Abstract

A system for the rapid-scan (RS) acquisition of time-resolved nonlinear spectroscopic signals, capable of femtosecond resolution over a range of tens of picoseconds, is presented. Operationally, the system is based on a magnetically driven, commercially available velocity transducer that continuously scans a probe delay line relative to a fixed delay line while data are recorded on the fly and in real time. A simple calibration and data time-scale linearization are carried out and tested on optical-heterodyne-detected optical-Kerr-effect measurements. These results are compared with data acquired with a detection system that is based on a stepped delay-line lock-in amplifier. It is found that the RS system is favorable in several areas of signal acquisition, including signal-to-noise ratio, acquisition time, spectral resolution in the Fourier-transformed data, and immunity to artifacts such as baseline distortions.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Chesnoy and A. Mokhtari, “Resonant impulsive-stimulated Raman-scattering on Malachite Green,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 3566–3576 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. F. W. Wise, M. J. Rosker, G. L. Millhauser, and C. L. Tang, “Application of linear prediction least-squares fitting to time-resolved optical spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1116–1121 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  3. I. A. Walmsley, M. Mitsunaga, and C. L. Tang, “Theory of quantum beats in optical transmission-correlation and pump–probe experiments for a general Raman configuration,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 4681–4689 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. N. F. Scherer, L. D. Ziegler, and G. R. Fleming, “Heterodyne-detected time-domain measurement of I2predissociation and vibrational dynamics in solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 96, 5544–5547 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Y. Bigot, M. Portella, R. W. Schoenlein, C. J. Bardeen, A. Migus, and C. V. Shank, “Non-Markovian dephasing of molecules in solution measured with 3-pulse femtosecond photon-echoes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1138–1141 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. E. J. Nibbering, D. A. Wiersma, and K. Duppen, “Femtosecond non-Markovian optical dynamics in solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2464–2467 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. T. Joo and A. C. Albrecht, “Electronic dephasing studies of molecules in solution at room temperature by femtosecond degenerate four wave mixing,” Chem. Phys. 176, 233–247 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. J. Cong, Y. J. Yan, H. P. Deul, and J. D. Simon, “Non-Markovian optical dephasing dynamics in room-temperature liquids investigated by femtosecond transient absorption-spectroscopy: theory and experiment,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 7855–7866 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  9. P. Vöhringer, D. C. Arnett, R. A. Westervelt, M. J. Feldstein, and N. F. Scherer, “Optical dephasing on femtosecond timescales: direct measurement and calculation from solvent spectral densities,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 4027–4036 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. A. V. Kliner, J. C. Alfano, and P. F. Barbara, “Photodissociation and vibrational-relaxation of I2in ethanol,” J. Chem. Phys. 98, 5375–5389 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  11. U. Banin and S. Ruhman, “Ultrafast photodissociation of I3—coherent photochemistry in solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 98, 4391–4403 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  12. N. Pugliano, D. K. Patlit, A. Z. Szarka, and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Wave-packet dynamics of the Hgl2photodissociation reaction in solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 7273–7276 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  13. P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, J. Y. Bigot, C. H. Brito Cruz, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond photon-echoes from molecules in solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 505–507 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. R. L. Fork, B. I. Greene, and C. V. Shank, “Generation of pulses shorter than 0.1 psec by colliding pulse mode locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 671–672 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  15. D. E. Spence, P. N. Kean, and W. Sibbett, “60-fsec pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti-sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 42–44 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. M. T. Asaki, C. P. Huang, D. Garvey, J. P. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Generation of 11-fs pulses from a self-mode-locked Ti-sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 977–979 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. F. Krausz, Ch. Spielmann, T. Bradec, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Generation of 33-fs optical pulses from a solid state laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 204–206 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. P. Bado and K. R. Wilson, “Experimental picosecond relaxation dynamics of large molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. 88, 655–657 (1984), and references therein.
    [Crossref]
  19. J. M. Halbout and C. L. Tang, “Femtosecond interferometry for nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 765–767 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. J. Rosker, F. W. Wise, and C. L. Tang, “Femtosecond relaxation dynamics of large molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 321–324 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. M. D. Levenson and S. S. Kano, Introduction to Nonlinear Spectroscopy, revised ed. (Academic, London, 1988), Chap. 3, pp. 79–84; Chap. 4, pp. 155–159.
  22. M. Maroncelli, “The dynamics of solvation in polar liquids,” J. Mol. Liq. 57, 1–37 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  23. A. C. Tam, “Photoacoutics: spectroscopy and other applications,” in Ultrasensitive Laser Spectroscopy, D. S. Kliger, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), pp. 2–108.
  24. W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1982), p. 385.
  25. M. C. Nuss, K. Keller, G. T. Harvey, M. S. Heutmaker, and P. R. Smith, “Amplitude noise reduction of 50 dB in colliding-pulse mode-locking dye lasers,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1026–1028 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. M. Rucker, W. Knoll, and J. P. Rabe, “Surface-plasmon-induced contrast in scanning tunneling microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 5027–5031 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  27. J. A. Moon, “Optimization of signal-to-noise ratios in pump-probe spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1775–1778 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  28. D. C. Edelstein, R. B. Romney, and M. Scheuermann, “Rapid programmable 300 ps optical delay scanner and signal-averaging system for ultrafast measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 579–583 (1991), and references therein.
    [Crossref]
  29. J. M. Lanzafame, R. J. D. Miller, A. A. Muenter, and B. A. Parkinson, “Ultrafast charge-transfer dynamics at SnS2surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 2820–2826 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  30. G. C. Cho, W. Kütt, and H. Kurz, “Subpicosecond time-resolved coherent-phonon oscillations in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 764–766 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. S. E. Ralph and D. Grischkowsky, “THz spectroscopy and source characterization by optoelectronic interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1070–1072 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  32. W. S. Pelouch and L. A. Schlie, “Ultrafast band-edge carrier dynamics in ln0.65Ga0.35As,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2323–2325 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  33. We know of only one commercial RS system: ODL-150, Clark-MRX, Inc.
  34. P. Vöhringer and N. F. Scherer, “Transient grating optical heterodyne detected impulsive stimulated Raman scattering in simple liquids,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 2684–2695 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  35. D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, and G. A. Kenney-Wallace, “Femtosecond optical Kerr studies on the origin of the nonlinear responses in simple liquids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 433–454 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  36. D. S. Alavi, R. S. Hartman, and D. H. Waldeck, “A test of continuum models for dielectric friction—rotational diffusion of phenoxazine dyes in dimethylsulfoxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 94, 4509–4520 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  37. Y. J. Chang and E. W. Castner, “Fast responses from ‘slowly relaxing’ liquids: a comparative study of the femtosecond dynamics of triacetin, ethylene glycol, and water,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 7289–7299 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  38. B. Schrader, Raman/Infrared Atlas of Organic Components, 2nd ed. (VCH-Verlag, Weinheim, Germany, 1989), pp. A2-02, F8-01.
  39. R. W. Helwarth, “Third-order optical susceptibilities of liquids and solids,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 5, 1–68 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  40. The Tektronics TDS 420 scope used in this work can average as many as 10,000 scans.
  41. T. S. Yang, P. Vöhringer, D. C. Arnett, and N. F. Scherer, “Simulation and measurement of 3-pulse photon echoes: modeling with spectral densities,” submitted to J. Chem. Phys.
  42. P. Vöhringer, D. C. Arnett, T. S. Yang, and N. F. Scherer, “Time-gated photon echo spectroscopy in liquids,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 237, 387–398 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  43. B. J. Schwartz and P. J. Rossky, “Aqueous solvation dynamics with a quantum-mechanical solute: computer-simulation studies of the photoexcited hydrated electron,” J. Chem. Phys. 101, 6902–6916 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  44. M. J. Feldstein and N. F. Scherer, “Femtosecond time-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy,” submitted to J. Phys. Chem.
  45. W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light: Production and Use (Harvard U. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1966), Chaps. 2 and 8, App. 2.
  46. L. D. Ziegler, R. Fan, A. E. Desrosiers, and N. F. Scherer, “Femtosecond polarization spectroscopy: a density matrix description,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 1823–1839 (1994).
    [Crossref]

