Abstract

We have observed gain at 26.2 nm in a laser-produced, recombining boron plasma. We conservatively estimate the gain for the B v 3d−2p transition to be 3.7 ± 0.2 cm−1, yielding a gain–length product of 3.0. The highest value of gain was measured 400 μm from the solid target surface and was obtained with the use of a steel blade. The pump-laser power was 1.1 J in 60 ps.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. E. Lemoff, G. Y. Yin, C. L. Gordon, III, C. P. J. Barty, and S. E. Harris, "Demonstration of a 10-Hz, femtosecondpulse- driven XUV laser at 41.8 nm in Xe IX," submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. G. J. Pert, "Model calculations of XUV gain in rapidly expanding cylindrical plasmas," J. Phys. B 9, 3301–3315 (1976).
    [CrossRef]

1994

1993

L. B. Da Silva, B. J. MacGowan, S. Mrowka, J. A. Koch, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, and J. H. Underwood, "Power measurements of a saturated yttrium x-ray laser," Opt. Lett. 18, 1174–1176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, "Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman-α transition by optical-field-induced ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774–3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Basu, P. L. Hagelstein, J. G. Goodberlet, M. H. Muendel, and S. Kaushik, "Amplification in Ni-like Nb at 204.2 Å pumped by a table-top laser," Appl. Phys. B 57, 303–307 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, "Saturated and neardiffraction- limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

1989

1986

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. Kim, E. Valeo, D. Voorhees, and A. Wouters, "Divergence measurements of soft-x-ray laser beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1004–1007 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

1981

D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, L. D. Shorrock, and G. J. Tallents, "Observation of gain in a possible extreme ultraviolet lasing system," Opt. Commun. 37, 193–196 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978

V. Bhagavatula and B. Yaakobi, "Direct observation of population inversion between Al+11 levels in a laserproduced plasma," Opt. Commun. 24, 331–335 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976

G. J. Pert, "Model calculations of XUV gain in rapidly expanding cylindrical plasmas," J. Phys. B 9, 3301–3315 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974

Barty, C. P. J.

B. E. Lemoff, G. Y. Yin, C. L. Gordon, III, C. P. J. Barty, and S. E. Harris, "Demonstration of a 10-Hz, femtosecondpulse- driven XUV laser at 41.8 nm in Xe IX," submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Basu, S.

S. Basu, P. L. Hagelstein, J. G. Goodberlet, M. H. Muendel, and S. Kaushik, "Amplification in Ni-like Nb at 204.2 Å pumped by a table-top laser," Appl. Phys. B 57, 303–307 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bhagavatula, V.

V. Bhagavatula and B. Yaakobi, "Direct observation of population inversion between Al+11 levels in a laserproduced plasma," Opt. Commun. 24, 331–335 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Carillon, A.

B. Rus, A. Carillon, B. Gauthé, P. Goedtkindt, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, A. Sureau, and P. Zeitoun, "Observation of intense soft-x-ray lasing at the J = 0 to J = 1 transition in neonlike zinc," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 564–573 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, "Saturated and neardiffraction- limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. Z.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, "Saturated and neardiffraction- limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cortzar, O.

J. G. Rocca, V. Shlyaptsev, F. Tomesel, and O. Cortzar, "Demonstration of a discharge pumped table-top soft-x-ray laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2192–2195 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhez, P.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, "Saturated and neardiffraction- limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dwivedi, L.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, "Saturated and neardiffraction- limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauthé, B.

Goedtkindt, P.

Goodberlet, J. G.

S. Basu, P. L. Hagelstein, J. G. Goodberlet, M. H. Muendel, and S. Kaushik, "Amplification in Ni-like Nb at 204.2 Å pumped by a table-top laser," Appl. Phys. B 57, 303–307 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, C. L.

B. E. Lemoff, G. Y. Yin, C. L. Gordon, III, C. P. J. Barty, and S. E. Harris, "Demonstration of a 10-Hz, femtosecondpulse- driven XUV laser at 41.8 nm in Xe IX," submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Hagelstein, P. L.

S. Basu, P. L. Hagelstein, J. G. Goodberlet, M. H. Muendel, and S. Kaushik, "Amplification in Ni-like Nb at 204.2 Å pumped by a table-top laser," Appl. Phys. B 57, 303–307 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Harada, T.

Harris, S. E.

B. E. Lemoff, G. Y. Yin, C. L. Gordon, III, C. P. J. Barty, and S. E. Harris, "Demonstration of a 10-Hz, femtosecondpulse- driven XUV laser at 41.8 nm in Xe IX," submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Jacoby, D.

D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, L. D. Shorrock, and G. J. Tallents, "Observation of gain in a possible extreme ultraviolet lasing system," Opt. Commun. 37, 193–196 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Jacoby, J.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, "Saturated and neardiffraction- limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaegle, P.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, "Saturated and neardiffraction- limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaeglé, P.

Jamelot, G.

