Abstract

Formation mechanisms of self-pumped phase conjugation (SPPC) in two BaTiO3:Ce crystals with different doping concentrations have been experimentally studied. The pump beam was from dye lasers, with an overall tunable wavelength region lying between 570 and 680 nm. Variations of the optical beam path patterns as well as reflectivity of the phase conjugators with respect to the incident angle, the incident position, and the wavelength of the pump were investigated in two configurations. One configuration corresponds to that in which the pump enters an a face of the crystal; the other to that in which the pump enters the +c face of the crystal. It was found that SPPC is sometimes established in a way similar to that of a cat phase conjugator, but usually without the formation of a clear beam path loop. Sometimes SPPC is established by a stimulated photorefractive backscattering and four-wave mixing mechanism. In these cases, however, the crystal corners as well as the scattering centers on the crystal faces usually play an important role by seeding the stimulated photorefractive backscattering processes. In other cases SPPC is established by both the cat and the stimulated photorefractive backscattering and four-wave mixing mechanisms.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fisher, J. O. White, and A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 12 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Yeh, A. E. Chiou, J. Hong, P. Beckwith, T. Chang, and M. Khoshnevisan, Opt. Eng. 28, 328 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Fainman, C. C. Guest, and S. H. Lee, Appl. Opt. 25, 1598 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. B. Whitten and J. M. Ramsey, Opt. Lett. 9, 44 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Feinberg and G. D. Bacher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 570 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. C. Jahoda, P. G. Weber, and J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 9, 362 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 8, 569 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. H. Soffer, G. J. Dunning, Y. Owchenko, and E. Marom, Opt. Lett. 11, 118 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 7, 486 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. R. MacDonald and J. Feinberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 548 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Y. Chang and R. W. Hellwarth, Opt. Lett. 10, 408 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. W. Lian, H. Gao, P. X. Ye, Q. C. Guan, and J. Y. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1745 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. W. Lian, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, C. Yang, and P. X. Ye, Opt. Lett. 19, 610 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  17. D. D. Wang, Z. X. Zhang, Y. Zhu, S. M. Zhang, and P. X. Ye, Opt. Commun. 73, 495 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. See, e.g., P. G. Schunemann, D. A. Temple, R. S. Hathcock, H. L. Tuller, H. P. Jenssen, D. R. Gabbe, and C. Warde, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1685 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  20. See, e.g., M. H. Garrett, J. Y. Chang, H. P. Jenssen, and C. Warde, Opt. Lett. 17, 103 (1992); 18, 405 (1993).
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  21. C. Yang, Y. Zhu, M. Hui, X. Niu, H. Liu, and X. Wu, Opt. Commun. 109, 318 (1994).
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  24. M. D. Ewbank, R. R. Neurgaonkar, and W. K. Cory, J. Appl. Phys. 62, 374 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. V. Nowak, T. R. Moore, and R. A. Fisher, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1864 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. A. Mullen, D. J. Vickers, L. West, and D. M. Pepper, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1726 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. A. Vazquez, R. R. Neurgaonkar, and M. D. Ewbank, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1416 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

Albers, J.

P. Gunter, E. Voit, M. Z. Zha, and J. Albers, Opt. Commun. 55, 210 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bacher, G. D.

J. Feinberg and G. D. Bacher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 570 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Beckwith, P.

P. Yeh, A. E. Chiou, J. Hong, P. Beckwith, T. Chang, and M. Khoshnevisan, Opt. Eng. 28, 328 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J. Y.

See, e.g., M. H. Garrett, J. Y. Chang, H. P. Jenssen, and C. Warde, Opt. Lett. 17, 103 (1992); 18, 405 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, T.

P. Yeh, A. E. Chiou, J. Hong, P. Beckwith, T. Chang, and M. Khoshnevisan, Opt. Eng. 28, 328 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T. Y.

P. Yeh, T. Y. Chang, and M. D. Ewbank, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1743 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Chang and R. W. Hellwarth, Opt. Lett. 10, 408 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiou, A. E.

