Abstract

Dynamical behaviors of a CO2 laser system with an OsO4 intracavity saturable absorber have been experimentally investigated, with the gain in the CO2 medium and the detuning between laser operation frequency and absorber transition frequency being used as control parameters. The use of this detuning as a meaningful control parameter has been possible because of the simple spectroscopic structure of the OsO4 saturable absorber. The analysis of the experimental data, performed by means of Poincaré sections and return maps, has revealed chaotic sceneries that were predicted by theory but not yet demonstrated in experiments. Complete phase diagrams of the laser operation have been obtained at two different absorber pressures, and they could be useful in future theoretical analyses.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. For a recent review see C. O. Weiss and R. Vilaseca, "Dynamics of lasers," in Nonlinear Dynamics, H.-G. Schuster, ed. (VCH, New York, 1991).
  2. M. Tachikawa, F. Hong, K. Tanii, and T. Shimizu, "Deterministic chaos in passive Q-switching pulsation of a CO2 laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2266–2268 (1988); M. Tachikawa, M. Tanii, and T. Shimizu, "Laser instability and chaotic pulsation in CO2 laser with intracavity saturable absorber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1077–1082 (1988); F. L. Hong, M. Tachikawa, R. Oda, and T. Shimizu, "Chaotic passive Q-switching pulsation in a N2O laser with a saturable absorber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1378–1382 (1989); T. Tohei, M. Tachikawa, andT. Shimizu, "Rate-equation analysis of deterministic chaos in a laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. A 45, 5166–5170 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Dangoisse, A. Bekkali, F. Papoff, and P. Glorieux, "Shil'nikov dynamics in a passive Q-switching laser," Europhys. Lett. 6, 335–340 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Zambon, F. de Tomasi, D. Hennequin, and E. Arimondo, "Investigations of models and experimental studies of stationary regime of a laser with a saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. A 40, 3782–3795 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Hennequin, F. de Tomasi, B. Zambon, and E. Arimondo, "Homoclinic orbits and cycles in the instabilities for a laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. A 37, 2243–2246 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. T. Arecchi, A. Lapucci, R. Meucci, J. A. Roversi, and P. H. Coullet, "Experimental characterization of Shil'nikov chaos by statistics of return maps," Europhys. Lett. 6, 677–682 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Papoff, A. Fioretti, and E. Arimondo, "Return maps for intensity and time in a homoclinic-chaos model applied to a laser with a saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. A 44, 4639–4651 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Lefranc, D. Hennequin, and D. Dangoisse, "Homoclinic chaos in a laser containing a saturable absorber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 239–249 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Zambon, "Theoretical investigations of models for the laser with a saturable absorber: a case of homoclinic tangency to a periodic orbit," Phys. Rev. A 44, 688–702 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Zeni, J. A. C. Gallas, A. Fioretti, F. Papoff, B. Zambon, and E. Arimondo, "Lyapunov exponents and return maps for a model of a laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Lett. A 172, 247–255 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Papoff, A. Fioretti, E. Arimondo, G. B. Mindlin, H. Solari, and R. Gilmore, "Structure of chaos in the laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1128–1131 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Fioretti, F. Molesti, F. Papoff, B. Zambon, and E. Arimondo, "Topological analysis of laser with saturable absorber in experiments and models," Int. J. Bifurc. Chaos 3, 559–565 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Erneux and P. Mandel, "Bifurcation phenomena in a laser with saturable absorber. I and II," Z. Phys. B 44, 353–363, 365–374 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. E. Chyba, N. B. Abraham, and A. M. Albano, "Semiclassical analysis of a detuned ring laser with a saturable absorber: new results for the steady states," Phys. Rev. A 35, 2936–2950 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Yu. V. Brzhazovskii, L. S. Vasilenko, S. G. Rautian, G. S. Popova, and V. P. Chabotayev, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of radiation pulsation from a CO2 laser with a nonlinear absorbing cell," Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 265–270 (1972).
  16. R. Salomaa and S. Stenholm, "Gas laser with saturable absorber. I. Single mode characteristics," Phys. Rev. A 8, 2695–2711 (1973); "Gas laser with saturable absorber. II. Single mode stability," Phys. Rev. A 8, 2712–2726 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. R. Carvalho and L. Davidovich, "Dynamic Lamb-dip effects in gas lasers with inhomogeneously broadened saturable absorbers," Phys. Rev. A 45, 6748–6755 (1992), and references therein.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. S. McDowell, L. J. Radziemski, H. Flicker, H. W. Galbraith, R. C. Kennedy, N. G. Nereson, B. J. Krohn, J. P. Aldridge, and J. D. King, "High resolution spectroscopy of the OsO4 stretching fundamental at 961 cm−1," J. Chem. Phys. 69, 1513–1521 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Ch. J. Bordé, J. Bordé, Ch. Bréant, Ch. Chardonnet, A. van Lerberghe, and C. Salomon, "Internal dynamics of simple molecules revealed by the superfine and hyperfine structures of their infrared spectra," in Laser Spectroscopy VII, T. W. Hänsch and Y. R. Shen, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), pp. 108–114.
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. Bazarov, G. A. Rasimov, and Yu. I. Posudin, "Absorption of carbon dioxide laser lines in OsO4 vapor," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4, 106–107 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  21. O. N. Kompanets, A. R. Kukudzhanov, V. S. Letokhov, V. G. Minogin, and E. L. Mikhailov, "Nonlinear laser spectroscopy of vibrational–rotational transitions in monoisotopic OsO4 molecules and stabilization of CO2 laser frequency," Sov. Phys. JETP 42, 15–22 (1975).
  22. F. de Tomasi, D. Hennequin, B. Zambon, and E. Arimondo, "Instabilities and chaos in an infrared laser with saturable absorber: experiments and vibrorotational model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 45–57 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  23. C. Freed and R. G. O'Donnell, "Advances in CO2 laser stabilization using the 4.3 μm fluorescence technique," Metrologia 13, 151–156 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Godone, M.P. Sassi, and E. Bava, "High-frequency capabilities of an OsO4 molecular beam frequency standard," Metrologia 26, 1–8 (1989), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Y. Gao, H. Z. Zhang, X. Z. Guo, G. X. Jin, and N. B. Abraham, "Small signal response of a laser to cavity-length modulation: a diagnostic for dynamical models and parameter values," Phys. Rev. A 40, 6339–6348 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. R. L. Abrams, "Broadening coefficients for the P(20) CO2 laser transition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 609–611 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  27. E. Arimondo, B. M. Dinelli, and E. Menchi, "Precise measurements on optical bistability and passive Q-switch in a CO2 laser with saturable absorber," in Optical Bistability 2, C. M. Bowden, H. M. Gibbs, and S. L. McCall, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1984), pp. 317–323; E. Arimondo and E. Menchi, "Analysis of Q-switch in a CO2 laser with saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 37, 55–61 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Tachikawa, K. Tanii, M. Kajita, and T. Shimizu, "Undamped undulation superposed on the passive Q-switching pulse of a CO2 laser," Appl. Phys. B 39, 83–90 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  29. T. Braun and J. A. Lisbôa, "Characterization of homoclinic chaos in a glow discharge through return maps," Int. J. Bifurc. Chaos 4, 1483–1993 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. Herrero, F. Boixader, J. Farjas, F. Pi, G. Orriols, and J. I. Rosell, Opt. Commun. (to be published).