B. Rus, A. Carillon, B. Gauthé, P. Goedtkindt, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, A. Sureau, and P. Zeitoun, "Observation of intense soft-x-ray lasing at the J = 0 to J = 1 transition in neonlike zinc," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 564–573 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, "Saturated and neardiffraction- limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaushik, S.

S. Basu, P. L. Hagelstein, J. G. Goodberlet, M. H. Muendel, and S. Kaushik, "Amplification in Ni-like Nb at 204.2 Å pumped by a table-top laser," Appl. Phys. B 57, 303–307 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Key, M. H.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, "Saturated and neardiffraction- limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kidd, A.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, "Saturated and neardiffraction- limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D.

Kita, T.

Klisnick, A.

B. Rus, A. Carillon, B. Gauthé, P. Goedtkindt, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, A. Sureau, and P. Zeitoun, "Observation of intense soft-x-ray lasing at the J = 0 to J = 1 transition in neonlike zinc," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 564–573 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, "Saturated and neardiffraction- limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, J. A.

Kodama, R.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, "Saturated and neardiffraction- limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishnan, J.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, "Saturated and neardiffraction- limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kubodera, S.

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, "Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman-α transition by optical-field-induced ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774–3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuroda, H.

Lemoff, B. E.

B. E. Lemoff, G. Y. Yin, C. L. Gordon, III, C. P. J. Barty, and S. E. Harris, "Demonstration of a 10-Hz, femtosecondpulse- driven XUV laser at 41.8 nm in Xe IX," submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Lewis, C. L. S.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, "Saturated and neardiffraction- limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linford, G. J.

London, R. A.

MacGowan, B. J.

Matthews, D. L.

Midorikawa, K.

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, "Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman-α transition by optical-field-induced ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774–3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mrowka, S.

Muendel, M. H.

S. Basu, P. L. Hagelstein, J. G. Goodberlet, M. H. Muendel, and S. Kaushik, "Amplification in Ni-like Nb at 204.2 Å pumped by a table-top laser," Appl. Phys. B 57, 303–307 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Muendel, "Short wavelength laser gain studies in plasmas produced by a small Nd:glass slab laser," Ph.D. dissertation (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., 1994).

Nagata, Y.

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, "Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman-α transition by optical-field-induced ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774–3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakano, N.

Neely, D.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, "Saturated and neardiffraction- limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norreys, P.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, "Saturated and neardiffraction- limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Obara, M.

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, "Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman-α transition by optical-field-induced ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774–3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Neill, D.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, "Saturated and neardiffraction- limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peressini, E. R.

Pert, G. J.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, "Saturated and neardiffraction- limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, L. D. Shorrock, and G. J. Tallents, "Observation of gain in a possible extreme ultraviolet lasing system," Opt. Commun. 37, 193–196 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Pert, "Model calculations of XUV gain in rapidly expanding cylindrical plasmas," J. Phys. B 9, 3301–3315 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ramsden, S. A.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, "Saturated and neardiffraction- limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, L. D. Shorrock, and G. J. Tallents, "Observation of gain in a possible extreme ultraviolet lasing system," Opt. Commun. 37, 193–196 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Raucourt, J. P.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, "Saturated and neardiffraction- limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rocca, J. G.

J. G. Rocca, V. Shlyaptsev, F. Tomesel, and O. Cortzar, "Demonstration of a discharge pumped table-top soft-x-ray laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2192–2195 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rus, B.

Shlyaptsev, V.

J. G. Rocca, V. Shlyaptsev, F. Tomesel, and O. Cortzar, "Demonstration of a discharge pumped table-top soft-x-ray laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2192–2195 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shorrock, L. D.

D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, L. D. Shorrock, and G. J. Tallents, "Observation of gain in a possible extreme ultraviolet lasing system," Opt. Commun. 37, 193–196 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Silva, L. B. Da

Skinner, C. H.

Sooy, W. R.

Spaeth, M. L.

Suckewer, S.

Sureau, A.

Tallents, G. J.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, "Saturated and neardiffraction- limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, L. D. Shorrock, and G. J. Tallents, "Observation of gain in a possible extreme ultraviolet lasing system," Opt. Commun. 37, 193–196 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tashiro, H.

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, "Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman-α transition by optical-field-induced ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774–3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomesel, F.

J. G. Rocca, V. Shlyaptsev, F. Tomesel, and O. Cortzar, "Demonstration of a discharge pumped table-top soft-x-ray laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2192–2195 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toyoda, K.

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, "Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman-α transition by optical-field-induced ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774–3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uhomoibhi, J.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, "Saturated and neardiffraction- limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Umesh, G.

Underwood, J. H.

Valeo, E.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. Kim, E. Valeo, D. Voorhees, and A. Wouters, "Divergence measurements of soft-x-ray laser beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1004–1007 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voorhees, D.

C. H. Skinner, D. Kim, D. Voorhees, and S. Suckewer, "Development of small-scale soft-x-ray lasers: aspects of data interpretation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2042–2047 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. Kim, E. Valeo, D. Voorhees, and A. Wouters, "Divergence measurements of soft-x-ray laser beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1004–1007 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wouters, A.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. Kim, E. Valeo, D. Voorhees, and A. Wouters, "Divergence measurements of soft-x-ray laser beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1004–1007 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yaakobi, B.