P. Yeh, A. E. Chiou, J. Hong, P. Beckwith, T. Chang, and M. Khoshnevisan, Opt. Eng. 28, 328 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cory, W. K.

M. D. Ewbank, R. R. Neurgaonkar, and W. K. Cory, J. Appl. Phys. 62, 374 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cronin-Golomb, M.

M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fisher, J. O. White, and A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 12 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Dou, S. X.

Y. W. Lian, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, C. Yang, and P. X. Ye, Opt. Lett. 19, 610 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunning, G. J.

B. H. Soffer, G. J. Dunning, Y. Owchenko, and E. Marom, Opt. Lett. 11, 118 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ewbank, M. D.

M. D. Ewbank, R. R. Neurgaonkar, and W. K. Cory, J. Appl. Phys. 62, 374 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Vazquez, R. R. Neurgaonkar, and M. D. Ewbank, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1416 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Yeh, T. Y. Chang, and M. D. Ewbank, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1743 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

Y. Fainman, C. C. Guest, and S. H. Lee, Appl. Opt. 25, 1598 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, and S. H. Lee, Appl. Opt. 28, 4808 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feinberg, J.

K. R. MacDonald and J. Feinberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 548 (1983).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Jahoda, P. G. Weber, and J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 9, 362 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 7, 486 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Feinberg and G. D. Bacher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 570 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Feinberg, D. Heiman, A. R. Tanguay, and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1297 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 8, 569 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisher, B.

M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fisher, J. O. White, and A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 12 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, R. A.

A. V. Nowak, T. R. Moore, and R. A. Fisher, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1864 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ford, J. E.

J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, and S. H. Lee, Appl. Opt. 28, 4808 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabbe, D. R.

See, e.g., P. G. Schunemann, D. A. Temple, R. S. Hathcock, H. L. Tuller, H. P. Jenssen, D. R. Gabbe, and C. Warde, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1685 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

Y. W. Lian, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, C. Yang, and P. X. Ye, Opt. Lett. 19, 610 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. W. Lian, H. Gao, P. X. Ye, Q. C. Guan, and J. Y. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1745 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, M. H.

See, e.g., M. H. Garrett, J. Y. Chang, H. P. Jenssen, and C. Warde, Opt. Lett. 17, 103 (1992); 18, 405 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gower, M. C.

M. C. Gower and P. Hribek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1750 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Guan, Q. C.

Y. W. Lian, H. Gao, P. X. Ye, Q. C. Guan, and J. Y. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1745 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Guest, C. C.

Y. Fainman, C. C. Guest, and S. H. Lee, Appl. Opt. 25, 1598 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gunter, P.

P. Gunter, E. Voit, M. Z. Zha, and J. Albers, Opt. Commun. 55, 210 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hathcock, R. S.

See, e.g., P. G. Schunemann, D. A. Temple, R. S. Hathcock, H. L. Tuller, H. P. Jenssen, D. R. Gabbe, and C. Warde, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1685 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Heiman, D.

J. Feinberg, D. Heiman, A. R. Tanguay, and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1297 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hellwarth, R. W.

T. Y. Chang and R. W. Hellwarth, Opt. Lett. 10, 408 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Feinberg, D. Heiman, A. R. Tanguay, and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1297 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hong, J.

P. Yeh, A. E. Chiou, J. Hong, P. Beckwith, T. Chang, and M. Khoshnevisan, Opt. Eng. 28, 328 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hribek, P.

M. C. Gower and P. Hribek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1750 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hui, M.

C. Yang, Y. Zhu, M. Hui, X. Niu, H. Liu, and X. Wu, Opt. Commun. 109, 318 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jahoda, F. C.

F. C. Jahoda, P. G. Weber, and J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 9, 362 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jenssen, H. P.

