Abstract

The time dynamics of the intracavity absorption in a Ti:sapphire intracavity laser spectrometer was studied in the long-generation time domain. Weak nonlinearity of the dependence of sensitivity on the generation time was observed for a standing-wave laser at 1 ms. Several possible mechanisms for nonlinear mode coupling that could be responsible for this effect are considered. Parasitic interference made the measurements for longer generation times difficult. In a ring configuration of the laser the parasitic interference was excluded. No nonlinearity was observed for atmospheric-water absorption up to an equivalent absorption path length of 900 km. An analysis of the spectral narrowing made it possible to conclude that the equivalent absorption path in the ring Ti:sapphire can exceed 30,000 km. Limitations that result from the birefringence of the laser crystal and ways of avoiding them are also discussed.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. A. A. Kachanov, V. R. Mironenko, and I. K. Pashkovich, "Quantum threshold of the sensitivity of an intracavity traveling-wave laser spectrometer," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 95–98 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. W. Hänsch, A. L. Schawlow, and P. E. Toschek, "Ultrasensitive response of a cw dye laser to selective extinction," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 802–804 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. We assume here for simplicity that the absorbing medium occupies all the cavity of the laser. If it is enclosed in a cell, the value received from Eq. (1) has to be multiplied by the ratio of the cell length to the cavity length (filling ratio).
  7. We will often refer to the equations from Ref. 1 in this paper. In this case we will add the prefix P1 to the equation number from Ref. 1.
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  9. V. M. Baev, J. Eschner, E. Paeth, R. Schüler, and P. E. Toschek, "Intra-cavity spectroscopy with diode lasers," Appl. Phys. B 55, 463–477 (1992).
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  14. Yu. M. Ajvasjan, V. M. Baev, V. V. Ivanov, S. A. Kovalenko, and S. A. Sviridenkov, "Kinetics of emission spectra of multimode lasers and its influence on the sensitivity of intracavity laser spectroscopy," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 168–173 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. G. Bray, W. Henke, S. K. Liu, K. V. Reddy, and M. J. Berry, "Measurements of highly forbidden optical transition by intracavity cw dye laser spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 47, 213–218 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Atmanspacher, H. Sheingraber, and V. M. Baev, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering and dynamical instabilities in a multimode cw dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 35, 142–153 (1987).
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  23. Yu. M. Aivazyan, V. M. Baev, A. A. Kachanov, and S. A. Kovalenko, "Spontaneous oscillations of the spectrum of a multimode wide-band laser," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1133–1134 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  27. H. Atmanspacher, H. Sheingraber, and C. R. Vidal, "Dynamics of intracavity absorption," Phys. Rev. A 32, 254–267 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. L. A. Westling, M. G. Raymer, M. G. Sceats, and D. F. Coker, "Observation of intensity fluctuations and mode correlations in a broadband cw dye laser," Opt. Commun. 47, 212–217 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  29. H. Atmanspacher, H. Sheingraber, and C. R. Vidal, "Mode correlation times and dynamical instabilities in a multimode cw dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 33, 1052–1059 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. H. Atmanspacher and H. Sheingraber, "Deterministic chaos and dynamical instabilities in a multimode cw dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 34, 253–263 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. I. McMackin, C. Radzewicz, M. Beck, and M. Raymer, "Instabilities and chaos in a multimode, standing wave cw dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 38, 820–832 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. M. Beck, I. McMackin, and M. Raymer, "Transition from quantum noise-driven dynamics to deterministic dynamics in a multimode laser," Phys. Rev. A 40, 2410–2416 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  34. D. A. Gilmore, P. Vujkovic Cvijin, and G. H. Atkinson, "Intracavity absorption spectroscopy with a titanium:sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 77, 385–389 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  35. V. M. Baev and P. E. Toschek, "Sensitivity limits of laser intracavity spectroscopy," in Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. Shiff and U. Platt, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1715, 381–392 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  36. F. Biraben, "Efficacité des systèmes unidirectionnels utilisables dans les lasers en anneau," Opt. Commun. 29, 353–356 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  37. A. L. Bloom, "Modes of a laser resonator containing tilted birefringent plates," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 447–452 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
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  39. P. Mandel, M. Georgiou, K. Otsuka, and D. Pieroux, "Transient and modulation dynamics of a multimode Fabry–Perot laser," Opt. Commun. 100, 341–350 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  40. D. E. Spence, J. M. Evans, W. E. Sleat, and W. Sibbett, "Regeneratively initiated self-mode locked Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 16, 1762–1764 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, "Analytic theory of additive pulse and Kerr lens mode locking," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 2086–2096 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  42. V. M. Baev, J. Eschner, and A. Weiler, "Intracavity spectroscopy with modulated multimode lasers," Appl. Phys. B 49, 315–322 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

P. Mandel, M. Georgiou, K. Otsuka, and D. Pieroux, "Transient and modulation dynamics of a multimode Fabry–Perot laser," Opt. Commun. 100, 341–350 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Sierks, V. M. Baev, and P. E. Toschek, "Enhancement of the sensitivity of a multimode dye laser to intracavity absorption," Opt. Commun. 96, 436–444 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, "Analytic theory of additive pulse and Kerr lens mode locking," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 2086–2096 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Baev, J. Eschner, E. Paeth, R. Schüler, and P. E. Toschek, "Intra-cavity spectroscopy with diode lasers," Appl. Phys. B 55, 463–477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Vinogradov, A. A. Kachanov, S. A. Kovalenko, and E. A. Sviridenkov, "Nonlinear dynamics of a multimode dye laser with an adjustable resonator dispersion and implications for the sensitivity of in-resonator laser spectroscopy," JETP Lett. 55, 581–585 (1992).