1995 (3)

P. Vöhringer, D. C. Arnett, R. A. Westervelt, M. J. Feldstein, and N. F. Scherer, “Optical dephasing on femtosecond timescales: direct measurement and calculation from solvent spectral densities,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 4027–4036 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Vöhringer and N. F. Scherer, “Transient grating optical heterodyne detected impulsive stimulated Raman scattering in simple liquids,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 2684–2695 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Vöhringer, D. C. Arnett, T. S. Yang, and N. F. Scherer, “Time-gated photon echo spectroscopy in liquids,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 237, 387–398 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (4)

B. J. Schwartz and P. J. Rossky, “Aqueous solvation dynamics with a quantum-mechanical solute: computer-simulation studies of the photoexcited hydrated electron,” J. Chem. Phys. 101, 6902–6916 (1994).
[Crossref]

L. D. Ziegler, R. Fan, A. E. Desrosiers, and N. F. Scherer, “Femtosecond polarization spectroscopy: a density matrix description,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 1823–1839 (1994).
[Crossref]

W. S. Pelouch and L. A. Schlie, “Ultrafast band-edge carrier dynamics in ln0.65Ga0.35As,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2323–2325 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. J. Cong, Y. J. Yan, H. P. Deul, and J. D. Simon, “Non-Markovian optical dephasing dynamics in room-temperature liquids investigated by femtosecond transient absorption-spectroscopy: theory and experiment,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 7855–7866 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (8)

T. Joo and A. C. Albrecht, “Electronic dephasing studies of molecules in solution at room temperature by femtosecond degenerate four wave mixing,” Chem. Phys. 176, 233–247 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. T. Asaki, C. P. Huang, D. Garvey, J. P. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Generation of 11-fs pulses from a self-mode-locked Ti-sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 977–979 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. V. Kliner, J. C. Alfano, and P. F. Barbara, “Photodissociation and vibrational-relaxation of I2in ethanol,” J. Chem. Phys. 98, 5375–5389 (1993).
[Crossref]

U. Banin and S. Ruhman, “Ultrafast photodissociation of I3—coherent photochemistry in solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 98, 4391–4403 (1993).
[Crossref]

N. Pugliano, D. K. Patlit, A. Z. Szarka, and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Wave-packet dynamics of the Hgl2photodissociation reaction in solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 7273–7276 (1993).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Chang and E. W. Castner, “Fast responses from ‘slowly relaxing’ liquids: a comparative study of the femtosecond dynamics of triacetin, ethylene glycol, and water,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 7289–7299 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. Maroncelli, “The dynamics of solvation in polar liquids,” J. Mol. Liq. 57, 1–37 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. A. Moon, “Optimization of signal-to-noise ratios in pump-probe spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1775–1778 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (5)

J. M. Lanzafame, R. J. D. Miller, A. A. Muenter, and B. A. Parkinson, “Ultrafast charge-transfer dynamics at SnS2surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 2820–2826 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. Rucker, W. Knoll, and J. P. Rabe, “Surface-plasmon-induced contrast in scanning tunneling microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 5027–5031 (1992).
[Crossref]

S. E. Ralph and D. Grischkowsky, “THz spectroscopy and source characterization by optoelectronic interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1070–1072 (1992).
[Crossref]

N. F. Scherer, L. D. Ziegler, and G. R. Fleming, “Heterodyne-detected time-domain measurement of I2predissociation and vibrational dynamics in solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 96, 5544–5547 (1992).
[Crossref]

F. Krausz, Ch. Spielmann, T. Bradec, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Generation of 33-fs optical pulses from a solid state laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 204–206 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (5)