1994 (1)

T. Braun and J. A. Lisbôa, "Characterization of homoclinic chaos in a glow discharge through return maps," Int. J. Bifurc. Chaos 4, 1483–1993 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

A. Zeni, J. A. C. Gallas, A. Fioretti, F. Papoff, B. Zambon, and E. Arimondo, "Lyapunov exponents and return maps for a model of a laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Lett. A 172, 247–255 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Fioretti, F. Molesti, F. Papoff, B. Zambon, and E. Arimondo, "Topological analysis of laser with saturable absorber in experiments and models," Int. J. Bifurc. Chaos 3, 559–565 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

F. Papoff, A. Fioretti, E. Arimondo, G. B. Mindlin, H. Solari, and R. Gilmore, "Structure of chaos in the laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1128–1131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Carvalho and L. Davidovich, "Dynamic Lamb-dip effects in gas lasers with inhomogeneously broadened saturable absorbers," Phys. Rev. A 45, 6748–6755 (1992), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (3)

F. Papoff, A. Fioretti, and E. Arimondo, "Return maps for intensity and time in a homoclinic-chaos model applied to a laser with a saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. A 44, 4639–4651 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zambon, "Theoretical investigations of models for the laser with a saturable absorber: a case of homoclinic tangency to a periodic orbit," Phys. Rev. A 44, 688–702 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lefranc, D. Hennequin, and D. Dangoisse, "Homoclinic chaos in a laser containing a saturable absorber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 239–249 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (4)

F. de Tomasi, D. Hennequin, B. Zambon, and E. Arimondo, "Instabilities and chaos in an infrared laser with saturable absorber: experiments and vibrorotational model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 45–57 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Godone, M.P. Sassi, and E. Bava, "High-frequency capabilities of an OsO4 molecular beam frequency standard," Metrologia 26, 1–8 (1989), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Gao, H. Z. Zhang, X. Z. Guo, G. X. Jin, and N. B. Abraham, "Small signal response of a laser to cavity-length modulation: a diagnostic for dynamical models and parameter values," Phys. Rev. A 40, 6339–6348 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zambon, F. de Tomasi, D. Hennequin, and E. Arimondo, "Investigations of models and experimental studies of stationary regime of a laser with a saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. A 40, 3782–3795 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (4)

D. Hennequin, F. de Tomasi, B. Zambon, and E. Arimondo, "Homoclinic orbits and cycles in the instabilities for a laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. A 37, 2243–2246 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. T. Arecchi, A. Lapucci, R. Meucci, J. A. Roversi, and P. H. Coullet, "Experimental characterization of Shil'nikov chaos by statistics of return maps," Europhys. Lett. 6, 677–682 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Tachikawa, F. Hong, K. Tanii, and T. Shimizu, "Deterministic chaos in passive Q-switching pulsation of a CO2 laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2266–2268 (1988); M. Tachikawa, M. Tanii, and T. Shimizu, "Laser instability and chaotic pulsation in CO2 laser with intracavity saturable absorber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1077–1082 (1988); F. L. Hong, M. Tachikawa, R. Oda, and T. Shimizu, "Chaotic passive Q-switching pulsation in a N2O laser with a saturable absorber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1378–1382 (1989); T. Tohei, M. Tachikawa, andT. Shimizu, "Rate-equation analysis of deterministic chaos in a laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. A 45, 5166–5170 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dangoisse, A. Bekkali, F. Papoff, and P. Glorieux, "Shil'nikov dynamics in a passive Q-switching laser," Europhys. Lett. 6, 335–340 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

D. E. Chyba, N. B. Abraham, and A. M. Albano, "Semiclassical analysis of a detuned ring laser with a saturable absorber: new results for the steady states," Phys. Rev. A 35, 2936–2950 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

M. Tachikawa, K. Tanii, M. Kajita, and T. Shimizu, "Undamped undulation superposed on the passive Q-switching pulse of a CO2 laser," Appl. Phys. B 39, 83–90 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

T. Erneux and P. Mandel, "Bifurcation phenomena in a laser with saturable absorber. I and II," Z. Phys. B 44, 353–363, 365–374 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

R. S. McDowell, L. J. Radziemski, H. Flicker, H. W. Galbraith, R. C. Kennedy, N. G. Nereson, B. J. Krohn, J. P. Aldridge, and J. D. King, "High resolution spectroscopy of the OsO4 stretching fundamental at 961 cm−1," J. Chem. Phys. 69, 1513–1521 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

C. Freed and R. G. O'Donnell, "Advances in CO2 laser stabilization using the 4.3 μm fluorescence technique," Metrologia 13, 151–156 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

O. N. Kompanets, A. R. Kukudzhanov, V. S. Letokhov, V. G. Minogin, and E. L. Mikhailov, "Nonlinear laser spectroscopy of vibrational–rotational transitions in monoisotopic OsO4 molecules and stabilization of CO2 laser frequency," Sov. Phys. JETP 42, 15–22 (1975).