1991 (2)

D. E. Spence, J. M. Evans, W. E. Sleat, and W. Sibbett, "Regeneratively initiated self-mode locked Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 16, 1762–1764 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Kovalenko, S. P. Semin, and D. D. Toptygin, "Influence of the Raman mode interaction on the lasing kinetics of a wide-band ring laser," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 407–411 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

D. A. Gilmore, P. Vujkovic Cvijin, and G. H. Atkinson, "Intracavity absorption spectroscopy with a titanium:sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 77, 385–389 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Baev, K.-J. Boller, J. Eschner, A. Weiler, and P. E. Toschek, "Dynamics of a multimode dye laser after light injection," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2181–2186 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (4)

V. M. Baev, J. Eschner, and A. Weiler, "Intracavity spectroscopy with modulated multimode lasers," Appl. Phys. B 49, 315–322 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Beck, I. McMackin, and M. Raymer, "Transition from quantum noise-driven dynamics to deterministic dynamics in a multimode laser," Phys. Rev. A 40, 2410–2416 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Kovalenko and S. P. Semin, "Combined influence of quantum fluctuations and spatial inhomogeneity on the dynamics of multimode lasers, and sensitivity of intracavity laser spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 71, 189–192 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kachanov, V. R. Mironenko, and I. K. Pashkovich, "Quantum threshold of the sensitivity of an intracavity traveling-wave laser spectrometer," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 95–98 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

I. McMackin, C. Radzewicz, M. Beck, and M. Raymer, "Instabilities and chaos in a multimode, standing wave cw dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 38, 820–832 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

H. Atmanspacher, H. Sheingraber, and V. M. Baev, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering and dynamical instabilities in a multimode cw dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 35, 142–153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu. M. Ajvasjan, V. M. Baev, V. V. Ivanov, S. A. Kovalenko, and S. A. Sviridenkov, "Kinetics of emission spectra of multimode lasers and its influence on the sensitivity of intracavity laser spectroscopy," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 168–173 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (3)

Yu. M. Aivazyan, V. M. Baev, A. A. Kachanov, and S. A. Kovalenko, "Spontaneous oscillations of the spectrum of a multimode wide-band laser," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1133–1134 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. Atmanspacher, H. Sheingraber, and C. R. Vidal, "Mode correlation times and dynamical instabilities in a multimode cw dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 33, 1052–1059 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Atmanspacher and H. Sheingraber, "Deterministic chaos and dynamical instabilities in a multimode cw dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 34, 253–263 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (3)

1983 (4)

L. A. Westling, M. G. Raymer, M. G. Sceats, and D. F. Coker, "Observation of intensity fluctuations and mode correlations in a broadband cw dye laser," Opt. Commun. 47, 212–217 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W. Brunner and H. Paul, "Regular and chaotic behavior of multi-mode gas lasers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 15, 87–94 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kachanov and T. V. Plakhotnik, "Intracavity spectrometer with a ring traveling-wave dye laser: reduction of detection limit," Opt. Commun. 46, 257–261 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Antonov, A. A. Kachanov, V. R. Mironenko, and T. V. Plakhotnik, "Dependence of the sensitivity of intracavity laser spectrometer on generation parameters," Opt. Commun. 46, 126–130 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

S. J. Harris and A. M. Weiner, "Continuous wave intracavity laser spectroscopy. II. A parametric study," J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3673–3679 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (4)

V. R. Mironenko, "Influence of spatial inversion-burnup inhomogeneities on the optimal position of the active medium in a laser for intracavity spectroscopy," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1203–1206 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Hill III, R. A. Abreu, T. W. Häansch, and A. L. Schawlow, "Sensitive intracavity absorption at reduced pressures," Opt. Commun. 32, 96–100 (1980).
[CrossRef]

P. Kumar, G. O. Brink, S. Spence, and H. S. Lakkaraju, "Line shape studies in cw dye laser intracavity absorption," Opt. Commun. 32, 129–132 (1980).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Baev, T. P. Belikova, S. A. Kovalenko, E. A. Sviridenkov, and A. F. Suchkov, "Transient processes manifested in the emission spectra of cw wide-band dye laser used for intracavity laser spectroscopy," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 517–519 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

F. Biraben, "Efficacité des systèmes unidirectionnels utilisables dans les lasers en anneau," Opt. Commun. 29, 353–356 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

V. M. Baev, I. P. Belikova, E. A. Sviridenkov, and A. F. Suchkov, "Intracavity laser spectroscopy with continuously and quasicontinuously operating lasers," Sov. Phys. JETP 47, 21–29 (1978).

1977 (1)

R. G. Bray, W. Henke, S. K. Liu, K. V. Reddy, and M. J. Berry, "Measurements of highly forbidden optical transition by intracavity cw dye laser spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 47, 213–218 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

1972 (1)

T. W. Hänsch, A. L. Schawlow, and P. E. Toschek, "Ultrasensitive response of a cw dye laser to selective extinction," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 802–804 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Abreu, R. A.