D. E. Spence, P. N. Kean, and W. Sibbett, “60-fsec pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti-sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 42–44 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Bigot, M. Portella, R. W. Schoenlein, C. J. Bardeen, A. Migus, and C. V. Shank, “Non-Markovian dephasing of molecules in solution measured with 3-pulse femtosecond photon-echoes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1138–1141 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Nibbering, D. A. Wiersma, and K. Duppen, “Femtosecond non-Markovian optical dynamics in solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2464–2467 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Edelstein, R. B. Romney, and M. Scheuermann, “Rapid programmable 300 ps optical delay scanner and signal-averaging system for ultrafast measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 579–583 (1991), and references therein.
[Crossref]

D. S. Alavi, R. S. Hartman, and D. H. Waldeck, “A test of continuum models for dielectric friction—rotational diffusion of phenoxazine dyes in dimethylsulfoxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 94, 4509–4520 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

1989 (1)

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, J. Y. Bigot, C. H. Brito Cruz, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond photon-echoes from molecules in solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 505–507 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (3)

J. Chesnoy and A. Mokhtari, “Resonant impulsive-stimulated Raman-scattering on Malachite Green,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 3566–3576 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. A. Walmsley, M. Mitsunaga, and C. L. Tang, “Theory of quantum beats in optical transmission-correlation and pump–probe experiments for a general Raman configuration,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 4681–4689 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, and G. A. Kenney-Wallace, “Femtosecond optical Kerr studies on the origin of the nonlinear responses in simple liquids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 433–454 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

F. W. Wise, M. J. Rosker, G. L. Millhauser, and C. L. Tang, “Application of linear prediction least-squares fitting to time-resolved optical spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1116–1121 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

M. J. Rosker, F. W. Wise, and C. L. Tang, “Femtosecond relaxation dynamics of large molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 321–324 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

P. Bado and K. R. Wilson, “Experimental picosecond relaxation dynamics of large molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. 88, 655–657 (1984), and references therein.
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

J. M. Halbout and C. L. Tang, “Femtosecond interferometry for nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 765–767 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

R. L. Fork, B. I. Greene, and C. V. Shank, “Generation of pulses shorter than 0.1 psec by colliding pulse mode locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 671–672 (1981).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

R. W. Helwarth, “Third-order optical susceptibilities of liquids and solids,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 5, 1–68 (1980).
[Crossref]

Alavi, D. S.

D. S. Alavi, R. S. Hartman, and D. H. Waldeck, “A test of continuum models for dielectric friction—rotational diffusion of phenoxazine dyes in dimethylsulfoxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 94, 4509–4520 (1991).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, A. C.

T. Joo and A. C. Albrecht, “Electronic dephasing studies of molecules in solution at room temperature by femtosecond degenerate four wave mixing,” Chem. Phys. 176, 233–247 (1993).
[Crossref]

Alfano, J. C.

D. A. V. Kliner, J. C. Alfano, and P. F. Barbara, “Photodissociation and vibrational-relaxation of I2in ethanol,” J. Chem. Phys. 98, 5375–5389 (1993).
[Crossref]

Arnett, D. C.

P. Vöhringer, D. C. Arnett, R. A. Westervelt, M. J. Feldstein, and N. F. Scherer, “Optical dephasing on femtosecond timescales: direct measurement and calculation from solvent spectral densities,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 4027–4036 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Vöhringer, D. C. Arnett, T. S. Yang, and N. F. Scherer, “Time-gated photon echo spectroscopy in liquids,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 237, 387–398 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. S. Yang, P. Vöhringer, D. C. Arnett, and N. F. Scherer, “Simulation and measurement of 3-pulse photon echoes: modeling with spectral densities,” submitted to J. Chem. Phys.

Asaki, M. T.

Bado, P.

P. Bado and K. R. Wilson, “Experimental picosecond relaxation dynamics of large molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. 88, 655–657 (1984), and references therein.
[Crossref]

Banin, U.

U. Banin and S. Ruhman, “Ultrafast photodissociation of I3—coherent photochemistry in solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 98, 4391–4403 (1993).
[Crossref]

Barbara, P. F.

D. A. V. Kliner, J. C. Alfano, and P. F. Barbara, “Photodissociation and vibrational-relaxation of I2in ethanol,” J. Chem. Phys. 98, 5375–5389 (1993).
[Crossref]

Bardeen, C. J.

J. Y. Bigot, M. Portella, R. W. Schoenlein, C. J. Bardeen, A. Migus, and C. V. Shank, “Non-Markovian dephasing of molecules in solution measured with 3-pulse femtosecond photon-echoes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1138–1141 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, P. C.

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, J. Y. Bigot, C. H. Brito Cruz, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond photon-echoes from molecules in solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 505–507 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bigot, J. Y.

J. Y. Bigot, M. Portella, R. W. Schoenlein, C. J. Bardeen, A. Migus, and C. V. Shank, “Non-Markovian dephasing of molecules in solution measured with 3-pulse femtosecond photon-echoes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1138–1141 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, J. Y. Bigot, C. H. Brito Cruz, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond photon-echoes from molecules in solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 505–507 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bradec, T.

Brito Cruz, C. H.

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, J. Y. Bigot, C. H. Brito Cruz, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond photon-echoes from molecules in solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 505–507 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castner, E. W.

Y. J. Chang and E. W. Castner, “Fast responses from ‘slowly relaxing’ liquids: a comparative study of the femtosecond dynamics of triacetin, ethylene glycol, and water,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 7289–7299 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y. J.

Y. J. Chang and E. W. Castner, “Fast responses from ‘slowly relaxing’ liquids: a comparative study of the femtosecond dynamics of triacetin, ethylene glycol, and water,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 7289–7299 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chesnoy, J.

J. Chesnoy and A. Mokhtari, “Resonant impulsive-stimulated Raman-scattering on Malachite Green,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 3566–3576 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, G. C.

G. C. Cho, W. Kütt, and H. Kurz, “Subpicosecond time-resolved coherent-phonon oscillations in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 764–766 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cong, P. J.