1974 (2)

R. L. Abrams, "Broadening coefficients for the P(20) CO2 laser transition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 609–611 (1974).
[CrossRef]

E. Bazarov, G. A. Rasimov, and Yu. I. Posudin, "Absorption of carbon dioxide laser lines in OsO4 vapor," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4, 106–107 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

R. Salomaa and S. Stenholm, "Gas laser with saturable absorber. I. Single mode characteristics," Phys. Rev. A 8, 2695–2711 (1973); "Gas laser with saturable absorber. II. Single mode stability," Phys. Rev. A 8, 2712–2726 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

Yu. V. Brzhazovskii, L. S. Vasilenko, S. G. Rautian, G. S. Popova, and V. P. Chabotayev, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of radiation pulsation from a CO2 laser with a nonlinear absorbing cell," Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 265–270 (1972).

Abraham, N. B.

J. Y. Gao, H. Z. Zhang, X. Z. Guo, G. X. Jin, and N. B. Abraham, "Small signal response of a laser to cavity-length modulation: a diagnostic for dynamical models and parameter values," Phys. Rev. A 40, 6339–6348 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Chyba, N. B. Abraham, and A. M. Albano, "Semiclassical analysis of a detuned ring laser with a saturable absorber: new results for the steady states," Phys. Rev. A 35, 2936–2950 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abrams, R. L.

R. L. Abrams, "Broadening coefficients for the P(20) CO2 laser transition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 609–611 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Albano, A. M.

D. E. Chyba, N. B. Abraham, and A. M. Albano, "Semiclassical analysis of a detuned ring laser with a saturable absorber: new results for the steady states," Phys. Rev. A 35, 2936–2950 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aldridge, J. P.

R. S. McDowell, L. J. Radziemski, H. Flicker, H. W. Galbraith, R. C. Kennedy, N. G. Nereson, B. J. Krohn, J. P. Aldridge, and J. D. King, "High resolution spectroscopy of the OsO4 stretching fundamental at 961 cm−1," J. Chem. Phys. 69, 1513–1521 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Arecchi, F. T.

F. T. Arecchi, A. Lapucci, R. Meucci, J. A. Roversi, and P. H. Coullet, "Experimental characterization of Shil'nikov chaos by statistics of return maps," Europhys. Lett. 6, 677–682 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Arimondo, E.

A. Zeni, J. A. C. Gallas, A. Fioretti, F. Papoff, B. Zambon, and E. Arimondo, "Lyapunov exponents and return maps for a model of a laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Lett. A 172, 247–255 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Fioretti, F. Molesti, F. Papoff, B. Zambon, and E. Arimondo, "Topological analysis of laser with saturable absorber in experiments and models," Int. J. Bifurc. Chaos 3, 559–565 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Papoff, A. Fioretti, E. Arimondo, G. B. Mindlin, H. Solari, and R. Gilmore, "Structure of chaos in the laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1128–1131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Papoff, A. Fioretti, and E. Arimondo, "Return maps for intensity and time in a homoclinic-chaos model applied to a laser with a saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. A 44, 4639–4651 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. de Tomasi, D. Hennequin, B. Zambon, and E. Arimondo, "Instabilities and chaos in an infrared laser with saturable absorber: experiments and vibrorotational model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 45–57 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. Zambon, F. de Tomasi, D. Hennequin, and E. Arimondo, "Investigations of models and experimental studies of stationary regime of a laser with a saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. A 40, 3782–3795 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hennequin, F. de Tomasi, B. Zambon, and E. Arimondo, "Homoclinic orbits and cycles in the instabilities for a laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. A 37, 2243–2246 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Arimondo, B. M. Dinelli, and E. Menchi, "Precise measurements on optical bistability and passive Q-switch in a CO2 laser with saturable absorber," in Optical Bistability 2, C. M. Bowden, H. M. Gibbs, and S. L. McCall, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1984), pp. 317–323; E. Arimondo and E. Menchi, "Analysis of Q-switch in a CO2 laser with saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 37, 55–61 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bava, E.

A. Godone, M.P. Sassi, and E. Bava, "High-frequency capabilities of an OsO4 molecular beam frequency standard," Metrologia 26, 1–8 (1989), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Bazarov, E.

E. Bazarov, G. A. Rasimov, and Yu. I. Posudin, "Absorption of carbon dioxide laser lines in OsO4 vapor," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4, 106–107 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Bekkali, A.

D. Dangoisse, A. Bekkali, F. Papoff, and P. Glorieux, "Shil'nikov dynamics in a passive Q-switching laser," Europhys. Lett. 6, 335–340 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Boixader, F.

R. Herrero, F. Boixader, J. Farjas, F. Pi, G. Orriols, and J. I. Rosell, Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Bordé, Ch. J.

Ch. J. Bordé, J. Bordé, Ch. Bréant, Ch. Chardonnet, A. van Lerberghe, and C. Salomon, "Internal dynamics of simple molecules revealed by the superfine and hyperfine structures of their infrared spectra," in Laser Spectroscopy VII, T. W. Hänsch and Y. R. Shen, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), pp. 108–114.
[CrossRef]

Bordé, J.

Ch. J. Bordé, J. Bordé, Ch. Bréant, Ch. Chardonnet, A. van Lerberghe, and C. Salomon, "Internal dynamics of simple molecules revealed by the superfine and hyperfine structures of their infrared spectra," in Laser Spectroscopy VII, T. W. Hänsch and Y. R. Shen, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), pp. 108–114.
[CrossRef]

Braun, T.

T. Braun and J. A. Lisbôa, "Characterization of homoclinic chaos in a glow discharge through return maps," Int. J. Bifurc. Chaos 4, 1483–1993 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bréant, Ch.

Ch. J. Bordé, J. Bordé, Ch. Bréant, Ch. Chardonnet, A. van Lerberghe, and C. Salomon, "Internal dynamics of simple molecules revealed by the superfine and hyperfine structures of their infrared spectra," in Laser Spectroscopy VII, T. W. Hänsch and Y. R. Shen, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), pp. 108–114.
[CrossRef]

Brzhazovskii, Yu. V.

Yu. V. Brzhazovskii, L. S. Vasilenko, S. G. Rautian, G. S. Popova, and V. P. Chabotayev, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of radiation pulsation from a CO2 laser with a nonlinear absorbing cell," Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 265–270 (1972).

Carvalho, C. R.

C. R. Carvalho and L. Davidovich, "Dynamic Lamb-dip effects in gas lasers with inhomogeneously broadened saturable absorbers," Phys. Rev. A 45, 6748–6755 (1992), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chabotayev, V. P.

Yu. V. Brzhazovskii, L. S. Vasilenko, S. G. Rautian, G. S. Popova, and V. P. Chabotayev, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of radiation pulsation from a CO2 laser with a nonlinear absorbing cell," Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 265–270 (1972).