W. T. Hill III, R. A. Abreu, T. W. Häansch, and A. L. Schawlow, "Sensitive intracavity absorption at reduced pressures," Opt. Commun. 32, 96–100 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Aivazyan, Yu. M.

Yu. M. Aivazyan, V. M. Baev, A. A. Kachanov, and S. A. Kovalenko, "Spontaneous oscillations of the spectrum of a multimode wide-band laser," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1133–1134 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ajvasjan, Yu. M.

Yu. M. Ajvasjan, V. M. Baev, V. V. Ivanov, S. A. Kovalenko, and S. A. Sviridenkov, "Kinetics of emission spectra of multimode lasers and its influence on the sensitivity of intracavity laser spectroscopy," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 168–173 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Antonov, E. N.

E. N. Antonov, A. A. Kachanov, V. R. Mironenko, and T. V. Plakhotnik, "Dependence of the sensitivity of intracavity laser spectrometer on generation parameters," Opt. Commun. 46, 126–130 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, G. H.

D. A. Gilmore, P. Vujkovic Cvijin, and G. H. Atkinson, "Intracavity absorption spectroscopy with a titanium:sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 77, 385–389 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. Stoeckel and G. H. Atkinson, "Time evolution of a broadband quasi-cw dye laser: limitations of sensitivity in intracavity laser spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 24, 3591–3597 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Atmanspacher, H.

H. Atmanspacher, H. Sheingraber, and V. M. Baev, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering and dynamical instabilities in a multimode cw dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 35, 142–153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Atmanspacher, H. Sheingraber, and C. R. Vidal, "Mode correlation times and dynamical instabilities in a multimode cw dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 33, 1052–1059 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Atmanspacher and H. Sheingraber, "Deterministic chaos and dynamical instabilities in a multimode cw dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 34, 253–263 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Atmanspacher, H. Sheingraber, and C. R. Vidal, "Dynamics of intracavity absorption," Phys. Rev. A 32, 254–267 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baev, V. M.

J. Sierks, V. M. Baev, and P. E. Toschek, "Enhancement of the sensitivity of a multimode dye laser to intracavity absorption," Opt. Commun. 96, 436–444 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Baev, J. Eschner, E. Paeth, R. Schüler, and P. E. Toschek, "Intra-cavity spectroscopy with diode lasers," Appl. Phys. B 55, 463–477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Baev, K.-J. Boller, J. Eschner, A. Weiler, and P. E. Toschek, "Dynamics of a multimode dye laser after light injection," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2181–2186 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Baev, J. Eschner, and A. Weiler, "Intracavity spectroscopy with modulated multimode lasers," Appl. Phys. B 49, 315–322 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yu. M. Ajvasjan, V. M. Baev, V. V. Ivanov, S. A. Kovalenko, and S. A. Sviridenkov, "Kinetics of emission spectra of multimode lasers and its influence on the sensitivity of intracavity laser spectroscopy," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 168–173 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. Atmanspacher, H. Sheingraber, and V. M. Baev, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering and dynamical instabilities in a multimode cw dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 35, 142–153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu. M. Aivazyan, V. M. Baev, A. A. Kachanov, and S. A. Kovalenko, "Spontaneous oscillations of the spectrum of a multimode wide-band laser," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1133–1134 (1986).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Baev, T. P. Belikova, S. A. Kovalenko, E. A. Sviridenkov, and A. F. Suchkov, "Transient processes manifested in the emission spectra of cw wide-band dye laser used for intracavity laser spectroscopy," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 517–519 (1980).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Baev, I. P. Belikova, E. A. Sviridenkov, and A. F. Suchkov, "Intracavity laser spectroscopy with continuously and quasicontinuously operating lasers," Sov. Phys. JETP 47, 21–29 (1978).

V. M. Baev and P. E. Toschek, "Sensitivity limits of laser intracavity spectroscopy," in Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. Shiff and U. Platt, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1715, 381–392 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

M. Beck, I. McMackin, and M. Raymer, "Transition from quantum noise-driven dynamics to deterministic dynamics in a multimode laser," Phys. Rev. A 40, 2410–2416 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. McMackin, C. Radzewicz, M. Beck, and M. Raymer, "Instabilities and chaos in a multimode, standing wave cw dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 38, 820–832 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belikova, I. P.

V. M. Baev, I. P. Belikova, E. A. Sviridenkov, and A. F. Suchkov, "Intracavity laser spectroscopy with continuously and quasicontinuously operating lasers," Sov. Phys. JETP 47, 21–29 (1978).

Belikova, T. P.

V. M. Baev, T. P. Belikova, S. A. Kovalenko, E. A. Sviridenkov, and A. F. Suchkov, "Transient processes manifested in the emission spectra of cw wide-band dye laser used for intracavity laser spectroscopy," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 517–519 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Berry, M. J.

R. G. Bray, W. Henke, S. K. Liu, K. V. Reddy, and M. J. Berry, "Measurements of highly forbidden optical transition by intracavity cw dye laser spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 47, 213–218 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Biraben, F.

F. Biraben, "Efficacité des systèmes unidirectionnels utilisables dans les lasers en anneau," Opt. Commun. 29, 353–356 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bloom, A. L.

Boller, K.-J.

Bray, R. G.

R. G. Bray, W. Henke, S. K. Liu, K. V. Reddy, and M. J. Berry, "Measurements of highly forbidden optical transition by intracavity cw dye laser spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 47, 213–218 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Brink, G. O.