V. Bhagavatula and B. Yaakobi, "Direct observation of population inversion between Al+11 levels in a laserproduced plasma," Opt. Commun. 24, 331–335 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Yin, G. Y.

B. E. Lemoff, G. Y. Yin, C. L. Gordon, III, C. P. J. Barty, and S. E. Harris, "Demonstration of a 10-Hz, femtosecondpulse- driven XUV laser at 41.8 nm in Xe IX," submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Zeitoun, P.

Zhang, J.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, "Saturated and neardiffraction- limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

S. Basu, P. L. Hagelstein, J. G. Goodberlet, M. H. Muendel, and S. Kaushik, "Amplification in Ni-like Nb at 204.2 Å pumped by a table-top laser," Appl. Phys. B 57, 303–307 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. B

G. J. Pert, "Model calculations of XUV gain in rapidly expanding cylindrical plasmas," J. Phys. B 9, 3301–3315 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

V. Bhagavatula and B. Yaakobi, "Direct observation of population inversion between Al+11 levels in a laserproduced plasma," Opt. Commun. 24, 331–335 (1978).
[CrossRef]

D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, L. D. Shorrock, and G. J. Tallents, "Observation of gain in a possible extreme ultraviolet lasing system," Opt. Commun. 37, 193–196 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. Kim, E. Valeo, D. Voorhees, and A. Wouters, "Divergence measurements of soft-x-ray laser beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1004–1007 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, "Saturated and neardiffraction- limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Rocca, V. Shlyaptsev, F. Tomesel, and O. Cortzar, "Demonstration of a discharge pumped table-top soft-x-ray laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2192–2195 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, "Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman-α transition by optical-field-induced ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774–3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

B. E. Lemoff, G. Y. Yin, C. L. Gordon, III, C. P. J. Barty, and S. E. Harris, "Demonstration of a 10-Hz, femtosecondpulse- driven XUV laser at 41.8 nm in Xe IX," submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. H. Muendel, "Short wavelength laser gain studies in plasmas produced by a small Nd:glass slab laser," Ph.D. dissertation (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., 1994).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Tabletop x-ray laser system. (a) The x-ray laser is driven with an amplified, mode-locked Q-switched Nd:YLF oscillator. The pump-laser beam is focused with a cylindrical lens aplanat to a 20 μm × 8 mm line on the x-ray laser target. A SCGS and a TIFFS are used to study axial emission from the plasma. (b) A reflective steel blade is located near the target inside the vacuum chamber. The lower edge of the blade is beveled away from the target surface. The target and the blade can be moved as shown. Emission from the plasma is viewed through a 100-μm-wide slit with the SCGS or through a 200-μm slit with the TIFFS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Line enhancement with a steel blade. The B v 3d−2p and the N v 3s−2p line intensities from a point-source plasma were noticeably higher when the blade was used (triangles) than when the blade was removed (circles).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TIFFS spectrum. Data from the TIFFS indicate strong emission from B v and B iv ions and indicate the presence of N vii ions. Orders are given by superscripts, and approximate wavelengths are listed below the emission peaks.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intensity-versus-length measurements. (a) Digitized raw data for 2-, 4-, 6-, and 8-mm plasma lengths. The line-outs were obtained by line intensities over a 600-ps time interval. (b) To estimate gain, we fitted the intensity of the B v line as a function of plasma length to the Linford formula. The solid curve is a fit without the 6-mm data points. The inset shows the pump-beam intensity profile and the beam blocking locations (dotted lines).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Point-source-versus-line-source emission. Emission from a point source was compared with emission from an 8-mm line source for similar pumping conditions. The substantial enhancement of the B v line suggests gain.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Supporting evidence of gain. Several intensity-versus-plasma-length measurements were made under nonoptimum conditions. Behavior of candidate gain lines at 26.2 nm (a)–(c) or 18.2 nm (d), shown as circles, or nearby nonlasing lines at 26.6 nm (a)–(c) or 18.6 nm (d), shown as squares, indicate plasma uniformity and the absence of geometrical artifacts. Intensity-versus-plasma-length measurements were made at the following distances above the target surface and with the following pump-pulse energies:(a) 400 μm, 1100 mJ, black symbols; 400 μm, 900 mJ, white symbols; (b) 300 μm, white symbols; 350 μm, 800 mJ, black symbols; (c) 250 μm, black symbols; 300 μm, 1100 mJ, white symbols; (d) 300 μm, 800 mJ. Further details of each measurement are given in the text.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Gain versus distance from the target. The gain was measured at several different heights above the solid target surface. The highest value of gain was recorded ∼400 μm from the target surface.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Temporal evolution of the gain line. Typical values for the full width at half-maximum duration of the gain line were ∼650 ps. The pump-laser pulse is also shown, centered at t = 0.

Equations (1)

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I 3 d 2 p ( l ) ( exp α l 1 ) 3 / 2 ( α l exp α l ) 1 / 2 ,

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