See, e.g., M. H. Garrett, J. Y. Chang, H. P. Jenssen, and C. Warde, Opt. Lett. 17, 103 (1992); 18, 405 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

See, e.g., P. G. Schunemann, D. A. Temple, R. S. Hathcock, H. L. Tuller, H. P. Jenssen, D. R. Gabbe, and C. Warde, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1685 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Khoshnevisan, M.

P. Yeh, A. E. Chiou, J. Hong, P. Beckwith, T. Chang, and M. Khoshnevisan, Opt. Eng. 28, 328 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, and S. H. Lee, Appl. Opt. 28, 4808 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fainman, C. C. Guest, and S. H. Lee, Appl. Opt. 25, 1598 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lian, Y. W.

Y. W. Lian, H. Gao, P. X. Ye, Q. C. Guan, and J. Y. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1745 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Lian, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, C. Yang, and P. X. Ye, Opt. Lett. 19, 610 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

C. Yang, Y. Zhu, M. Hui, X. Niu, H. Liu, and X. Wu, Opt. Commun. 109, 318 (1994).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, K. R.

K. R. MacDonald and J. Feinberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 548 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Marom, E.

B. H. Soffer, G. J. Dunning, Y. Owchenko, and E. Marom, Opt. Lett. 11, 118 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Moore, T. R.

A. V. Nowak, T. R. Moore, and R. A. Fisher, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1864 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mullen, R. A.

R. A. Mullen, D. J. Vickers, L. West, and D. M. Pepper, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1726 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

R. A. Vazquez, R. R. Neurgaonkar, and M. D. Ewbank, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1416 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Ewbank, R. R. Neurgaonkar, and W. K. Cory, J. Appl. Phys. 62, 374 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Niu, X.

C. Yang, Y. Zhu, M. Hui, X. Niu, H. Liu, and X. Wu, Opt. Commun. 109, 318 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nowak, A. V.

A. V. Nowak, T. R. Moore, and R. A. Fisher, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1864 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Owchenko, Y.

B. H. Soffer, G. J. Dunning, Y. Owchenko, and E. Marom, Opt. Lett. 11, 118 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, D. M.

R. A. Mullen, D. J. Vickers, L. West, and D. M. Pepper, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1726 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ramsey, J. M.

W. B. Whitten and J. M. Ramsey, Opt. Lett. 9, 44 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schunemann, P. G.

See, e.g., P. G. Schunemann, D. A. Temple, R. S. Hathcock, H. L. Tuller, H. P. Jenssen, D. R. Gabbe, and C. Warde, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1685 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Soffer, B. H.

B. H. Soffer, G. J. Dunning, Y. Owchenko, and E. Marom, Opt. Lett. 11, 118 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tanguay, A. R.

J. Feinberg, D. Heiman, A. R. Tanguay, and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1297 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Temple, D. A.

See, e.g., P. G. Schunemann, D. A. Temple, R. S. Hathcock, H. L. Tuller, H. P. Jenssen, D. R. Gabbe, and C. Warde, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1685 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tuller, H. L.

See, e.g., P. G. Schunemann, D. A. Temple, R. S. Hathcock, H. L. Tuller, H. P. Jenssen, D. R. Gabbe, and C. Warde, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1685 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Vazquez, R. A.

R. A. Vazquez, R. R. Neurgaonkar, and M. D. Ewbank, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1416 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vickers, D. J.

R. A. Mullen, D. J. Vickers, L. West, and D. M. Pepper, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1726 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Voit, E.

P. Gunter, E. Voit, M. Z. Zha, and J. Albers, Opt. Commun. 55, 210 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. D.

D. D. Wang, Z. X. Zhang, Y. Zhu, S. M. Zhang, and P. X. Ye, Opt. Commun. 73, 495 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. Y.

Y. W. Lian, H. Gao, P. X. Ye, Q. C. Guan, and J. Y. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1745 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Warde, C.