Chardonnet, Ch.

Ch. J. Bordé, J. Bordé, Ch. Bréant, Ch. Chardonnet, A. van Lerberghe, and C. Salomon, "Internal dynamics of simple molecules revealed by the superfine and hyperfine structures of their infrared spectra," in Laser Spectroscopy VII, T. W. Hänsch and Y. R. Shen, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), pp. 108–114.
[CrossRef]

Chyba, D. E.

D. E. Chyba, N. B. Abraham, and A. M. Albano, "Semiclassical analysis of a detuned ring laser with a saturable absorber: new results for the steady states," Phys. Rev. A 35, 2936–2950 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coullet, P. H.

F. T. Arecchi, A. Lapucci, R. Meucci, J. A. Roversi, and P. H. Coullet, "Experimental characterization of Shil'nikov chaos by statistics of return maps," Europhys. Lett. 6, 677–682 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dangoisse, D.

M. Lefranc, D. Hennequin, and D. Dangoisse, "Homoclinic chaos in a laser containing a saturable absorber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 239–249 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Dangoisse, A. Bekkali, F. Papoff, and P. Glorieux, "Shil'nikov dynamics in a passive Q-switching laser," Europhys. Lett. 6, 335–340 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Davidovich, L.

C. R. Carvalho and L. Davidovich, "Dynamic Lamb-dip effects in gas lasers with inhomogeneously broadened saturable absorbers," Phys. Rev. A 45, 6748–6755 (1992), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinelli, B. M.

E. Arimondo, B. M. Dinelli, and E. Menchi, "Precise measurements on optical bistability and passive Q-switch in a CO2 laser with saturable absorber," in Optical Bistability 2, C. M. Bowden, H. M. Gibbs, and S. L. McCall, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1984), pp. 317–323; E. Arimondo and E. Menchi, "Analysis of Q-switch in a CO2 laser with saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 37, 55–61 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Erneux, T.

T. Erneux and P. Mandel, "Bifurcation phenomena in a laser with saturable absorber. I and II," Z. Phys. B 44, 353–363, 365–374 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Farjas, J.

R. Herrero, F. Boixader, J. Farjas, F. Pi, G. Orriols, and J. I. Rosell, Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Fioretti, A.

A. Zeni, J. A. C. Gallas, A. Fioretti, F. Papoff, B. Zambon, and E. Arimondo, "Lyapunov exponents and return maps for a model of a laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Lett. A 172, 247–255 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Fioretti, F. Molesti, F. Papoff, B. Zambon, and E. Arimondo, "Topological analysis of laser with saturable absorber in experiments and models," Int. J. Bifurc. Chaos 3, 559–565 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Papoff, A. Fioretti, E. Arimondo, G. B. Mindlin, H. Solari, and R. Gilmore, "Structure of chaos in the laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1128–1131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Papoff, A. Fioretti, and E. Arimondo, "Return maps for intensity and time in a homoclinic-chaos model applied to a laser with a saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. A 44, 4639–4651 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flicker, H.

R. S. McDowell, L. J. Radziemski, H. Flicker, H. W. Galbraith, R. C. Kennedy, N. G. Nereson, B. J. Krohn, J. P. Aldridge, and J. D. King, "High resolution spectroscopy of the OsO4 stretching fundamental at 961 cm−1," J. Chem. Phys. 69, 1513–1521 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Freed, C.

C. Freed and R. G. O'Donnell, "Advances in CO2 laser stabilization using the 4.3 μm fluorescence technique," Metrologia 13, 151–156 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Galbraith, H. W.

R. S. McDowell, L. J. Radziemski, H. Flicker, H. W. Galbraith, R. C. Kennedy, N. G. Nereson, B. J. Krohn, J. P. Aldridge, and J. D. King, "High resolution spectroscopy of the OsO4 stretching fundamental at 961 cm−1," J. Chem. Phys. 69, 1513–1521 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Gallas, J. A. C.

A. Zeni, J. A. C. Gallas, A. Fioretti, F. Papoff, B. Zambon, and E. Arimondo, "Lyapunov exponents and return maps for a model of a laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Lett. A 172, 247–255 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J. Y.

J. Y. Gao, H. Z. Zhang, X. Z. Guo, G. X. Jin, and N. B. Abraham, "Small signal response of a laser to cavity-length modulation: a diagnostic for dynamical models and parameter values," Phys. Rev. A 40, 6339–6348 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilmore, R.

F. Papoff, A. Fioretti, E. Arimondo, G. B. Mindlin, H. Solari, and R. Gilmore, "Structure of chaos in the laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1128–1131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glorieux, P.

D. Dangoisse, A. Bekkali, F. Papoff, and P. Glorieux, "Shil'nikov dynamics in a passive Q-switching laser," Europhys. Lett. 6, 335–340 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Godone, A.

A. Godone, M.P. Sassi, and E. Bava, "High-frequency capabilities of an OsO4 molecular beam frequency standard," Metrologia 26, 1–8 (1989), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Guo, X. Z.

J. Y. Gao, H. Z. Zhang, X. Z. Guo, G. X. Jin, and N. B. Abraham, "Small signal response of a laser to cavity-length modulation: a diagnostic for dynamical models and parameter values," Phys. Rev. A 40, 6339–6348 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hennequin, D.

M. Lefranc, D. Hennequin, and D. Dangoisse, "Homoclinic chaos in a laser containing a saturable absorber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 239–249 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. Zambon, F. de Tomasi, D. Hennequin, and E. Arimondo, "Investigations of models and experimental studies of stationary regime of a laser with a saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. A 40, 3782–3795 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. de Tomasi, D. Hennequin, B. Zambon, and E. Arimondo, "Instabilities and chaos in an infrared laser with saturable absorber: experiments and vibrorotational model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 45–57 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Hennequin, F. de Tomasi, B. Zambon, and E. Arimondo, "Homoclinic orbits and cycles in the instabilities for a laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. A 37, 2243–2246 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrero, R.

R. Herrero, F. Boixader, J. Farjas, F. Pi, G. Orriols, and J. I. Rosell, Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Hong, F.

