Abstract

With the use of second-harmonic generation, we report the observation of a better alignment of Langmuir–Blodgett-deposited films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyradine for a low number of monolayers. An estimation of the nonlinear susceptibility of the molecule is also given. We show that the refractive indices of the Langmuir–Blodgett films has to be taken into account for thicknesses greater than 25 nm.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Decher, B. Tieke, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 19, 933 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Decher, B. Tieke, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of novel donor–acceptor substituted pyridine and benzene derivatives,” Ferroelectrics 91, 193 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, P. Günter, C. Pasquier, S. Zahir, and M. Seifert, “Optical waveguiding and nonlinear optics in high quality 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1204 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, M. Florsheimer, T. Borer, P. Günter, Q. Tang, and S. Zahir, “Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Wijekoon, S. P. Karna, G. B. Talapatra, and P. N. Prasad, “Second harmonic generation studies of differences in molecular orientation of Langmuir–Blodgett films fabricated by vertical and horizontal dipping techniques,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 213 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Mizahi and J. E. Sipe, “Phenomenological treatment of surface second harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 660 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Bloembergen and P. S. Pershan, “Light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. 128, 606 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. F. Heinz, H. W. K. Tom, and Y. R. Shen, “Determination of molecular orientation of monolayer adsorbates by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 1883 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. N. Butcher and D. Cotter, The Elements of Nonlinear Optics, Vol. 9 of Cambridge Studies in Nonlinear Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1989).
  11. J. E. Sipe, “New Green-function formalism for surface optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 481 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Provencher, M. M. Denariez-Roberge, and C. F. Coté, “Surface second harmonic susceptibility determined by non-collinear reflected second harmonic generation,” Can. J. Phys. 71, 66 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Geisler, S. Rosenkilde, P. S. Ramanujam, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, and P. N. Prasad, “Second harmonic generation in anisotropic Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Scr. 46, 127 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Kajzar and I. Ledoux, “Quadratic non-linear spectroscopy in Langmuir–Blodgett films of charge-transfer diazostylbenes and polyenes,” Thin Solid Films 179, 359 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Ch. Bosshard, G. Knopfle, P. Prêtre, and P. Günter, “Second-order polarizabilities of nitropyridine derivatives determined with electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation and a solvatochromic method: a comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1594 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Werner, W. Hill, F. Marlow, A. Glismann, and O. Hertz, “Investigation of thin dye films on fused silica by optical second harmonic generation,” Thin Solid Films 205, 58 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

1993 (2)

P. Provencher, M. M. Denariez-Roberge, and C. F. Coté, “Surface second harmonic susceptibility determined by non-collinear reflected second harmonic generation,” Can. J. Phys. 71, 66 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. Wijekoon, S. P. Karna, G. B. Talapatra, and P. N. Prasad, “Second harmonic generation studies of differences in molecular orientation of Langmuir–Blodgett films fabricated by vertical and horizontal dipping techniques,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 213 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

T. Geisler, S. Rosenkilde, P. S. Ramanujam, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, and P. N. Prasad, “Second harmonic generation in anisotropic Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Scr. 46, 127 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Bosshard, G. Knopfle, P. Prêtre, and P. Günter, “Second-order polarizabilities of nitropyridine derivatives determined with electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation and a solvatochromic method: a comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1594 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, M. Florsheimer, T. Borer, P. Günter, Q. Tang, and S. Zahir, “Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

L. Werner, W. Hill, F. Marlow, A. Glismann, and O. Hertz, “Investigation of thin dye films on fused silica by optical second harmonic generation,” Thin Solid Films 205, 58 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

B. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, P. Günter, C. Pasquier, S. Zahir, and M. Seifert, “Optical waveguiding and nonlinear optics in high quality 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

G. Decher, B. Tieke, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of novel donor–acceptor substituted pyridine and benzene derivatives,” Ferroelectrics 91, 193 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. Kajzar and I. Ledoux, “Quadratic non-linear spectroscopy in Langmuir–Blodgett films of charge-transfer diazostylbenes and polyenes,” Thin Solid Films 179, 359 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

G. Decher, B. Tieke, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 19, 933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

V. Mizahi and J. E. Sipe, “Phenomenological treatment of surface second harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 660 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1983 (1)

T. F. Heinz, H. W. K. Tom, and Y. R. Shen, “Determination of molecular orientation of monolayer adsorbates by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 1883 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

N. Bloembergen and P. S. Pershan, “Light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. 128, 606 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen and P. S. Pershan, “Light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. 128, 606 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Borer, T.

C. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, M. Florsheimer, T. Borer, P. Günter, Q. Tang, and S. Zahir, “Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bosshard, B.

B. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, P. Günter, C. Pasquier, S. Zahir, and M. Seifert, “Optical waveguiding and nonlinear optics in high quality 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bosshard, C.

C. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, M. Florsheimer, T. Borer, P. Günter, Q. Tang, and S. Zahir, “Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Decher, B. Tieke, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of novel donor–acceptor substituted pyridine and benzene derivatives,” Ferroelectrics 91, 193 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bosshard, Ch.

Ch. Bosshard, G. Knopfle, P. Prêtre, and P. Günter, “Second-order polarizabilities of nitropyridine derivatives determined with electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation and a solvatochromic method: a comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1594 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Decher, B. Tieke, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 19, 933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Butcher, P. N.

P. N. Butcher and D. Cotter, The Elements of Nonlinear Optics, Vol. 9 of Cambridge Studies in Nonlinear Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1990).
[CrossRef]

Coté, C. F.

P. Provencher, M. M. Denariez-Roberge, and C. F. Coté, “Surface second harmonic susceptibility determined by non-collinear reflected second harmonic generation,” Can. J. Phys. 71, 66 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cotter, D.

P. N. Butcher and D. Cotter, The Elements of Nonlinear Optics, Vol. 9 of Cambridge Studies in Nonlinear Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1990).
[CrossRef]

Decher, G.

G. Decher, B. Tieke, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of novel donor–acceptor substituted pyridine and benzene derivatives,” Ferroelectrics 91, 193 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Decher, B. Tieke, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 19, 933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Denariez-Roberge, M. M.

P. Provencher, M. M. Denariez-Roberge, and C. F. Coté, “Surface second harmonic susceptibility determined by non-collinear reflected second harmonic generation,” Can. J. Phys. 71, 66 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Florsheimer, M.

C. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, M. Florsheimer, T. Borer, P. Günter, Q. Tang, and S. Zahir, “Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Geisler, T.

T. Geisler, S. Rosenkilde, P. S. Ramanujam, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, and P. N. Prasad, “Second harmonic generation in anisotropic Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Scr. 46, 127 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Glismann, A.

L. Werner, W. Hill, F. Marlow, A. Glismann, and O. Hertz, “Investigation of thin dye films on fused silica by optical second harmonic generation,” Thin Solid Films 205, 58 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

C. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, M. Florsheimer, T. Borer, P. Günter, Q. Tang, and S. Zahir, “Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Bosshard, G. Knopfle, P. Prêtre, and P. Günter, “Second-order polarizabilities of nitropyridine derivatives determined with electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation and a solvatochromic method: a comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1594 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, P. Günter, C. Pasquier, S. Zahir, and M. Seifert, “Optical waveguiding and nonlinear optics in high quality 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. Decher, B. Tieke, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of novel donor–acceptor substituted pyridine and benzene derivatives,” Ferroelectrics 91, 193 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Decher, B. Tieke, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 19, 933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

T. F. Heinz, H. W. K. Tom, and Y. R. Shen, “Determination of molecular orientation of monolayer adsorbates by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 1883 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hertz, O.

L. Werner, W. Hill, F. Marlow, A. Glismann, and O. Hertz, “Investigation of thin dye films on fused silica by optical second harmonic generation,” Thin Solid Films 205, 58 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hill, W.

L. Werner, W. Hill, F. Marlow, A. Glismann, and O. Hertz, “Investigation of thin dye films on fused silica by optical second harmonic generation,” Thin Solid Films 205, 58 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kajzar, F.

F. Kajzar and I. Ledoux, “Quadratic non-linear spectroscopy in Langmuir–Blodgett films of charge-transfer diazostylbenes and polyenes,” Thin Solid Films 179, 359 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Karna, S. P.

Knopfle, G.

Ch. Bosshard, G. Knopfle, P. Prêtre, and P. Günter, “Second-order polarizabilities of nitropyridine derivatives determined with electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation and a solvatochromic method: a comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1594 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kupfer, M.

C. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, M. Florsheimer, T. Borer, P. Günter, Q. Tang, and S. Zahir, “Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, P. Günter, C. Pasquier, S. Zahir, and M. Seifert, “Optical waveguiding and nonlinear optics in high quality 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ledoux, I.

F. Kajzar and I. Ledoux, “Quadratic non-linear spectroscopy in Langmuir–Blodgett films of charge-transfer diazostylbenes and polyenes,” Thin Solid Films 179, 359 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Marlow, F.

L. Werner, W. Hill, F. Marlow, A. Glismann, and O. Hertz, “Investigation of thin dye films on fused silica by optical second harmonic generation,” Thin Solid Films 205, 58 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mizahi, V.

Pasquier, C.

B. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, P. Günter, C. Pasquier, S. Zahir, and M. Seifert, “Optical waveguiding and nonlinear optics in high quality 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pershan, P. S.

N. Bloembergen and P. S. Pershan, “Light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. 128, 606 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

W. Wijekoon, S. P. Karna, G. B. Talapatra, and P. N. Prasad, “Second harmonic generation studies of differences in molecular orientation of Langmuir–Blodgett films fabricated by vertical and horizontal dipping techniques,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 213 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Geisler, S. Rosenkilde, P. S. Ramanujam, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, and P. N. Prasad, “Second harmonic generation in anisotropic Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Scr. 46, 127 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Prêtre, P.

Ch. Bosshard, G. Knopfle, P. Prêtre, and P. Günter, “Second-order polarizabilities of nitropyridine derivatives determined with electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation and a solvatochromic method: a comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1594 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Provencher, P.

P. Provencher, M. M. Denariez-Roberge, and C. F. Coté, “Surface second harmonic susceptibility determined by non-collinear reflected second harmonic generation,” Can. J. Phys. 71, 66 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ramanujam, P. S.

T. Geisler, S. Rosenkilde, P. S. Ramanujam, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, and P. N. Prasad, “Second harmonic generation in anisotropic Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Scr. 46, 127 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rosenkilde, S.

T. Geisler, S. Rosenkilde, P. S. Ramanujam, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, and P. N. Prasad, “Second harmonic generation in anisotropic Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Scr. 46, 127 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Seifert, M.

B. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, P. Günter, C. Pasquier, S. Zahir, and M. Seifert, “Optical waveguiding and nonlinear optics in high quality 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

T. F. Heinz, H. W. K. Tom, and Y. R. Shen, “Determination of molecular orientation of monolayer adsorbates by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 1883 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

Talapatra, G. B.

Tang, Q.

C. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, M. Florsheimer, T. Borer, P. Günter, Q. Tang, and S. Zahir, “Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tieke, B.

G. Decher, B. Tieke, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of novel donor–acceptor substituted pyridine and benzene derivatives,” Ferroelectrics 91, 193 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Decher, B. Tieke, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 19, 933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tom, H. W. K.

T. F. Heinz, H. W. K. Tom, and Y. R. Shen, “Determination of molecular orientation of monolayer adsorbates by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 1883 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Werner, L.

L. Werner, W. Hill, F. Marlow, A. Glismann, and O. Hertz, “Investigation of thin dye films on fused silica by optical second harmonic generation,” Thin Solid Films 205, 58 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wijekoon, W.

Wijekoon, W. M. K. P.

T. Geisler, S. Rosenkilde, P. S. Ramanujam, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, and P. N. Prasad, “Second harmonic generation in anisotropic Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Scr. 46, 127 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1989).

Zahir, S.

C. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, M. Florsheimer, T. Borer, P. Günter, Q. Tang, and S. Zahir, “Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, P. Günter, C. Pasquier, S. Zahir, and M. Seifert, “Optical waveguiding and nonlinear optics in high quality 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, P. Günter, C. Pasquier, S. Zahir, and M. Seifert, “Optical waveguiding and nonlinear optics in high quality 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

P. Provencher, M. M. Denariez-Roberge, and C. F. Coté, “Surface second harmonic susceptibility determined by non-collinear reflected second harmonic generation,” Can. J. Phys. 71, 66 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics (1)

G. Decher, B. Tieke, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of novel donor–acceptor substituted pyridine and benzene derivatives,” Ferroelectrics 91, 193 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Ch. Bosshard, G. Knopfle, P. Prêtre, and P. Günter, “Second-order polarizabilities of nitropyridine derivatives determined with electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation and a solvatochromic method: a comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1594 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. (1)

G. Decher, B. Tieke, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 19, 933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Phys. Rev. (1)

N. Bloembergen and P. S. Pershan, “Light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. 128, 606 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

T. F. Heinz, H. W. K. Tom, and Y. R. Shen, “Determination of molecular orientation of monolayer adsorbates by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 1883 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Scr. (1)

T. Geisler, S. Rosenkilde, P. S. Ramanujam, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, and P. N. Prasad, “Second harmonic generation in anisotropic Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Scr. 46, 127 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (3)

F. Kajzar and I. Ledoux, “Quadratic non-linear spectroscopy in Langmuir–Blodgett films of charge-transfer diazostylbenes and polyenes,” Thin Solid Films 179, 359 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. Werner, W. Hill, F. Marlow, A. Glismann, and O. Hertz, “Investigation of thin dye films on fused silica by optical second harmonic generation,” Thin Solid Films 205, 58 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, M. Florsheimer, T. Borer, P. Günter, Q. Tang, and S. Zahir, “Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

