = 514 nm. Only the fluorescence signal λfluo > 590 nm is recorded. QD, quadrant detector; PMT, photomultiplier tube; PC, personal computer; DM, dichroic mirror; A, analyzer; P, polarizer; PIEZO, piezoceramic.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

10.4 μm × 10.4 μm (52-nm pixel size) images of DPDA. (a) On the shear-force image the contrast is inverted with respect to the topography, as explained in the text. (b) Corresponding near-field fluorescence image where different film domains appear bright.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fluorescence line intensity of the optical image of Fig. 2(b). The pixel size is 52 nm. We can distinguish the fluorescence domains.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Shear-force and (b), (c) fluorescence images of the DPDA film. The image size is 10.4 μm × 10.4 μm, and the pixel size is 52 nm. The two fluorescence images are obtained with different input polarizations, perpendicular to each other. The relative intensity of several domains changes with the input polarization. This behavior is due to the high anisotropy of the DPDA film.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Shear-force profile and (b), (c) fluorescence intensities with mutually perpendicular polarization corresponding to Figs. 4(a), 4(b), and 4(c), respectively. The line in (a) corresponds to the position of the line in Fig. 4(a). The polarization contrast is clearly demonstrated.

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