M. Tachikawa, F. Hong, K. Tanii, and T. Shimizu, "Deterministic chaos in passive Q-switching pulsation of a CO2 laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2266–2268 (1988); M. Tachikawa, M. Tanii, and T. Shimizu, "Laser instability and chaotic pulsation in CO2 laser with intracavity saturable absorber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1077–1082 (1988); F. L. Hong, M. Tachikawa, R. Oda, and T. Shimizu, "Chaotic passive Q-switching pulsation in a N2O laser with a saturable absorber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1378–1382 (1989); T. Tohei, M. Tachikawa, andT. Shimizu, "Rate-equation analysis of deterministic chaos in a laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. A 45, 5166–5170 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, G. X.

J. Y. Gao, H. Z. Zhang, X. Z. Guo, G. X. Jin, and N. B. Abraham, "Small signal response of a laser to cavity-length modulation: a diagnostic for dynamical models and parameter values," Phys. Rev. A 40, 6339–6348 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kajita, M.

M. Tachikawa, K. Tanii, M. Kajita, and T. Shimizu, "Undamped undulation superposed on the passive Q-switching pulse of a CO2 laser," Appl. Phys. B 39, 83–90 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, R. C.

R. S. McDowell, L. J. Radziemski, H. Flicker, H. W. Galbraith, R. C. Kennedy, N. G. Nereson, B. J. Krohn, J. P. Aldridge, and J. D. King, "High resolution spectroscopy of the OsO4 stretching fundamental at 961 cm−1," J. Chem. Phys. 69, 1513–1521 (1978).
[CrossRef]

King, J. D.

R. S. McDowell, L. J. Radziemski, H. Flicker, H. W. Galbraith, R. C. Kennedy, N. G. Nereson, B. J. Krohn, J. P. Aldridge, and J. D. King, "High resolution spectroscopy of the OsO4 stretching fundamental at 961 cm−1," J. Chem. Phys. 69, 1513–1521 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kompanets, O. N.

O. N. Kompanets, A. R. Kukudzhanov, V. S. Letokhov, V. G. Minogin, and E. L. Mikhailov, "Nonlinear laser spectroscopy of vibrational–rotational transitions in monoisotopic OsO4 molecules and stabilization of CO2 laser frequency," Sov. Phys. JETP 42, 15–22 (1975).

Krohn, B. J.

R. S. McDowell, L. J. Radziemski, H. Flicker, H. W. Galbraith, R. C. Kennedy, N. G. Nereson, B. J. Krohn, J. P. Aldridge, and J. D. King, "High resolution spectroscopy of the OsO4 stretching fundamental at 961 cm−1," J. Chem. Phys. 69, 1513–1521 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kukudzhanov, A. R.

O. N. Kompanets, A. R. Kukudzhanov, V. S. Letokhov, V. G. Minogin, and E. L. Mikhailov, "Nonlinear laser spectroscopy of vibrational–rotational transitions in monoisotopic OsO4 molecules and stabilization of CO2 laser frequency," Sov. Phys. JETP 42, 15–22 (1975).

Lapucci, A.

F. T. Arecchi, A. Lapucci, R. Meucci, J. A. Roversi, and P. H. Coullet, "Experimental characterization of Shil'nikov chaos by statistics of return maps," Europhys. Lett. 6, 677–682 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lefranc, M.

Lerberghe, A. van

Ch. J. Bordé, J. Bordé, Ch. Bréant, Ch. Chardonnet, A. van Lerberghe, and C. Salomon, "Internal dynamics of simple molecules revealed by the superfine and hyperfine structures of their infrared spectra," in Laser Spectroscopy VII, T. W. Hänsch and Y. R. Shen, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), pp. 108–114.
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

O. N. Kompanets, A. R. Kukudzhanov, V. S. Letokhov, V. G. Minogin, and E. L. Mikhailov, "Nonlinear laser spectroscopy of vibrational–rotational transitions in monoisotopic OsO4 molecules and stabilization of CO2 laser frequency," Sov. Phys. JETP 42, 15–22 (1975).

Lisbôa, J. A.

T. Braun and J. A. Lisbôa, "Characterization of homoclinic chaos in a glow discharge through return maps," Int. J. Bifurc. Chaos 4, 1483–1993 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mandel, P.

T. Erneux and P. Mandel, "Bifurcation phenomena in a laser with saturable absorber. I and II," Z. Phys. B 44, 353–363, 365–374 (1981).
[CrossRef]

McDowell, R. S.

R. S. McDowell, L. J. Radziemski, H. Flicker, H. W. Galbraith, R. C. Kennedy, N. G. Nereson, B. J. Krohn, J. P. Aldridge, and J. D. King, "High resolution spectroscopy of the OsO4 stretching fundamental at 961 cm−1," J. Chem. Phys. 69, 1513–1521 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Menchi, E.

E. Arimondo, B. M. Dinelli, and E. Menchi, "Precise measurements on optical bistability and passive Q-switch in a CO2 laser with saturable absorber," in Optical Bistability 2, C. M. Bowden, H. M. Gibbs, and S. L. McCall, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1984), pp. 317–323; E. Arimondo and E. Menchi, "Analysis of Q-switch in a CO2 laser with saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 37, 55–61 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Meucci, R.

F. T. Arecchi, A. Lapucci, R. Meucci, J. A. Roversi, and P. H. Coullet, "Experimental characterization of Shil'nikov chaos by statistics of return maps," Europhys. Lett. 6, 677–682 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailov, E. L.

O. N. Kompanets, A. R. Kukudzhanov, V. S. Letokhov, V. G. Minogin, and E. L. Mikhailov, "Nonlinear laser spectroscopy of vibrational–rotational transitions in monoisotopic OsO4 molecules and stabilization of CO2 laser frequency," Sov. Phys. JETP 42, 15–22 (1975).

Mindlin, G. B.

F. Papoff, A. Fioretti, E. Arimondo, G. B. Mindlin, H. Solari, and R. Gilmore, "Structure of chaos in the laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1128–1131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minogin, V. G.

O. N. Kompanets, A. R. Kukudzhanov, V. S. Letokhov, V. G. Minogin, and E. L. Mikhailov, "Nonlinear laser spectroscopy of vibrational–rotational transitions in monoisotopic OsO4 molecules and stabilization of CO2 laser frequency," Sov. Phys. JETP 42, 15–22 (1975).

Molesti, F.

A. Fioretti, F. Molesti, F. Papoff, B. Zambon, and E. Arimondo, "Topological analysis of laser with saturable absorber in experiments and models," Int. J. Bifurc. Chaos 3, 559–565 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nereson, N. G.