P. Kumar, G. O. Brink, S. Spence, and H. S. Lakkaraju, "Line shape studies in cw dye laser intracavity absorption," Opt. Commun. 32, 129–132 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Brunner, W.

W. Brunner and H. Paul, "Regular and chaotic behavior of multi-mode gas lasers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 15, 87–94 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Charvat, A.

Coker, D. F.

L. A. Westling, M. G. Raymer, M. G. Sceats, and D. F. Coker, "Observation of intensity fluctuations and mode correlations in a broadband cw dye laser," Opt. Commun. 47, 212–217 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Cvijin, P. Vujkovic

D. A. Gilmore, P. Vujkovic Cvijin, and G. H. Atkinson, "Intracavity absorption spectroscopy with a titanium:sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 77, 385–389 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Eschner, J.

V. M. Baev, J. Eschner, E. Paeth, R. Schüler, and P. E. Toschek, "Intra-cavity spectroscopy with diode lasers," Appl. Phys. B 55, 463–477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Baev, K.-J. Boller, J. Eschner, A. Weiler, and P. E. Toschek, "Dynamics of a multimode dye laser after light injection," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2181–2186 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Baev, J. Eschner, and A. Weiler, "Intracavity spectroscopy with modulated multimode lasers," Appl. Phys. B 49, 315–322 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Evans, J. M.

Fujimoto, J. G.

H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, "Analytic theory of additive pulse and Kerr lens mode locking," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 2086–2096 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Georgiou, M.

P. Mandel, M. Georgiou, K. Otsuka, and D. Pieroux, "Transient and modulation dynamics of a multimode Fabry–Perot laser," Opt. Commun. 100, 341–350 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gilmore, D. A.

D. A. Gilmore, P. Vujkovic Cvijin, and G. H. Atkinson, "Intracavity absorption spectroscopy with a titanium:sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 77, 385–389 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Häansch, T. W.

W. T. Hill III, T. W. Häansch, and A. L. Schawlow, "Intracavity absorption line profile: a comment on the observed symmetry," Appl. Opt. 24, 3718–3724 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Hill III, R. A. Abreu, T. W. Häansch, and A. L. Schawlow, "Sensitive intracavity absorption at reduced pressures," Opt. Commun. 32, 96–100 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. W. Hänsch, A. L. Schawlow, and P. E. Toschek, "Ultrasensitive response of a cw dye laser to selective extinction," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 802–804 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. J.

S. J. Harris and A. M. Weiner, "Continuous wave intracavity laser spectroscopy. II. A parametric study," J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3673–3679 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, "Analytic theory of additive pulse and Kerr lens mode locking," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 2086–2096 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Henke, W.

R. G. Bray, W. Henke, S. K. Liu, K. V. Reddy, and M. J. Berry, "Measurements of highly forbidden optical transition by intracavity cw dye laser spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 47, 213–218 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hill, W. T.

W. T. Hill III, T. W. Häansch, and A. L. Schawlow, "Intracavity absorption line profile: a comment on the observed symmetry," Appl. Opt. 24, 3718–3724 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Hill III, R. A. Abreu, T. W. Häansch, and A. L. Schawlow, "Sensitive intracavity absorption at reduced pressures," Opt. Commun. 32, 96–100 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, "Analytic theory of additive pulse and Kerr lens mode locking," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 2086–2096 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, V. V.

Yu. M. Ajvasjan, V. M. Baev, V. V. Ivanov, S. A. Kovalenko, and S. A. Sviridenkov, "Kinetics of emission spectra of multimode lasers and its influence on the sensitivity of intracavity laser spectroscopy," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 168–173 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kachanov, A.

Kachanov, A. A.

S. E. Vinogradov, A. A. Kachanov, S. A. Kovalenko, and E. A. Sviridenkov, "Nonlinear dynamics of a multimode dye laser with an adjustable resonator dispersion and implications for the sensitivity of in-resonator laser spectroscopy," JETP Lett. 55, 581–585 (1992).

A. A. Kachanov, V. R. Mironenko, and I. K. Pashkovich, "Quantum threshold of the sensitivity of an intracavity traveling-wave laser spectrometer," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 95–98 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yu. M. Aivazyan, V. M. Baev, A. A. Kachanov, and S. A. Kovalenko, "Spontaneous oscillations of the spectrum of a multimode wide-band laser," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1133–1134 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Antonov, A. A. Kachanov, V. R. Mironenko, and T. V. Plakhotnik, "Dependence of the sensitivity of intracavity laser spectrometer on generation parameters," Opt. Commun. 46, 126–130 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kachanov and T. V. Plakhotnik, "Intracavity spectrometer with a ring traveling-wave dye laser: reduction of detection limit," Opt. Commun. 46, 257–261 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kachanov, "Ultimate performance of the intracavity laser spectroscopy," Diss. Kand. Fiz. Mat. Nauk. Inst. Spektrosk. Russian Acad. Sci., April (1987).

Kaiser, W.

W. Kaiser and M. Maier, "Stimulated Rayleigh, Brillouin and Raman spectroscopy," in Laser Handbook, F. T. Arecchi and E. O. Schulz-Dubois, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1972), Vol. 2, pp. 1077–1150.

Kovalenko, S. A.