P. J. Cong, Y. J. Yan, H. P. Deul, and J. D. Simon, “Non-Markovian optical dephasing dynamics in room-temperature liquids investigated by femtosecond transient absorption-spectroscopy: theory and experiment,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 7855–7866 (1994).
[Crossref]

Demtröder, W.

W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1982), p. 385.

Desrosiers, A. E.

L. D. Ziegler, R. Fan, A. E. Desrosiers, and N. F. Scherer, “Femtosecond polarization spectroscopy: a density matrix description,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 1823–1839 (1994).
[Crossref]

Deul, H. P.

P. J. Cong, Y. J. Yan, H. P. Deul, and J. D. Simon, “Non-Markovian optical dephasing dynamics in room-temperature liquids investigated by femtosecond transient absorption-spectroscopy: theory and experiment,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 7855–7866 (1994).
[Crossref]

Duppen, K.

E. J. Nibbering, D. A. Wiersma, and K. Duppen, “Femtosecond non-Markovian optical dynamics in solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2464–2467 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Edelstein, D. C.

D. C. Edelstein, R. B. Romney, and M. Scheuermann, “Rapid programmable 300 ps optical delay scanner and signal-averaging system for ultrafast measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 579–583 (1991), and references therein.
[Crossref]

Fan, R.

L. D. Ziegler, R. Fan, A. E. Desrosiers, and N. F. Scherer, “Femtosecond polarization spectroscopy: a density matrix description,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 1823–1839 (1994).
[Crossref]

Feldstein, M. J.

P. Vöhringer, D. C. Arnett, R. A. Westervelt, M. J. Feldstein, and N. F. Scherer, “Optical dephasing on femtosecond timescales: direct measurement and calculation from solvent spectral densities,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 4027–4036 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. J. Feldstein and N. F. Scherer, “Femtosecond time-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy,” submitted to J. Phys. Chem.

Fleming, G. R.

N. F. Scherer, L. D. Ziegler, and G. R. Fleming, “Heterodyne-detected time-domain measurement of I2predissociation and vibrational dynamics in solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 96, 5544–5547 (1992).
[Crossref]

Fork, R. L.

R. L. Fork, B. I. Greene, and C. V. Shank, “Generation of pulses shorter than 0.1 psec by colliding pulse mode locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 671–672 (1981).
[Crossref]

Fragnito, H. L.

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, J. Y. Bigot, C. H. Brito Cruz, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond photon-echoes from molecules in solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 505–507 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garvey, D.

Greene, B. I.

R. L. Fork, B. I. Greene, and C. V. Shank, “Generation of pulses shorter than 0.1 psec by colliding pulse mode locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 671–672 (1981).
[Crossref]

Grischkowsky, D.

S. E. Ralph and D. Grischkowsky, “THz spectroscopy and source characterization by optoelectronic interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1070–1072 (1992).
[Crossref]

Halbout, J. M.

J. M. Halbout and C. L. Tang, “Femtosecond interferometry for nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 765–767 (1982).
[Crossref]

Hartman, R. S.

D. S. Alavi, R. S. Hartman, and D. H. Waldeck, “A test of continuum models for dielectric friction—rotational diffusion of phenoxazine dyes in dimethylsulfoxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 94, 4509–4520 (1991).
[Crossref]

Harvey, G. T.

Helwarth, R. W.

R. W. Helwarth, “Third-order optical susceptibilities of liquids and solids,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 5, 1–68 (1980).
[Crossref]

Heutmaker, M. S.

Hochstrasser, R. M.

N. Pugliano, D. K. Patlit, A. Z. Szarka, and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Wave-packet dynamics of the Hgl2photodissociation reaction in solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 7273–7276 (1993).
[Crossref]

Huang, C. P.

Joo, T.

T. Joo and A. C. Albrecht, “Electronic dephasing studies of molecules in solution at room temperature by femtosecond degenerate four wave mixing,” Chem. Phys. 176, 233–247 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kano, S. S.

M. D. Levenson and S. S. Kano, Introduction to Nonlinear Spectroscopy, revised ed. (Academic, London, 1988), Chap. 3, pp. 79–84; Chap. 4, pp. 155–159.

Kapteyn, H. C.

Kean, P. N.

Keller, K.

Kenney-Wallace, G. A.

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, and G. A. Kenney-Wallace, “Femtosecond optical Kerr studies on the origin of the nonlinear responses in simple liquids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 433–454 (1988).
[Crossref]

Kliner, D. A. V.

D. A. V. Kliner, J. C. Alfano, and P. F. Barbara, “Photodissociation and vibrational-relaxation of I2in ethanol,” J. Chem. Phys. 98, 5375–5389 (1993).
[Crossref]

Knoll, W.

M. Rucker, W. Knoll, and J. P. Rabe, “Surface-plasmon-induced contrast in scanning tunneling microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 5027–5031 (1992).
[Crossref]

Krausz, F.

Kurz, H.

G. C. Cho, W. Kütt, and H. Kurz, “Subpicosecond time-resolved coherent-phonon oscillations in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 764–766 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kütt, W.

G. C. Cho, W. Kütt, and H. Kurz, “Subpicosecond time-resolved coherent-phonon oscillations in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 764–766 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lanzafame, J. M.

J. M. Lanzafame, R. J. D. Miller, A. A. Muenter, and B. A. Parkinson, “Ultrafast charge-transfer dynamics at SnS2surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 2820–2826 (1992).
[Crossref]

Levenson, M. D.

M. D. Levenson and S. S. Kano, Introduction to Nonlinear Spectroscopy, revised ed. (Academic, London, 1988), Chap. 3, pp. 79–84; Chap. 4, pp. 155–159.

Lotshaw, W. T.

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, and G. A. Kenney-Wallace, “Femtosecond optical Kerr studies on the origin of the nonlinear responses in simple liquids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 433–454 (1988).
[Crossref]

Maroncelli, M.

M. Maroncelli, “The dynamics of solvation in polar liquids,” J. Mol. Liq. 57, 1–37 (1993).
[Crossref]

McMorrow, D.