R. S. McDowell, L. J. Radziemski, H. Flicker, H. W. Galbraith, R. C. Kennedy, N. G. Nereson, B. J. Krohn, J. P. Aldridge, and J. D. King, "High resolution spectroscopy of the OsO4 stretching fundamental at 961 cm−1," J. Chem. Phys. 69, 1513–1521 (1978).
[CrossRef]

O'Donnell, R. G.

C. Freed and R. G. O'Donnell, "Advances in CO2 laser stabilization using the 4.3 μm fluorescence technique," Metrologia 13, 151–156 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Orriols, G.

R. Herrero, F. Boixader, J. Farjas, F. Pi, G. Orriols, and J. I. Rosell, Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Papoff, F.

A. Zeni, J. A. C. Gallas, A. Fioretti, F. Papoff, B. Zambon, and E. Arimondo, "Lyapunov exponents and return maps for a model of a laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Lett. A 172, 247–255 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Fioretti, F. Molesti, F. Papoff, B. Zambon, and E. Arimondo, "Topological analysis of laser with saturable absorber in experiments and models," Int. J. Bifurc. Chaos 3, 559–565 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Papoff, A. Fioretti, E. Arimondo, G. B. Mindlin, H. Solari, and R. Gilmore, "Structure of chaos in the laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1128–1131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Papoff, A. Fioretti, and E. Arimondo, "Return maps for intensity and time in a homoclinic-chaos model applied to a laser with a saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. A 44, 4639–4651 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dangoisse, A. Bekkali, F. Papoff, and P. Glorieux, "Shil'nikov dynamics in a passive Q-switching laser," Europhys. Lett. 6, 335–340 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pi, F.

R. Herrero, F. Boixader, J. Farjas, F. Pi, G. Orriols, and J. I. Rosell, Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Popova, G. S.

Yu. V. Brzhazovskii, L. S. Vasilenko, S. G. Rautian, G. S. Popova, and V. P. Chabotayev, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of radiation pulsation from a CO2 laser with a nonlinear absorbing cell," Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 265–270 (1972).

Posudin, Yu. I.

E. Bazarov, G. A. Rasimov, and Yu. I. Posudin, "Absorption of carbon dioxide laser lines in OsO4 vapor," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4, 106–107 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Radziemski, L. J.

R. S. McDowell, L. J. Radziemski, H. Flicker, H. W. Galbraith, R. C. Kennedy, N. G. Nereson, B. J. Krohn, J. P. Aldridge, and J. D. King, "High resolution spectroscopy of the OsO4 stretching fundamental at 961 cm−1," J. Chem. Phys. 69, 1513–1521 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Rasimov, G. A.

E. Bazarov, G. A. Rasimov, and Yu. I. Posudin, "Absorption of carbon dioxide laser lines in OsO4 vapor," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4, 106–107 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rautian, S. G.

Yu. V. Brzhazovskii, L. S. Vasilenko, S. G. Rautian, G. S. Popova, and V. P. Chabotayev, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of radiation pulsation from a CO2 laser with a nonlinear absorbing cell," Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 265–270 (1972).

Rosell, J. I.

R. Herrero, F. Boixader, J. Farjas, F. Pi, G. Orriols, and J. I. Rosell, Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Roversi, J. A.

F. T. Arecchi, A. Lapucci, R. Meucci, J. A. Roversi, and P. H. Coullet, "Experimental characterization of Shil'nikov chaos by statistics of return maps," Europhys. Lett. 6, 677–682 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Salomaa, R.

R. Salomaa and S. Stenholm, "Gas laser with saturable absorber. I. Single mode characteristics," Phys. Rev. A 8, 2695–2711 (1973); "Gas laser with saturable absorber. II. Single mode stability," Phys. Rev. A 8, 2712–2726 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Salomon, C.

Ch. J. Bordé, J. Bordé, Ch. Bréant, Ch. Chardonnet, A. van Lerberghe, and C. Salomon, "Internal dynamics of simple molecules revealed by the superfine and hyperfine structures of their infrared spectra," in Laser Spectroscopy VII, T. W. Hänsch and Y. R. Shen, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), pp. 108–114.
[CrossRef]

Sassi, M.P.

A. Godone, M.P. Sassi, and E. Bava, "High-frequency capabilities of an OsO4 molecular beam frequency standard," Metrologia 26, 1–8 (1989), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, T.

M. Tachikawa, F. Hong, K. Tanii, and T. Shimizu, "Deterministic chaos in passive Q-switching pulsation of a CO2 laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2266–2268 (1988); M. Tachikawa, M. Tanii, and T. Shimizu, "Laser instability and chaotic pulsation in CO2 laser with intracavity saturable absorber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1077–1082 (1988); F. L. Hong, M. Tachikawa, R. Oda, and T. Shimizu, "Chaotic passive Q-switching pulsation in a N2O laser with a saturable absorber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1378–1382 (1989); T. Tohei, M. Tachikawa, andT. Shimizu, "Rate-equation analysis of deterministic chaos in a laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. A 45, 5166–5170 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tachikawa, K. Tanii, M. Kajita, and T. Shimizu, "Undamped undulation superposed on the passive Q-switching pulse of a CO2 laser," Appl. Phys. B 39, 83–90 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Solari, H.

F. Papoff, A. Fioretti, E. Arimondo, G. B. Mindlin, H. Solari, and R. Gilmore, "Structure of chaos in the laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1128–1131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stenholm, S.

R. Salomaa and S. Stenholm, "Gas laser with saturable absorber. I. Single mode characteristics," Phys. Rev. A 8, 2695–2711 (1973); "Gas laser with saturable absorber. II. Single mode stability," Phys. Rev. A 8, 2712–2726 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Tachikawa, M.

M. Tachikawa, F. Hong, K. Tanii, and T. Shimizu, "Deterministic chaos in passive Q-switching pulsation of a CO2 laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2266–2268 (1988); M. Tachikawa, M. Tanii, and T. Shimizu, "Laser instability and chaotic pulsation in CO2 laser with intracavity saturable absorber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1077–1082 (1988); F. L. Hong, M. Tachikawa, R. Oda, and T. Shimizu, "Chaotic passive Q-switching pulsation in a N2O laser with a saturable absorber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1378–1382 (1989); T. Tohei, M. Tachikawa, andT. Shimizu, "Rate-equation analysis of deterministic chaos in a laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. A 45, 5166–5170 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tachikawa, K. Tanii, M. Kajita, and T. Shimizu, "Undamped undulation superposed on the passive Q-switching pulse of a CO2 laser," Appl. Phys. B 39, 83–90 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tanii, K.