S. E. Vinogradov, A. A. Kachanov, S. A. Kovalenko, and E. A. Sviridenkov, "Nonlinear dynamics of a multimode dye laser with an adjustable resonator dispersion and implications for the sensitivity of in-resonator laser spectroscopy," JETP Lett. 55, 581–585 (1992).

S. A. Kovalenko, S. P. Semin, and D. D. Toptygin, "Influence of the Raman mode interaction on the lasing kinetics of a wide-band ring laser," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 407–411 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Kovalenko and S. P. Semin, "Combined influence of quantum fluctuations and spatial inhomogeneity on the dynamics of multimode lasers, and sensitivity of intracavity laser spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 71, 189–192 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yu. M. Ajvasjan, V. M. Baev, V. V. Ivanov, S. A. Kovalenko, and S. A. Sviridenkov, "Kinetics of emission spectra of multimode lasers and its influence on the sensitivity of intracavity laser spectroscopy," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 168–173 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yu. M. Aivazyan, V. M. Baev, A. A. Kachanov, and S. A. Kovalenko, "Spontaneous oscillations of the spectrum of a multimode wide-band laser," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1133–1134 (1986).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Baev, T. P. Belikova, S. A. Kovalenko, E. A. Sviridenkov, and A. F. Suchkov, "Transient processes manifested in the emission spectra of cw wide-band dye laser used for intracavity laser spectroscopy," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 517–519 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, P.

P. Kumar, G. O. Brink, S. Spence, and H. S. Lakkaraju, "Line shape studies in cw dye laser intracavity absorption," Opt. Commun. 32, 129–132 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lakkaraju, H. S.

P. Kumar, G. O. Brink, S. Spence, and H. S. Lakkaraju, "Line shape studies in cw dye laser intracavity absorption," Opt. Commun. 32, 129–132 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. K.

R. G. Bray, W. Henke, S. K. Liu, K. V. Reddy, and M. J. Berry, "Measurements of highly forbidden optical transition by intracavity cw dye laser spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 47, 213–218 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Maier, M.

W. Kaiser and M. Maier, "Stimulated Rayleigh, Brillouin and Raman spectroscopy," in Laser Handbook, F. T. Arecchi and E. O. Schulz-Dubois, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1972), Vol. 2, pp. 1077–1150.

Mandel, P.

P. Mandel, M. Georgiou, K. Otsuka, and D. Pieroux, "Transient and modulation dynamics of a multimode Fabry–Perot laser," Opt. Commun. 100, 341–350 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McMackin, I.

M. Beck, I. McMackin, and M. Raymer, "Transition from quantum noise-driven dynamics to deterministic dynamics in a multimode laser," Phys. Rev. A 40, 2410–2416 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. McMackin, C. Radzewicz, M. Beck, and M. Raymer, "Instabilities and chaos in a multimode, standing wave cw dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 38, 820–832 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mironenko, V. R.

A. A. Kachanov, V. R. Mironenko, and I. K. Pashkovich, "Quantum threshold of the sensitivity of an intracavity traveling-wave laser spectrometer," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 95–98 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Antonov, A. A. Kachanov, V. R. Mironenko, and T. V. Plakhotnik, "Dependence of the sensitivity of intracavity laser spectrometer on generation parameters," Opt. Commun. 46, 126–130 (1983).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Mironenko, "Influence of spatial inversion-burnup inhomogeneities on the optimal position of the active medium in a laser for intracavity spectroscopy," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1203–1206 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Otsuka, K.

P. Mandel, M. Georgiou, K. Otsuka, and D. Pieroux, "Transient and modulation dynamics of a multimode Fabry–Perot laser," Opt. Commun. 100, 341–350 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Paeth, E.

V. M. Baev, J. Eschner, E. Paeth, R. Schüler, and P. E. Toschek, "Intra-cavity spectroscopy with diode lasers," Appl. Phys. B 55, 463–477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pashkovich, I. K.

A. A. Kachanov, V. R. Mironenko, and I. K. Pashkovich, "Quantum threshold of the sensitivity of an intracavity traveling-wave laser spectrometer," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 95–98 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Paul, H.

W. Brunner and H. Paul, "Regular and chaotic behavior of multi-mode gas lasers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 15, 87–94 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Pieroux, D.

P. Mandel, M. Georgiou, K. Otsuka, and D. Pieroux, "Transient and modulation dynamics of a multimode Fabry–Perot laser," Opt. Commun. 100, 341–350 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Plakhotnik, T. V.

A. A. Kachanov and T. V. Plakhotnik, "Intracavity spectrometer with a ring traveling-wave dye laser: reduction of detection limit," Opt. Commun. 46, 257–261 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Antonov, A. A. Kachanov, V. R. Mironenko, and T. V. Plakhotnik, "Dependence of the sensitivity of intracavity laser spectrometer on generation parameters," Opt. Commun. 46, 126–130 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Radzewicz, C.

I. McMackin, C. Radzewicz, M. Beck, and M. Raymer, "Instabilities and chaos in a multimode, standing wave cw dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 38, 820–832 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raymer, M.

M. Beck, I. McMackin, and M. Raymer, "Transition from quantum noise-driven dynamics to deterministic dynamics in a multimode laser," Phys. Rev. A 40, 2410–2416 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. McMackin, C. Radzewicz, M. Beck, and M. Raymer, "Instabilities and chaos in a multimode, standing wave cw dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 38, 820–832 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raymer, M. G.