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, and G. A. Kenney-Wallace, “Femtosecond optical Kerr studies on the origin of the nonlinear responses in simple liquids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 433–454 (1988).
[Crossref]

Migus, A.

J. Y. Bigot, M. Portella, R. W. Schoenlein, C. J. Bardeen, A. Migus, and C. V. Shank, “Non-Markovian dephasing of molecules in solution measured with 3-pulse femtosecond photon-echoes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1138–1141 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miller, R. J. D.

J. M. Lanzafame, R. J. D. Miller, A. A. Muenter, and B. A. Parkinson, “Ultrafast charge-transfer dynamics at SnS2surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 2820–2826 (1992).
[Crossref]

Millhauser, G. L.

F. W. Wise, M. J. Rosker, G. L. Millhauser, and C. L. Tang, “Application of linear prediction least-squares fitting to time-resolved optical spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1116–1121 (1987).
[Crossref]

Mitsunaga, M.

I. A. Walmsley, M. Mitsunaga, and C. L. Tang, “Theory of quantum beats in optical transmission-correlation and pump–probe experiments for a general Raman configuration,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 4681–4689 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mokhtari, A.

J. Chesnoy and A. Mokhtari, “Resonant impulsive-stimulated Raman-scattering on Malachite Green,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 3566–3576 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moon, J. A.

J. A. Moon, “Optimization of signal-to-noise ratios in pump-probe spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1775–1778 (1993).
[Crossref]

Muenter, A. A.

J. M. Lanzafame, R. J. D. Miller, A. A. Muenter, and B. A. Parkinson, “Ultrafast charge-transfer dynamics at SnS2surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 2820–2826 (1992).
[Crossref]

Murnane, M. M.

Nibbering, E. J.

E. J. Nibbering, D. A. Wiersma, and K. Duppen, “Femtosecond non-Markovian optical dynamics in solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2464–2467 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nuss, M. C.

Parkinson, B. A.

J. M. Lanzafame, R. J. D. Miller, A. A. Muenter, and B. A. Parkinson, “Ultrafast charge-transfer dynamics at SnS2surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 2820–2826 (1992).
[Crossref]

Patlit, D. K.

N. Pugliano, D. K. Patlit, A. Z. Szarka, and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Wave-packet dynamics of the Hgl2photodissociation reaction in solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 7273–7276 (1993).
[Crossref]

Pelouch, W. S.

W. S. Pelouch and L. A. Schlie, “Ultrafast band-edge carrier dynamics in ln0.65Ga0.35As,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2323–2325 (1994).
[Crossref]

Portella, M.

J. Y. Bigot, M. Portella, R. W. Schoenlein, C. J. Bardeen, A. Migus, and C. V. Shank, “Non-Markovian dephasing of molecules in solution measured with 3-pulse femtosecond photon-echoes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1138–1141 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pugliano, N.

N. Pugliano, D. K. Patlit, A. Z. Szarka, and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Wave-packet dynamics of the Hgl2photodissociation reaction in solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 7273–7276 (1993).
[Crossref]

Rabe, J. P.

M. Rucker, W. Knoll, and J. P. Rabe, “Surface-plasmon-induced contrast in scanning tunneling microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 5027–5031 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ralph, S. E.

S. E. Ralph and D. Grischkowsky, “THz spectroscopy and source characterization by optoelectronic interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1070–1072 (1992).
[Crossref]

Romney, R. B.

D. C. Edelstein, R. B. Romney, and M. Scheuermann, “Rapid programmable 300 ps optical delay scanner and signal-averaging system for ultrafast measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 579–583 (1991), and references therein.
[Crossref]

Rosker, M. J.

F. W. Wise, M. J. Rosker, G. L. Millhauser, and C. L. Tang, “Application of linear prediction least-squares fitting to time-resolved optical spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1116–1121 (1987).
[Crossref]

M. J. Rosker, F. W. Wise, and C. L. Tang, “Femtosecond relaxation dynamics of large molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 321–324 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rossky, P. J.

B. J. Schwartz and P. J. Rossky, “Aqueous solvation dynamics with a quantum-mechanical solute: computer-simulation studies of the photoexcited hydrated electron,” J. Chem. Phys. 101, 6902–6916 (1994).
[Crossref]

Rucker, M.

M. Rucker, W. Knoll, and J. P. Rabe, “Surface-plasmon-induced contrast in scanning tunneling microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 5027–5031 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ruhman, S.

U. Banin and S. Ruhman, “Ultrafast photodissociation of I3—coherent photochemistry in solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 98, 4391–4403 (1993).
[Crossref]

Scherer, N. F.

P. Vöhringer, D. C. Arnett, R. A. Westervelt, M. J. Feldstein, and N. F. Scherer, “Optical dephasing on femtosecond timescales: direct measurement and calculation from solvent spectral densities,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 4027–4036 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Vöhringer and N. F. Scherer, “Transient grating optical heterodyne detected impulsive stimulated Raman scattering in simple liquids,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 2684–2695 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Vöhringer, D. C. Arnett, T. S. Yang, and N. F. Scherer, “Time-gated photon echo spectroscopy in liquids,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 237, 387–398 (1995).
[Crossref]

L. D. Ziegler, R. Fan, A. E. Desrosiers, and N. F. Scherer, “Femtosecond polarization spectroscopy: a density matrix description,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 1823–1839 (1994).
[Crossref]

N. F. Scherer, L. D. Ziegler, and G. R. Fleming, “Heterodyne-detected time-domain measurement of I2predissociation and vibrational dynamics in solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 96, 5544–5547 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. J. Feldstein and N. F. Scherer, “Femtosecond time-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy,” submitted to J. Phys. Chem.

T. S. Yang, P. Vöhringer, D. C. Arnett, and N. F. Scherer, “Simulation and measurement of 3-pulse photon echoes: modeling with spectral densities,” submitted to J. Chem. Phys.

Scheuermann, M.

D. C. Edelstein, R. B. Romney, and M. Scheuermann, “Rapid programmable 300 ps optical delay scanner and signal-averaging system for ultrafast measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 579–583 (1991), and references therein.
[Crossref]

Schlie, L. A.