See, e.g., M. H. Garrett, J. Y. Chang, H. P. Jenssen, and C. Warde, Opt. Lett. 17, 103 (1992); 18, 405 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

See, e.g., P. G. Schunemann, D. A. Temple, R. S. Hathcock, H. L. Tuller, H. P. Jenssen, D. R. Gabbe, and C. Warde, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1685 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Weber, P. G.

F. C. Jahoda, P. G. Weber, and J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 9, 362 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

West, L.

R. A. Mullen, D. J. Vickers, L. West, and D. M. Pepper, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1726 (1992).
[CrossRef]

White, J. O.

M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fisher, J. O. White, and A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 12 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Whitten, W. B.

W. B. Whitten and J. M. Ramsey, Opt. Lett. 9, 44 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

Y. W. Lian, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, C. Yang, and P. X. Ye, Opt. Lett. 19, 610 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yang, Y. Zhu, M. Hui, X. Niu, H. Liu, and X. Wu, Opt. Commun. 109, 318 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

C. Yang, Y. Zhu, M. Hui, X. Niu, H. Liu, and X. Wu, Opt. Commun. 109, 318 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Lian, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, C. Yang, and P. X. Ye, Opt. Lett. 19, 610 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yariv, A.

M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fisher, J. O. White, and A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 12 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ye, P. X.

Y. W. Lian, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, C. Yang, and P. X. Ye, Opt. Lett. 19, 610 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. W. Lian, H. Gao, P. X. Ye, Q. C. Guan, and J. Y. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1745 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Wang, Z. X. Zhang, Y. Zhu, S. M. Zhang, and P. X. Ye, Opt. Commun. 73, 495 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, A. E. Chiou, J. Hong, P. Beckwith, T. Chang, and M. Khoshnevisan, Opt. Eng. 28, 328 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Yeh, T. Y. Chang, and M. D. Ewbank, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1743 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zha, M. Z.

P. Gunter, E. Voit, M. Z. Zha, and J. Albers, Opt. Commun. 55, 210 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. M.

D. D. Wang, Z. X. Zhang, Y. Zhu, S. M. Zhang, and P. X. Ye, Opt. Commun. 73, 495 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. X.

D. D. Wang, Z. X. Zhang, Y. Zhu, S. M. Zhang, and P. X. Ye, Opt. Commun. 73, 495 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

D. D. Wang, Z. X. Zhang, Y. Zhu, S. M. Zhang, and P. X. Ye, Opt. Commun. 73, 495 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Lian, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, C. Yang, and P. X. Ye, Opt. Lett. 19, 610 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yang, Y. Zhu, M. Hui, X. Niu, H. Liu, and X. Wu, Opt. Commun. 109, 318 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (27)

P. Günter and J.-P. Huignard, eds., Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I and II (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fisher, J. O. White, and A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 12 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. Yeh, A. E. Chiou, J. Hong, P. Beckwith, T. Chang, and M. Khoshnevisan, Opt. Eng. 28, 328 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fainman, C. C. Guest, and S. H. Lee, Appl. Opt. 25, 1598 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Whitten and J. M. Ramsey, Opt. Lett. 9, 44 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Feinberg and G. D. Bacher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 570 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Jahoda, P. G. Weber, and J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 9, 362 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 8, 569 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Soffer, G. J. Dunning, Y. Owchenko, and E. Marom, Opt. Lett. 11, 118 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 7, 486 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. MacDonald and J. Feinberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 548 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Chang and R. W. Hellwarth, Opt. Lett. 10, 408 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. W. Lian, H. Gao, P. X. Ye, Q. C. Guan, and J. Y. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1745 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Lian, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, C. Yang, and P. X. Ye, Opt. Lett. 19, 610 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Feinberg, D. Heiman, A. R. Tanguay, and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1297 (1980).
[CrossRef]

P. Yeh, T. Y. Chang, and M. D. Ewbank, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1743 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Wang, Z. X. Zhang, Y. Zhu, S. M. Zhang, and P. X. Ye, Opt. Commun. 73, 495 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, and S. H. Lee, Appl. Opt. 28, 4808 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