L. A. Westling, M. G. Raymer, M. G. Sceats, and D. F. Coker, "Observation of intensity fluctuations and mode correlations in a broadband cw dye laser," Opt. Commun. 47, 212–217 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Reddy, K. V.

R. G. Bray, W. Henke, S. K. Liu, K. V. Reddy, and M. J. Berry, "Measurements of highly forbidden optical transition by intracavity cw dye laser spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 47, 213–218 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sceats, M. G.

L. A. Westling, M. G. Raymer, M. G. Sceats, and D. F. Coker, "Observation of intensity fluctuations and mode correlations in a broadband cw dye laser," Opt. Commun. 47, 212–217 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Schawlow, A. L.

W. T. Hill III, T. W. Häansch, and A. L. Schawlow, "Intracavity absorption line profile: a comment on the observed symmetry," Appl. Opt. 24, 3718–3724 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Hill III, R. A. Abreu, T. W. Häansch, and A. L. Schawlow, "Sensitive intracavity absorption at reduced pressures," Opt. Commun. 32, 96–100 (1980).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Hänsch, A. L. Schawlow, and P. E. Toschek, "Ultrasensitive response of a cw dye laser to selective extinction," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 802–804 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Schüler, R.

V. M. Baev, J. Eschner, E. Paeth, R. Schüler, and P. E. Toschek, "Intra-cavity spectroscopy with diode lasers," Appl. Phys. B 55, 463–477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Semin, S. P.

S. A. Kovalenko, S. P. Semin, and D. D. Toptygin, "Influence of the Raman mode interaction on the lasing kinetics of a wide-band ring laser," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 407–411 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Kovalenko and S. P. Semin, "Combined influence of quantum fluctuations and spatial inhomogeneity on the dynamics of multimode lasers, and sensitivity of intracavity laser spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 71, 189–192 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sheingraber, H.

H. Atmanspacher, H. Sheingraber, and V. M. Baev, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering and dynamical instabilities in a multimode cw dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 35, 142–153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Atmanspacher, H. Sheingraber, and C. R. Vidal, "Mode correlation times and dynamical instabilities in a multimode cw dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 33, 1052–1059 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Atmanspacher and H. Sheingraber, "Deterministic chaos and dynamical instabilities in a multimode cw dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 34, 253–263 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Atmanspacher, H. Sheingraber, and C. R. Vidal, "Dynamics of intracavity absorption," Phys. Rev. A 32, 254–267 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sibbett, W.

Sierks, J.

J. Sierks, V. M. Baev, and P. E. Toschek, "Enhancement of the sensitivity of a multimode dye laser to intracavity absorption," Opt. Commun. 96, 436–444 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sleat, W. E.

Spence, D. E.

Spence, S.

P. Kumar, G. O. Brink, S. Spence, and H. S. Lakkaraju, "Line shape studies in cw dye laser intracavity absorption," Opt. Commun. 32, 129–132 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Stoeckel, F.

Suchkov, A. F.

V. M. Baev, T. P. Belikova, S. A. Kovalenko, E. A. Sviridenkov, and A. F. Suchkov, "Transient processes manifested in the emission spectra of cw wide-band dye laser used for intracavity laser spectroscopy," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 517–519 (1980).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Baev, I. P. Belikova, E. A. Sviridenkov, and A. F. Suchkov, "Intracavity laser spectroscopy with continuously and quasicontinuously operating lasers," Sov. Phys. JETP 47, 21–29 (1978).

Sviridenkov, E. A.

S. E. Vinogradov, A. A. Kachanov, S. A. Kovalenko, and E. A. Sviridenkov, "Nonlinear dynamics of a multimode dye laser with an adjustable resonator dispersion and implications for the sensitivity of in-resonator laser spectroscopy," JETP Lett. 55, 581–585 (1992).

V. M. Baev, T. P. Belikova, S. A. Kovalenko, E. A. Sviridenkov, and A. F. Suchkov, "Transient processes manifested in the emission spectra of cw wide-band dye laser used for intracavity laser spectroscopy," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 517–519 (1980).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Baev, I. P. Belikova, E. A. Sviridenkov, and A. F. Suchkov, "Intracavity laser spectroscopy with continuously and quasicontinuously operating lasers," Sov. Phys. JETP 47, 21–29 (1978).

Sviridenkov, S. A.

Yu. M. Ajvasjan, V. M. Baev, V. V. Ivanov, S. A. Kovalenko, and S. A. Sviridenkov, "Kinetics of emission spectra of multimode lasers and its influence on the sensitivity of intracavity laser spectroscopy," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 168–173 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Toptygin, D. D.

S. A. Kovalenko, S. P. Semin, and D. D. Toptygin, "Influence of the Raman mode interaction on the lasing kinetics of a wide-band ring laser," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 407–411 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Toschek, P. E.

J. Sierks, V. M. Baev, and P. E. Toschek, "Enhancement of the sensitivity of a multimode dye laser to intracavity absorption," Opt. Commun. 96, 436–444 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Baev, J. Eschner, E. Paeth, R. Schüler, and P. E. Toschek, "Intra-cavity spectroscopy with diode lasers," Appl. Phys. B 55, 463–477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Baev, K.-J. Boller, J. Eschner, A. Weiler, and P. E. Toschek, "Dynamics of a multimode dye laser after light injection," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2181–2186 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Hänsch, A. L. Schawlow, and P. E. Toschek, "Ultrasensitive response of a cw dye laser to selective extinction," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 802–804 (1972).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Baev and P. E. Toschek, "Sensitivity limits of laser intracavity spectroscopy," in Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. Shiff and U. Platt, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1715, 381–392 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vidal, C. R.