P. N. Butcher and D. Cotter, The Elements of Nonlinear Optics, Vol. 9 of Cambridge Studies in Nonlinear Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1989).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plot of the SHG intensity (int., p polarized) during transmission for different incident polarizations and angles of incidence θ (the solid curve is a straight line with a slope of 2): A, incident beam, p polarized and θ = 45°; B, incident beam, s polarized and θ = 0°; C, incident beam, s polarized and θ = 45°.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Plot of the SHG intensity reflected (p polarized) for an incident p-polarized beam. The solid curve is a least-mean-squares fit from relation (5). (b) Plot of the SHG intensity reflected (p polarized) for an incident s-polarized beam. The solid curve is a least-mean-squares fit with relation (5).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plot of the ratio of the SHG intensity (p polarized) transmitted over the SHG intensity reflected (p polarized) for an s-polarized incident beam. The solid curve is a theoretical curve according to relation (5).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Molecular Angles for Different Numbers of Layer

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( 2 ω ) = 32 π 3 ω 2 c 3 sec 2 θ e ^ 2 ω · χ ( 2 ) : e ^ ω e ^ ω 2 I 2 ( ω ) ,
[ χ x x x χ x y y χ x z z 0 0 χ x x z χ x z x 0 0 0 0 0 χ y y z χ y z y 0 0 χ y y x χ y x y χ z x x χ z y y χ z z z 0 0 χ z x z χ z z x 0 0 ] .
χ i j k = N s C i μ C j ν C k ξ β μ ν ξ ,
χ z z z = N s cos 3 θ β z z z , χ x x x = N s sin 3 θ cos 3 ϕ β z z z , χ y y x = χ y x y = χ x y y = N s sin 3 θ cos ϕ sin 2 ϕ β z z z , χ z x x = χ x x z = χ x z x = N s sin 2 θ cos θ cos 2 ϕ β z z z , χ z y y = χ y y z = χ y z y = N s sin 2 θ cos θ sin 2 ϕ β z z z , χ z x z = χ z z x = χ x z z = N s sin θ cos 2 θ cos ϕ β z z z ,
I ( 2 ω ) ( tan 3 θ cos 3 ϕ + 3 tan θ tan 2 θ cos 2 ϕ + 3 tan 2 θ tan θ cos ϕ + tan 3 θ ) t p 2 cos 2 θ 2 ,
I ( 2 ω ) ( tan 3 θ cos ϕ + tan 2 θ tan θ ) t s 2 sin 2 ϕ 2 ,
I ( 2 ω ) P x 2 [ ( n s 2 ω ) 2 - ( n s ω ) 2 ] 2 D 2 | ( b 2 - a 2 ) sin 2 k s , z 2 ω d + 2 a ( a - b ) sin 2 ( k s , z 2 ω + 2 k s , z ω ) d 2 + 2 a ( a + b ) sin 2 ( k s , z 2 ω - 2 k s , z ω ) d 2 | ,
k s , z 2 ω = 2 ω c n s 2 ω cos θ s 2 ω ,             k s , z ω = ω c n s ω cos θ s ω , D 2 = ( n s 2 ω cos θ s 2 ω ) 2 ( cos θ t + n t cos θ ) 2 + [ ( n s 2 ω ) 2 cos 2 θ t - n t 2 cos 2 θ s 2 ω ] × [ ( n s 2 ω ) 2 cos 2 θ - cos 2 θ s 2 ω ] sin 2 k s , z 2 ω d , a = ( n t cos 2 θ s 2 ω - n s ω cos θ t cos θ s ω ) ( n s 2 ω ) 2 cos θ s 2 ω , b = [ n t n s ω cos θ s ω - ( n s ω ) 2 cos θ t ] n s 2 ω cos 2 θ s 2 ω , n s 2 ω = [ cos 2 θ s 2 ω ( n x 2 ω ) 2 + sin 2 θ s 2 ω ( n z 2 ω ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,             n s ω = { [ cos 2 θ s ω ( n x ω ) 2 + sin 2 θ s ω ( n z ω ) 2 ] - 1 / 2 for a p - polarized incident beam n y ω for an s - polarized incident beam } ,
f = ( n s ω cos θ s ω cos θ + cos 2 θ s 2 ω ) n s 2 ω , g = [ ( n s 2 ω ) 2 cos θ + n s ω cos θ s ω ] cos θ s 2 ω ,
I ( 2 ω ) transmitted I ( 2 ω ) reflected = | 2 n t cos θ n t cos θ + cos θ t | 2 = 1.2.
d = λ 12 ( n s 2 ω cos θ s 2 ω + n s ω cos θ s ω ) 20 nm ,

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