See, e.g., P. G. Schunemann, D. A. Temple, R. S. Hathcock, H. L. Tuller, H. P. Jenssen, D. R. Gabbe, and C. Warde, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1685 (1988).
[CrossRef]

See, e.g., M. H. Garrett, J. Y. Chang, H. P. Jenssen, and C. Warde, Opt. Lett. 17, 103 (1992); 18, 405 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yang, Y. Zhu, M. Hui, X. Niu, H. Liu, and X. Wu, Opt. Commun. 109, 318 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Gower and P. Hribek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1750 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Gunter, E. Voit, M. Z. Zha, and J. Albers, Opt. Commun. 55, 210 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Ewbank, R. R. Neurgaonkar, and W. K. Cory, J. Appl. Phys. 62, 374 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Nowak, T. R. Moore, and R. A. Fisher, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1864 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Mullen, D. J. Vickers, L. West, and D. M. Pepper, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1726 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Vazquez, R. R. Neurgaonkar, and M. D. Ewbank, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1416 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental configurations used in the experiments. The pump is incident upon (a) an a face of the crystal, (b) the 1c face of the crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical optical beam patterns observed at different θ in the 5 parts in 106 phase conjugator with a-face-incidence configuration at 570 nm. X = 4.5 mm (the total crystal length is 6.8 mm). (a) θ = 32°, (b) θ = 47°, (c) θ = 56°, (d) θ = 72°.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Same as Fig. 2, but at 620 nm. X = 4.5 mm. (a) θ = 28°, (b) θ = 43°, (c) θ = 57°, (d) θ = 77°.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

R as a function of θ at different λ in the phase conjugators with a-face-incidence configuration. (a) 5 parts in 106 phase conjugator, X = 4.5 mm. (b) 15 parts in 106 phase conjugator, X = 4.8 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

R as a function of X at different λ in the phase conjugators with a-face-incidence configuration. (a) 5 parts in 106 phase conjugator. (b) 15 parts in 106 phase conjugator.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Typical optical beam patterns observed at different λ in the 5 parts in 106 phase conjugator with a-face-incidence configuration at θ = 61°, X = 4.8 mm. (a) λ = 570 nm, (b) λ = 600 nm, (c) λ = 630 nm, (d) λ = 680 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

R as a function of λ in different phase conjugators (a) 5 parts in 106 phase conjugator with a-face-incidence configuration (θ = 61°, X = 4.8 mm) and +c-face-incidence configuration [θ = 33°, X = 3.4 mm (the total width of the crystal is 6.20 mm)]. (b) 15 parts in 106 phase conjugator with a-face-incidence configuration [θ = 64°, X = 4.2 mm (the total length of the 15 parts in 106 sample is 7.47 mm)].

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Typical optical beam patterns observed at different X in the 5 parts in 106 phase conjugator with +c-face-incidence configuration [see Fig. 1(b)] at 620 nm. θ is 33°. (a) X = 1.7 mm, (b) X = 2.8 mm, (c) X = 3.7 mm, (d) X = 5.2 mm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Same as Fig. 8, but at 680 nm. The pump incident position X is (a) 1.4 mm, (b) 2.4 mm, (c) 3.3 mm, (d) 5.9 mm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

R as a function of X at 620 and 680 nm in the 5 parts in 106 phase conjugator with +c-face-incidence configuration. θ = 33°.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Typical optical beam patterns observed at different θ in the 15 parts in 106 conjugator with a-face-incidence configuration at 680 nm. X is 4.8 mm. (a) θ = 35°, (b) θ = 45°, (c) θ = 51°, (d) θ = 61°.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Beam patterns observed at different λ in the 15 parts in 106 phase conjugator with a-face-incidence configuration at θ = 64°, X = 4.2 mm. (a) λ = 570 nm, (b) λ = 620 nm, (c) λ = 650 nm, (d) λ = 680 nm.

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