M. Tachikawa, F. Hong, K. Tanii, and T. Shimizu, "Deterministic chaos in passive Q-switching pulsation of a CO2 laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2266–2268 (1988); M. Tachikawa, M. Tanii, and T. Shimizu, "Laser instability and chaotic pulsation in CO2 laser with intracavity saturable absorber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1077–1082 (1988); F. L. Hong, M. Tachikawa, R. Oda, and T. Shimizu, "Chaotic passive Q-switching pulsation in a N2O laser with a saturable absorber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1378–1382 (1989); T. Tohei, M. Tachikawa, andT. Shimizu, "Rate-equation analysis of deterministic chaos in a laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. A 45, 5166–5170 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tachikawa, K. Tanii, M. Kajita, and T. Shimizu, "Undamped undulation superposed on the passive Q-switching pulse of a CO2 laser," Appl. Phys. B 39, 83–90 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tomasi, F. de

B. Zambon, F. de Tomasi, D. Hennequin, and E. Arimondo, "Investigations of models and experimental studies of stationary regime of a laser with a saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. A 40, 3782–3795 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. de Tomasi, D. Hennequin, B. Zambon, and E. Arimondo, "Instabilities and chaos in an infrared laser with saturable absorber: experiments and vibrorotational model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 45–57 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Hennequin, F. de Tomasi, B. Zambon, and E. Arimondo, "Homoclinic orbits and cycles in the instabilities for a laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. A 37, 2243–2246 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vasilenko, L. S.

Yu. V. Brzhazovskii, L. S. Vasilenko, S. G. Rautian, G. S. Popova, and V. P. Chabotayev, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of radiation pulsation from a CO2 laser with a nonlinear absorbing cell," Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 265–270 (1972).

Vilaseca, R.

For a recent review see C. O. Weiss and R. Vilaseca, "Dynamics of lasers," in Nonlinear Dynamics, H.-G. Schuster, ed. (VCH, New York, 1991).

Weiss, C. O.

For a recent review see C. O. Weiss and R. Vilaseca, "Dynamics of lasers," in Nonlinear Dynamics, H.-G. Schuster, ed. (VCH, New York, 1991).

Zambon, B.

A. Fioretti, F. Molesti, F. Papoff, B. Zambon, and E. Arimondo, "Topological analysis of laser with saturable absorber in experiments and models," Int. J. Bifurc. Chaos 3, 559–565 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Zeni, J. A. C. Gallas, A. Fioretti, F. Papoff, B. Zambon, and E. Arimondo, "Lyapunov exponents and return maps for a model of a laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Lett. A 172, 247–255 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Zambon, "Theoretical investigations of models for the laser with a saturable absorber: a case of homoclinic tangency to a periodic orbit," Phys. Rev. A 44, 688–702 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. de Tomasi, D. Hennequin, B. Zambon, and E. Arimondo, "Instabilities and chaos in an infrared laser with saturable absorber: experiments and vibrorotational model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 45–57 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. Zambon, F. de Tomasi, D. Hennequin, and E. Arimondo, "Investigations of models and experimental studies of stationary regime of a laser with a saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. A 40, 3782–3795 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hennequin, F. de Tomasi, B. Zambon, and E. Arimondo, "Homoclinic orbits and cycles in the instabilities for a laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. A 37, 2243–2246 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeni, A.

A. Zeni, J. A. C. Gallas, A. Fioretti, F. Papoff, B. Zambon, and E. Arimondo, "Lyapunov exponents and return maps for a model of a laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Lett. A 172, 247–255 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. Z.

J. Y. Gao, H. Z. Zhang, X. Z. Guo, G. X. Jin, and N. B. Abraham, "Small signal response of a laser to cavity-length modulation: a diagnostic for dynamical models and parameter values," Phys. Rev. A 40, 6339–6348 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Tachikawa, K. Tanii, M. Kajita, and T. Shimizu, "Undamped undulation superposed on the passive Q-switching pulse of a CO2 laser," Appl. Phys. B 39, 83–90 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. L. Abrams, "Broadening coefficients for the P(20) CO2 laser transition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 609–611 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (2)

D. Dangoisse, A. Bekkali, F. Papoff, and P. Glorieux, "Shil'nikov dynamics in a passive Q-switching laser," Europhys. Lett. 6, 335–340 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. T. Arecchi, A. Lapucci, R. Meucci, J. A. Roversi, and P. H. Coullet, "Experimental characterization of Shil'nikov chaos by statistics of return maps," Europhys. Lett. 6, 677–682 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Bifurc. Chaos (2)

A. Fioretti, F. Molesti, F. Papoff, B. Zambon, and E. Arimondo, "Topological analysis of laser with saturable absorber in experiments and models," Int. J. Bifurc. Chaos 3, 559–565 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Braun and J. A. Lisbôa, "Characterization of homoclinic chaos in a glow discharge through return maps," Int. J. Bifurc. Chaos 4, 1483–1993 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

R. S. McDowell, L. J. Radziemski, H. Flicker, H. W. Galbraith, R. C. Kennedy, N. G. Nereson, B. J. Krohn, J. P. Aldridge, and J. D. King, "High resolution spectroscopy of the OsO4 stretching fundamental at 961 cm−1," J. Chem. Phys. 69, 1513–1521 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Metrologia (2)

C. Freed and R. G. O'Donnell, "Advances in CO2 laser stabilization using the 4.3 μm fluorescence technique," Metrologia 13, 151–156 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Godone, M.P. Sassi, and E. Bava, "High-frequency capabilities of an OsO4 molecular beam frequency standard," Metrologia 26, 1–8 (1989), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. A (1)

A. Zeni, J. A. C. Gallas, A. Fioretti, F. Papoff, B. Zambon, and E. Arimondo, "Lyapunov exponents and return maps for a model of a laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Lett. A 172, 247–255 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (8)