W. S. Pelouch and L. A. Schlie, “Ultrafast band-edge carrier dynamics in ln0.65Ga0.35As,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2323–2325 (1994).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, A. J.

Schoenlein, R. W.

J. Y. Bigot, M. Portella, R. W. Schoenlein, C. J. Bardeen, A. Migus, and C. V. Shank, “Non-Markovian dephasing of molecules in solution measured with 3-pulse femtosecond photon-echoes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1138–1141 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schrader, B.

B. Schrader, Raman/Infrared Atlas of Organic Components, 2nd ed. (VCH-Verlag, Weinheim, Germany, 1989), pp. A2-02, F8-01.

Schwartz, B. J.

B. J. Schwartz and P. J. Rossky, “Aqueous solvation dynamics with a quantum-mechanical solute: computer-simulation studies of the photoexcited hydrated electron,” J. Chem. Phys. 101, 6902–6916 (1994).
[Crossref]

Shank, C. V.

J. Y. Bigot, M. Portella, R. W. Schoenlein, C. J. Bardeen, A. Migus, and C. V. Shank, “Non-Markovian dephasing of molecules in solution measured with 3-pulse femtosecond photon-echoes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1138–1141 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, J. Y. Bigot, C. H. Brito Cruz, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond photon-echoes from molecules in solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 505–507 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. Fork, B. I. Greene, and C. V. Shank, “Generation of pulses shorter than 0.1 psec by colliding pulse mode locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 671–672 (1981).
[Crossref]

Shurcliff, W. A.

W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light: Production and Use (Harvard U. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1966), Chaps. 2 and 8, App. 2.

Sibbett, W.

Simon, J. D.

P. J. Cong, Y. J. Yan, H. P. Deul, and J. D. Simon, “Non-Markovian optical dephasing dynamics in room-temperature liquids investigated by femtosecond transient absorption-spectroscopy: theory and experiment,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 7855–7866 (1994).
[Crossref]

Smith, P. R.

Spence, D. E.

Spielmann, Ch.

Szarka, A. Z.

N. Pugliano, D. K. Patlit, A. Z. Szarka, and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Wave-packet dynamics of the Hgl2photodissociation reaction in solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 7273–7276 (1993).
[Crossref]

Tam, A. C.

A. C. Tam, “Photoacoutics: spectroscopy and other applications,” in Ultrasensitive Laser Spectroscopy, D. S. Kliger, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), pp. 2–108.

Tang, C. L.

I. A. Walmsley, M. Mitsunaga, and C. L. Tang, “Theory of quantum beats in optical transmission-correlation and pump–probe experiments for a general Raman configuration,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 4681–4689 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. W. Wise, M. J. Rosker, G. L. Millhauser, and C. L. Tang, “Application of linear prediction least-squares fitting to time-resolved optical spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1116–1121 (1987).
[Crossref]

M. J. Rosker, F. W. Wise, and C. L. Tang, “Femtosecond relaxation dynamics of large molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 321–324 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Halbout and C. L. Tang, “Femtosecond interferometry for nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 765–767 (1982).
[Crossref]

Vöhringer, P.

P. Vöhringer, D. C. Arnett, R. A. Westervelt, M. J. Feldstein, and N. F. Scherer, “Optical dephasing on femtosecond timescales: direct measurement and calculation from solvent spectral densities,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 4027–4036 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Vöhringer and N. F. Scherer, “Transient grating optical heterodyne detected impulsive stimulated Raman scattering in simple liquids,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 2684–2695 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Vöhringer, D. C. Arnett, T. S. Yang, and N. F. Scherer, “Time-gated photon echo spectroscopy in liquids,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 237, 387–398 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. S. Yang, P. Vöhringer, D. C. Arnett, and N. F. Scherer, “Simulation and measurement of 3-pulse photon echoes: modeling with spectral densities,” submitted to J. Chem. Phys.

Waldeck, D. H.

D. S. Alavi, R. S. Hartman, and D. H. Waldeck, “A test of continuum models for dielectric friction—rotational diffusion of phenoxazine dyes in dimethylsulfoxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 94, 4509–4520 (1991).
[Crossref]

Walmsley, I. A.

I. A. Walmsley, M. Mitsunaga, and C. L. Tang, “Theory of quantum beats in optical transmission-correlation and pump–probe experiments for a general Raman configuration,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 4681–4689 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Westervelt, R. A.

P. Vöhringer, D. C. Arnett, R. A. Westervelt, M. J. Feldstein, and N. F. Scherer, “Optical dephasing on femtosecond timescales: direct measurement and calculation from solvent spectral densities,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 4027–4036 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wiersma, D. A.

E. J. Nibbering, D. A. Wiersma, and K. Duppen, “Femtosecond non-Markovian optical dynamics in solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2464–2467 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, K. R.

P. Bado and K. R. Wilson, “Experimental picosecond relaxation dynamics of large molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. 88, 655–657 (1984), and references therein.
[Crossref]

Wintner, E.

Wise, F. W.

F. W. Wise, M. J. Rosker, G. L. Millhauser, and C. L. Tang, “Application of linear prediction least-squares fitting to time-resolved optical spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1116–1121 (1987).
[Crossref]

M. J. Rosker, F. W. Wise, and C. L. Tang, “Femtosecond relaxation dynamics of large molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 321–324 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, Y. J.

P. J. Cong, Y. J. Yan, H. P. Deul, and J. D. Simon, “Non-Markovian optical dephasing dynamics in room-temperature liquids investigated by femtosecond transient absorption-spectroscopy: theory and experiment,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 7855–7866 (1994).
[Crossref]

Yang, T. S.

P. Vöhringer, D. C. Arnett, T. S. Yang, and N. F. Scherer, “Time-gated photon echo spectroscopy in liquids,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 237, 387–398 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. S. Yang, P. Vöhringer, D. C. Arnett, and N. F. Scherer, “Simulation and measurement of 3-pulse photon echoes: modeling with spectral densities,” submitted to J. Chem. Phys.