H. Atmanspacher, H. Sheingraber, and C. R. Vidal, "Mode correlation times and dynamical instabilities in a multimode cw dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 33, 1052–1059 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Atmanspacher, H. Sheingraber, and C. R. Vidal, "Dynamics of intracavity absorption," Phys. Rev. A 32, 254–267 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vinogradov, S. E.

S. E. Vinogradov, A. A. Kachanov, S. A. Kovalenko, and E. A. Sviridenkov, "Nonlinear dynamics of a multimode dye laser with an adjustable resonator dispersion and implications for the sensitivity of in-resonator laser spectroscopy," JETP Lett. 55, 581–585 (1992).

Weiler, A.

V. M. Baev, K.-J. Boller, J. Eschner, A. Weiler, and P. E. Toschek, "Dynamics of a multimode dye laser after light injection," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2181–2186 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Baev, J. Eschner, and A. Weiler, "Intracavity spectroscopy with modulated multimode lasers," Appl. Phys. B 49, 315–322 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

S. J. Harris and A. M. Weiner, "Continuous wave intracavity laser spectroscopy. II. A parametric study," J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3673–3679 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Westling, L. A.

L. A. Westling, M. G. Raymer, M. G. Sceats, and D. F. Coker, "Observation of intensity fluctuations and mode correlations in a broadband cw dye laser," Opt. Commun. 47, 212–217 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

V. M. Baev, J. Eschner, E. Paeth, R. Schüler, and P. E. Toschek, "Intra-cavity spectroscopy with diode lasers," Appl. Phys. B 55, 463–477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Baev, J. Eschner, and A. Weiler, "Intracavity spectroscopy with modulated multimode lasers," Appl. Phys. B 49, 315–322 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. G. Bray, W. Henke, S. K. Liu, K. V. Reddy, and M. J. Berry, "Measurements of highly forbidden optical transition by intracavity cw dye laser spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 47, 213–218 (1977).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

T. W. Hänsch, A. L. Schawlow, and P. E. Toschek, "Ultrasensitive response of a cw dye laser to selective extinction," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 802–804 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, "Analytic theory of additive pulse and Kerr lens mode locking," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 2086–2096 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

S. J. Harris and A. M. Weiner, "Continuous wave intracavity laser spectroscopy. II. A parametric study," J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3673–3679 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

JETP Lett. (1)

S. E. Vinogradov, A. A. Kachanov, S. A. Kovalenko, and E. A. Sviridenkov, "Nonlinear dynamics of a multimode dye laser with an adjustable resonator dispersion and implications for the sensitivity of in-resonator laser spectroscopy," JETP Lett. 55, 581–585 (1992).

Opt. Commun. (10)

J. Sierks, V. M. Baev, and P. E. Toschek, "Enhancement of the sensitivity of a multimode dye laser to intracavity absorption," Opt. Commun. 96, 436–444 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Westling, M. G. Raymer, M. G. Sceats, and D. F. Coker, "Observation of intensity fluctuations and mode correlations in a broadband cw dye laser," Opt. Commun. 47, 212–217 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Gilmore, P. Vujkovic Cvijin, and G. H. Atkinson, "Intracavity absorption spectroscopy with a titanium:sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 77, 385–389 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. Biraben, "Efficacité des systèmes unidirectionnels utilisables dans les lasers en anneau," Opt. Commun. 29, 353–356 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Kovalenko and S. P. Semin, "Combined influence of quantum fluctuations and spatial inhomogeneity on the dynamics of multimode lasers, and sensitivity of intracavity laser spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 71, 189–192 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kachanov and T. V. Plakhotnik, "Intracavity spectrometer with a ring traveling-wave dye laser: reduction of detection limit," Opt. Commun. 46, 257–261 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Hill III, R. A. Abreu, T. W. Häansch, and A. L. Schawlow, "Sensitive intracavity absorption at reduced pressures," Opt. Commun. 32, 96–100 (1980).
[CrossRef]

P. Kumar, G. O. Brink, S. Spence, and H. S. Lakkaraju, "Line shape studies in cw dye laser intracavity absorption," Opt. Commun. 32, 129–132 (1980).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Antonov, A. A. Kachanov, V. R. Mironenko, and T. V. Plakhotnik, "Dependence of the sensitivity of intracavity laser spectrometer on generation parameters," Opt. Commun. 46, 126–130 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. Mandel, M. Georgiou, K. Otsuka, and D. Pieroux, "Transient and modulation dynamics of a multimode Fabry–Perot laser," Opt. Commun. 100, 341–350 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Brunner and H. Paul, "Regular and chaotic behavior of multi-mode gas lasers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 15, 87–94 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (6)