F. Papoff, A. Fioretti, and E. Arimondo, "Return maps for intensity and time in a homoclinic-chaos model applied to a laser with a saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. A 44, 4639–4651 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zambon, "Theoretical investigations of models for the laser with a saturable absorber: a case of homoclinic tangency to a periodic orbit," Phys. Rev. A 44, 688–702 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zambon, F. de Tomasi, D. Hennequin, and E. Arimondo, "Investigations of models and experimental studies of stationary regime of a laser with a saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. A 40, 3782–3795 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hennequin, F. de Tomasi, B. Zambon, and E. Arimondo, "Homoclinic orbits and cycles in the instabilities for a laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. A 37, 2243–2246 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Salomaa and S. Stenholm, "Gas laser with saturable absorber. I. Single mode characteristics," Phys. Rev. A 8, 2695–2711 (1973); "Gas laser with saturable absorber. II. Single mode stability," Phys. Rev. A 8, 2712–2726 (1973).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Carvalho and L. Davidovich, "Dynamic Lamb-dip effects in gas lasers with inhomogeneously broadened saturable absorbers," Phys. Rev. A 45, 6748–6755 (1992), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Chyba, N. B. Abraham, and A. M. Albano, "Semiclassical analysis of a detuned ring laser with a saturable absorber: new results for the steady states," Phys. Rev. A 35, 2936–2950 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Gao, H. Z. Zhang, X. Z. Guo, G. X. Jin, and N. B. Abraham, "Small signal response of a laser to cavity-length modulation: a diagnostic for dynamical models and parameter values," Phys. Rev. A 40, 6339–6348 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. Tachikawa, F. Hong, K. Tanii, and T. Shimizu, "Deterministic chaos in passive Q-switching pulsation of a CO2 laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2266–2268 (1988); M. Tachikawa, M. Tanii, and T. Shimizu, "Laser instability and chaotic pulsation in CO2 laser with intracavity saturable absorber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1077–1082 (1988); F. L. Hong, M. Tachikawa, R. Oda, and T. Shimizu, "Chaotic passive Q-switching pulsation in a N2O laser with a saturable absorber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1378–1382 (1989); T. Tohei, M. Tachikawa, andT. Shimizu, "Rate-equation analysis of deterministic chaos in a laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. A 45, 5166–5170 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Papoff, A. Fioretti, E. Arimondo, G. B. Mindlin, H. Solari, and R. Gilmore, "Structure of chaos in the laser with saturable absorber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1128–1131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. Bazarov, G. A. Rasimov, and Yu. I. Posudin, "Absorption of carbon dioxide laser lines in OsO4 vapor," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4, 106–107 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (2)

O. N. Kompanets, A. R. Kukudzhanov, V. S. Letokhov, V. G. Minogin, and E. L. Mikhailov, "Nonlinear laser spectroscopy of vibrational–rotational transitions in monoisotopic OsO4 molecules and stabilization of CO2 laser frequency," Sov. Phys. JETP 42, 15–22 (1975).

Yu. V. Brzhazovskii, L. S. Vasilenko, S. G. Rautian, G. S. Popova, and V. P. Chabotayev, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of radiation pulsation from a CO2 laser with a nonlinear absorbing cell," Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 265–270 (1972).

Z. Phys. B (1)

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[CrossRef]

Other (4)

Ch. J. Bordé, J. Bordé, Ch. Bréant, Ch. Chardonnet, A. van Lerberghe, and C. Salomon, "Internal dynamics of simple molecules revealed by the superfine and hyperfine structures of their infrared spectra," in Laser Spectroscopy VII, T. W. Hänsch and Y. R. Shen, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), pp. 108–114.
[CrossRef]

For a recent review see C. O. Weiss and R. Vilaseca, "Dynamics of lasers," in Nonlinear Dynamics, H.-G. Schuster, ed. (VCH, New York, 1991).

R. Herrero, F. Boixader, J. Farjas, F. Pi, G. Orriols, and J. I. Rosell, Opt. Commun. (to be published).

E. Arimondo, B. M. Dinelli, and E. Menchi, "Precise measurements on optical bistability and passive Q-switch in a CO2 laser with saturable absorber," in Optical Bistability 2, C. M. Bowden, H. M. Gibbs, and S. L. McCall, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1984), pp. 317–323; E. Arimondo and E. Menchi, "Analysis of Q-switch in a CO2 laser with saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 37, 55–61 (1985).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dependence of the pump parameter A on the discharge current, measured for various diameters of the iris, for TEM00-mode operation. The error bar on the A parameter, as derived from Eq. (3), is reported when relevant.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase diagrams of the LSA operation with 10P(12) CO2 + OsO4 in the space of the laser detuning Δ from the line center and of the pump parameter A (on the left-hand scale) or of the discharge current (on the right-hand scale). OsO4 pressure: (a) 50-mTorr, (b) 225 mTorr.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Periodic pulses, classified as P(1), observed on the LSA output intensity versus time. The laser is operating at a discharge current of 5.4 mA, corresponding to A = 2.2, and Δ = 12 MHz. (b) Pulse shape induced by the effect of saturated absorption, with the laser operating at 8.5 mA, corresponding to A = 2.6, and Δ = 19 MHz. (c) Chaotic oscillations, with the laser operating at 9 mA, corresponding to A = 2.7, and Δ = −16 MHz. (d) Pulses corresponding to the CH(n) regime, characterizing homoclinic tangency, with the laser operating at 10 mA, corresponding to A = 2.75, and Δ = −14 MHz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Poincaré section, in the (u, v) plane, obtained from the experimental data series shown in Fig. 3(c). (b) Poincaré return map for the v coordinate of the section. (c) Return-time return map for the same section. Note the double-branched structure on the ascending and the descending parts of the return-time return map.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Poincaré section, in the (u, v) plane, obtained from the experimental data series shown in Fig. 3(d). (b) Poincaré return map for the v coordinate of the section. (c) Return-time return map for the same section. Note the multibranched structure of the Poincaré return map and the two branches on the ascending part of the return-time return map. The resolution does not provide evidence of any structure on the descending part of the return-time return map.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Absorption Parameters for the P(39) Transition of the 192OsO4 Centered at 25.4 MHz off the CO2 10P(12) Line

Equations (6)

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I s = A - 1 - δ 2 .
δ = ω - ω A γ [ 1 + ( k / γ ) ] .
A 0 = 1 + C ( I - I th ) α .
Y 1 = I ( t ) ,
Y 2 = I ˙ ( t ) ,
Y 3 = t I ( t ) exp [ - ( t - t ) / τ ] d t .

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