Zhou, J. P.

Ziegler, L. D.

L. D. Ziegler, R. Fan, A. E. Desrosiers, and N. F. Scherer, “Femtosecond polarization spectroscopy: a density matrix description,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 1823–1839 (1994).
[Crossref]

N. F. Scherer, L. D. Ziegler, and G. R. Fleming, “Heterodyne-detected time-domain measurement of I2predissociation and vibrational dynamics in solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 96, 5544–5547 (1992).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

R. L. Fork, B. I. Greene, and C. V. Shank, “Generation of pulses shorter than 0.1 psec by colliding pulse mode locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 671–672 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. M. Halbout and C. L. Tang, “Femtosecond interferometry for nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 765–767 (1982).
[Crossref]

S. E. Ralph and D. Grischkowsky, “THz spectroscopy and source characterization by optoelectronic interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1070–1072 (1992).
[Crossref]

W. S. Pelouch and L. A. Schlie, “Ultrafast band-edge carrier dynamics in ln0.65Ga0.35As,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2323–2325 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. (1)

T. Joo and A. C. Albrecht, “Electronic dephasing studies of molecules in solution at room temperature by femtosecond degenerate four wave mixing,” Chem. Phys. 176, 233–247 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Vöhringer, D. C. Arnett, T. S. Yang, and N. F. Scherer, “Time-gated photon echo spectroscopy in liquids,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 237, 387–398 (1995).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

F. W. Wise, M. J. Rosker, G. L. Millhauser, and C. L. Tang, “Application of linear prediction least-squares fitting to time-resolved optical spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1116–1121 (1987).
[Crossref]

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, and G. A. Kenney-Wallace, “Femtosecond optical Kerr studies on the origin of the nonlinear responses in simple liquids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 433–454 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Rucker, W. Knoll, and J. P. Rabe, “Surface-plasmon-induced contrast in scanning tunneling microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 5027–5031 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (10)

D. S. Alavi, R. S. Hartman, and D. H. Waldeck, “A test of continuum models for dielectric friction—rotational diffusion of phenoxazine dyes in dimethylsulfoxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 94, 4509–4520 (1991).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Chang and E. W. Castner, “Fast responses from ‘slowly relaxing’ liquids: a comparative study of the femtosecond dynamics of triacetin, ethylene glycol, and water,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 7289–7299 (1993).
[Crossref]

N. F. Scherer, L. D. Ziegler, and G. R. Fleming, “Heterodyne-detected time-domain measurement of I2predissociation and vibrational dynamics in solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 96, 5544–5547 (1992).
[Crossref]

P. J. Cong, Y. J. Yan, H. P. Deul, and J. D. Simon, “Non-Markovian optical dephasing dynamics in room-temperature liquids investigated by femtosecond transient absorption-spectroscopy: theory and experiment,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 7855–7866 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. Vöhringer, D. C. Arnett, R. A. Westervelt, M. J. Feldstein, and N. F. Scherer, “Optical dephasing on femtosecond timescales: direct measurement and calculation from solvent spectral densities,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 4027–4036 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. A. V. Kliner, J. C. Alfano, and P. F. Barbara, “Photodissociation and vibrational-relaxation of I2in ethanol,” J. Chem. Phys. 98, 5375–5389 (1993).
[Crossref]

U. Banin and S. Ruhman, “Ultrafast photodissociation of I3—coherent photochemistry in solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 98, 4391–4403 (1993).
[Crossref]

N. Pugliano, D. K. Patlit, A. Z. Szarka, and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Wave-packet dynamics of the Hgl2photodissociation reaction in solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 7273–7276 (1993).
[Crossref]

B. J. Schwartz and P. J. Rossky, “Aqueous solvation dynamics with a quantum-mechanical solute: computer-simulation studies of the photoexcited hydrated electron,” J. Chem. Phys. 101, 6902–6916 (1994).
[Crossref]

L. D. Ziegler, R. Fan, A. E. Desrosiers, and N. F. Scherer, “Femtosecond polarization spectroscopy: a density matrix description,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 1823–1839 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Mol. Liq. (1)

M. Maroncelli, “The dynamics of solvation in polar liquids,” J. Mol. Liq. 57, 1–37 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. (3)

J. M. Lanzafame, R. J. D. Miller, A. A. Muenter, and B. A. Parkinson, “Ultrafast charge-transfer dynamics at SnS2surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 2820–2826 (1992).
[Crossref]

P. Vöhringer and N. F. Scherer, “Transient grating optical heterodyne detected impulsive stimulated Raman scattering in simple liquids,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 2684–2695 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Bado and K. R. Wilson, “Experimental picosecond relaxation dynamics of large molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. 88, 655–657 (1984), and references therein.
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

J. Chesnoy and A. Mokhtari, “Resonant impulsive-stimulated Raman-scattering on Malachite Green,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 3566–3576 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. A. Walmsley, M. Mitsunaga, and C. L. Tang, “Theory of quantum beats in optical transmission-correlation and pump–probe experiments for a general Raman configuration,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 4681–4689 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

J. Y. Bigot, M. Portella, R. W. Schoenlein, C. J. Bardeen, A. Migus, and C. V. Shank, “Non-Markovian dephasing of molecules in solution measured with 3-pulse femtosecond photon-echoes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1138–1141 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Nibbering, D. A. Wiersma, and K. Duppen, “Femtosecond non-Markovian optical dynamics in solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2464–2467 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, J. Y. Bigot, C. H. Brito Cruz, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond photon-echoes from molecules in solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 505–507 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Rosker, F. W. Wise, and C. L. Tang, “Femtosecond relaxation dynamics of large molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 321–324 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. C. Cho, W. Kütt, and H. Kurz, “Subpicosecond time-resolved coherent-phonon oscillations in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 764–766 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. W. Helwarth, “Third-order optical susceptibilities of liquids and solids,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 5, 1–68 (1980).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

J. A. Moon, “Optimization of signal-to-noise ratios in pump-probe spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1775–1778 (1993).
[Crossref]

D. C. Edelstein, R. B. Romney, and M. Scheuermann, “Rapid programmable 300 ps optical delay scanner and signal-averaging system for ultrafast measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 579–583 (1991), and references therein.
[Crossref]

Other (9)

A. C. Tam, “Photoacoutics: spectroscopy and other applications,” in Ultrasensitive Laser Spectroscopy, D. S. Kliger, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), pp. 2–108.