H. Atmanspacher, H. Sheingraber, and V. M. Baev, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering and dynamical instabilities in a multimode cw dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 35, 142–153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Atmanspacher, H. Sheingraber, and C. R. Vidal, "Mode correlation times and dynamical instabilities in a multimode cw dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 33, 1052–1059 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Atmanspacher and H. Sheingraber, "Deterministic chaos and dynamical instabilities in a multimode cw dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 34, 253–263 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. McMackin, C. Radzewicz, M. Beck, and M. Raymer, "Instabilities and chaos in a multimode, standing wave cw dye laser," Phys. Rev. A 38, 820–832 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Beck, I. McMackin, and M. Raymer, "Transition from quantum noise-driven dynamics to deterministic dynamics in a multimode laser," Phys. Rev. A 40, 2410–2416 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Atmanspacher, H. Sheingraber, and C. R. Vidal, "Dynamics of intracavity absorption," Phys. Rev. A 32, 254–267 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (6)

S. A. Kovalenko, S. P. Semin, and D. D. Toptygin, "Influence of the Raman mode interaction on the lasing kinetics of a wide-band ring laser," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 407–411 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Baev, T. P. Belikova, S. A. Kovalenko, E. A. Sviridenkov, and A. F. Suchkov, "Transient processes manifested in the emission spectra of cw wide-band dye laser used for intracavity laser spectroscopy," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 517–519 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Yu. M. Aivazyan, V. M. Baev, A. A. Kachanov, and S. A. Kovalenko, "Spontaneous oscillations of the spectrum of a multimode wide-band laser," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1133–1134 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yu. M. Ajvasjan, V. M. Baev, V. V. Ivanov, S. A. Kovalenko, and S. A. Sviridenkov, "Kinetics of emission spectra of multimode lasers and its influence on the sensitivity of intracavity laser spectroscopy," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 168–173 (1987).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Mironenko, "Influence of spatial inversion-burnup inhomogeneities on the optimal position of the active medium in a laser for intracavity spectroscopy," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1203–1206 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kachanov, V. R. Mironenko, and I. K. Pashkovich, "Quantum threshold of the sensitivity of an intracavity traveling-wave laser spectrometer," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 95–98 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

V. M. Baev, I. P. Belikova, E. A. Sviridenkov, and A. F. Suchkov, "Intracavity laser spectroscopy with continuously and quasicontinuously operating lasers," Sov. Phys. JETP 47, 21–29 (1978).

Other (5)

We assume here for simplicity that the absorbing medium occupies all the cavity of the laser. If it is enclosed in a cell, the value received from Eq. (1) has to be multiplied by the ratio of the cell length to the cavity length (filling ratio).

We will often refer to the equations from Ref. 1 in this paper. In this case we will add the prefix P1 to the equation number from Ref. 1.

W. Kaiser and M. Maier, "Stimulated Rayleigh, Brillouin and Raman spectroscopy," in Laser Handbook, F. T. Arecchi and E. O. Schulz-Dubois, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1972), Vol. 2, pp. 1077–1150.

V. M. Baev and P. E. Toschek, "Sensitivity limits of laser intracavity spectroscopy," in Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. Shiff and U. Platt, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1715, 381–392 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kachanov, "Ultimate performance of the intracavity laser spectroscopy," Diss. Kand. Fiz. Mat. Nauk. Inst. Spektrosk. Russian Acad. Sci., April (1987).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dependence of the relative absorbance in a standing-wave laser for a group of atmospheric-water-vapor lines near 780 nm (12 815 cm − 1) on the generation time for two values of the pump parameter, η = 1.2 and η = 2.0.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wavelength dependence of the losses in the ring cavity for cw and ccw waves.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Examples of ICLAS spectra for two different generation times near 804 nm (12 425 cm− 1).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized absorbance of two different weak atmospheric-water absorption lines (intensities k1 and k2) versus the generation time tg in a unidirectional ring laser with pump parameter η = P/Pth = 1.8. The absorbance is a linear function of the generation time (the equivalent path length Leq = ctg) at least until 3 ms.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Generation-time dependence of the spectral width of the ring laser for two values of the pump parameter, η = 1.1 and η = 1.6. The slanted dashed line shows the square-root dependence for an ideal laser. The horizontal dashed line shows a stationary width of the spectrum. The point of intersection of the two lines gives an estimate of τNL ≈ 120 ms.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated spatial distribution of the deviations of the intracavity total intensity from its average value Iint near the Ti:sapphire crystal with and without the effect of SHB. The initial distribution of photons in the cavity is smooth.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Same as Fig. 5, except that the initial distribution of photons in the cavity is jagged because of the quantum noise. Note that the deviations are 104 times higher.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Three typical fast oscilloscope traces of the total output power of the SW Ti:sapphire laser that demonstrate different amplitudes of the Kerr-lens-induced modulation on the intermode frequency.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Characteristic Values for a Dye Laser and a Solid-State Laser

Equations (6)

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ζ = intracavity absorbance single‐pass absorbance = α q c t g α q L
ζ max sp = ( η 1 ) 2 w 0 4 32 σ 0 2 Γ 2 τ 2 c 2 ln [ R 1 ( 1 T 1 ) 2 ] .
d d t b q ( t ) = [ g γ q g M s n ξ q n n | b n ( t ) | 2 ] b q ( t ) g M s j , j n n , n q ξ q n j b n ( t ) b j * ( t ) b q n + j ( t ) + F q ( t ) ,
ξ q n j = C q n j [ A A + i ( ω n ω q ) + δ n j ] ,
τ SHB T c [ Q / ( 1 1 / η ) ] 2 / 3 ,
I ( z ) = ½ ( 1 Re { exp [ j ( 4 π / λ m 0 ) z ] × m I m exp [ j m ( 2 π / L ) z } ) ,

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