W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1982), p. 385.

We know of only one commercial RS system: ODL-150, Clark-MRX, Inc.

The Tektronics TDS 420 scope used in this work can average as many as 10,000 scans.

T. S. Yang, P. Vöhringer, D. C. Arnett, and N. F. Scherer, “Simulation and measurement of 3-pulse photon echoes: modeling with spectral densities,” submitted to J. Chem. Phys.

B. Schrader, Raman/Infrared Atlas of Organic Components, 2nd ed. (VCH-Verlag, Weinheim, Germany, 1989), pp. A2-02, F8-01.

M. D. Levenson and S. S. Kano, Introduction to Nonlinear Spectroscopy, revised ed. (Academic, London, 1988), Chap. 3, pp. 79–84; Chap. 4, pp. 155–159.

M. J. Feldstein and N. F. Scherer, “Femtosecond time-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy,” submitted to J. Phys. Chem.

W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light: Production and Use (Harvard U. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1966), Chaps. 2 and 8, App. 2.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of experimental configuration. Home-built Ti:sapphire laser: Pr’s, intracavity prisms; H.R., high reflector; O.C., output coupler; Pr1, Pr2, extracavity prisms; BS, beam splitter; C.C., corner cube; P1–P3, Glan-Taylor polarizers; L1, L2, 50-mm achromatic lenses; A, aperture. The inset with arrows indicates the polarization conditions for the OKE measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of Ranger Scientific VT-900A-X velocity transducer and corner cube: 1, electrical connector; 2, electrodynamic drive coil; 3, corner cube; 4, drive shaft suspension; 5, permanent drive magnets; 6, magnetic ring gaps; 7, magnetic cores; 8, internal power amplifier; 9, custom position sensor mechanism space inside a grounded shield; 10, nonmagnetic composite shaft; 11, grounded shield, for position sensor space; 12, sensor magnet; 13, position sensor coil.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized RS autocorrelations. (a) Single scan, (b) 1000 scans averaged in 1 min.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Raw CCl4 OHD-OKE data. (a) Time domain, (b) imaginary deconvolved Fourier spectra.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Time-axis calibration and linearization. (a) Calibration of scope data channel (x) versus Nanomover delay time (y). (b) Point-to-point deviations in step size spacing, scope channels (x) versus time difference (y, left) and percent deviation from mean (y, right). (c) Point-to-point differences between calibration curve and constructed linear time base (y) versus scope data channel (x).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

CCl4 OHD-OKE time-domain data: linearized RS and stepper motor translation-stage–lock-in-amplifier waveforms. The inset shows the full time-axis data recorded over 24 ps. The stepper motor translation-stage–LIA waveform is offset by − 0.05 unit.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Imaginary deconvolved Fourier spectra of CCl4: linearized RS (lower trace) and stepper motor translation-stage–lock-in-amplifier (upper trace with dots) waveforms. Each dot is a single data point.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Normalized autocorrelations: RS, 1000 averaged (connected points), stepper motor translation-stage–lock-in amplifier (solid curve).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

OHD-OKE data for mesitylene. (a) RS time domain waveform. (b) Imaginary deconvolved Fourier spectra, RS (solid curve), stepper motor translation-stage–lock-in amplifier (connected points).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Histogram of scan-to-scan jitter. Each data channel corresponds to 4.7 fs.

Equations (6)

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E probe = [ quarter - wave plate ] [ input polarizer ] [ incident probe field ] = [ exp ( i π 4 ) cos 2 ρ + exp ( - i π 4 ) sin 2 ρ 2 exp ( i π 2 ) cos ρ sin ρ 2 exp ( i π 2 ) cos ρ sin ρ exp ( - i π 4 ) cos 2 ρ + exp ( i π 4 ) sin 2 ρ ] [ cos 2 θ cos θ sin θ cos θ sin θ sin 2 θ ] × [ 1 0 ] , E lo = [ analyzer ] [ quarter - wave plate ] [ input polarizer ] [ incident probe field ] = [ cos 2 ϕ cos ϕ sin ϕ cos ϕ sin ϕ sin 2 ϕ ] [ exp ( i π 4 ) cos 2 ρ + exp ( - i π 4 ) sin 2 ρ 2 exp ( i π 2 ) cos ρ sin ρ 2 exp ( i π 2 ) cos ρ sin ρ exp ( - i π 4 ) cos 2 ρ + exp ( i π 4 ) sin 2 ρ ] × [ cos 2 θ cos θ sin θ cos θ sin θ sin 2 θ ] [ 1 0 ] .
E probe = [ exp ( i π 4 ) 0 ] ,             E lo = [ 0 0 ] .
E probe = [ exp ( i π 4 ) 0 ] , E lo = [ exp ( i π 4 ) cos 2 ϕ exp ( i π 4 ) cos ϕ sin ϕ ] .
E probe = [ exp ( i π 4 ) cos 2 θ exp ( - i π 4 ) cos θ sin θ ] , E lo = [ 0 2 exp ( - i π 4 ) cos θ sin θ ] .
E probe = [ 2 2 [ exp ( i 2 π ) + exp ( i π 2 ) [ cos 2 ρ - sin 2 ρ ] ] 2 exp ( i π 2 ) cos ρ sin ρ ] , E lo = [ 0 2 exp ( i π 2 ) cos ρ sin ρ ] .
E probe = [ 2 2 [ exp ( i 2 π ) + exp ( i π 2 ) ] 2 exp ( i π 2 ) ρ ] , E lo = [ 0 2 exp ( i π 2 ) ρ ] .

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