Abstract

We applied nonlinear interferometry of coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) to measure the nonresonant third-order susceptibilities of various gases. Using argon as an internal calibration standard, we determined the effective nonresonant susceptibilities of acetylene, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen, oxygen, propane, carbon monoxide, Freon, and hydrogen from the amplitudes of the interference fringes of the CARS signals generated in the two gas cells. The electronic susceptibility was calculated by subtracting the offresonant term of each molecule from the measured effective nonresonant susceptibility, and the results of this work are compared with the published data. The overall uncertainty is estimated to be less than 5%.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. R. Regnier and J. P. E. Taran, "On the possibility of measuring gas concentrations by stimulated anti-Stokes scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 240–242 (1973).
  2. W. B. Rho, P. W. Schreibre, and J. P. E. Taran, "Singlepulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 174–176 (1976).
  3. I. A. Stenhouse, D. R. Williams, J. B. Cole, and M. D. Swords, "CARS measurements in an internal combustion engine," Appl. Opt. 18, 3819–3825 (1979).
  4. W. M. Tolles, J. W. Nibler, J. R. McDonald, and A. B. Harvey, "A review of the theory and application of coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 31, 253–271 (1977).
  5. L. A. Rahn, S. C. Johnston, R. L. Farrow, and P. L. Mattern, "CARS thermometry in an internal combustion engine," in Temperature, Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, J. F. Schooley, ed. (Instrument Society of America, Pittsburgh, 1982), Vol. 5, Part 1, pp. 609–613.
  6. A. C. Eckbreth, G. M. Dobbs, J. H. Stufflebeam, and P. A. Tellex, "CARS temperature and species measurements in augmented jet engine exhausts," Appl. Opt. 23, 1328–1339 (1984).
  7. G. L. Switzer, W. M. Roquemore, R. B. Bradley, P. W. Schreiber, and W. B. Rho, "CARS measurements in a bluffbody stabilized diffusion flame," Appl. Opt. 18, 2343–2345 (1979).
  8. D. A. Greenhalgh, F. M. Porter, and W. A. England, "The application of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering to turbulent combustion thermometry," Combust. Flame 49, 171–181 (1983).
  9. W. A. England, J. M. Milne, S. N. Jenny, and D. A. Greenhalgh, "Application of CARS to an operating chemical reactor," Appl. Spectrosc. 38, 867–875 (1984).
  10. D. A. Klick, K. A. Marko, and L. Rimai, "Broadband singlepulse CARS spectra in a fired internal combustion engine," Appl. Opt. 20, 1178–1181 (1981).
  11. S. A. J. Druet and J. P. E. Taran, "CARS spectroscopy," Prog. Quantum Electron. 7, 1–72 (1981).
  12. J. W. Nibler and G. V. Knighten, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," in Raman Spectroscopy of Gases and Liquids, A. Weber, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), pp. 253–299.
  13. R. J. Hall and A. C. Eckbreth, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS): Application to combustion diagnostics," in Laser Applications, J. F. Ready and R. K. Erf, eds. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1984), Vol. 5, pp. 213–309.
  14. R. L. Farrow, R. P. Lucht, G. L. Clark, and R. E. Palmer, "Species concentration measurements using CARS with nonresonant susceptibility normalization," Appl. Opt. 24, 2241–2251 (1985).
  15. R. L. Farrow and L. A. Rahn, "Interpreting coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectra measured with multimode Nd:YAG pump lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 903–907 (1985).
  16. M. Alden and W. Wendt, "Application of CARS spectroscopy to the detection of SO2," Appl. Spectrosc. 42, 1421–1426 (1988).
  17. J. W. Hahn, S. N. Park, E. S. Lee, C. Rhee, K. T. Kang, S. H. Chung, C. Y. Choi, and Y. D. Huh, "Measuring the concentration of minor species from the modulation dip of the nonresonant background of broadband CARS spectra," Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 710–714 (1993).
  18. J. Chang, J. Ducuing, and N. Bloembergen, "Relative phase measurement between fundamental and second-harmonic light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 6–8 (1965).
  19. Y. Yacoby, R. Fitzgibbon, and B. Lax, "Coherent cancellation of background in four-wave mixing spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3072–3077 (1980).
  20. G. Marowsky and G. Lupke, "CARS-background suppression by phase-controlled nonlinear interferometry," Appl. Phys. B 51, 49–51 (1990).
  21. W. G. Rado, "The nonlinear third-order dielectric susceptibility coefficients of gases and optical third-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 123–125 (1967).
  22. T. Lundeen, S. Y. Hou, and J. W. Nibler, "Nonresonant thirdorder susceptibilities for various gases," J. Chem. Phys. 79, 6301–6305 (1983).
  23. G. J. Rosasco and W. S. Hurst, "Measurement of resonant and nonresonant third-order nonlinear susceptibilities by coherent Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 32, 281–299 (1985).
  24. S. La and L. E. Harris, "Relative value of the third-order nonresonant susceptibility of water," Appl. Opt. 25, 4501–4503 (1986).
  25. R. L. Farrow, R. P. Lucht, and L. A. Rahn, "Measurements of the nonresonant third-order susceptibilities of gases using coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1241–1246 (1987).
  26. J. F. Ward and C. K. Miller, "Measurements of nonlinear optical polarizabilities for twelve small molecules," Phys. Rev. A 19, 826–833 (1979).
  27. D. Heiman, R. W. Hellwarth, M. D. Levenson, and G. Martin, "Raman-induced Kerr effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 189–192 (1976).
  28. G. J. Rosasco and W. S. Hurst, "Dispersion of the electronic contribution to the third-order nonlinear susceptibility of H2," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1251–1256 (1986).
  29. E. S. Lee, J. W. Hahn, S. N. Park, and C. Rhee, "Study on the interference of nonlinear-optical signals," J. Korean Opt. Soc. 3, 239–243 (1992).
  30. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975), pp. 87–90.
  31. J. W. Hahn, S. N. Park, E. S. Lee, and C. Rhee, "Construction and performance test of a coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectrometer," Korean J. Appl. Phys. 4, 314–320 (1991).
  32. A. C. Eckbreth, "BOXCARS: Cross-beam phase-matched CARS generation in gases," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 421–423 (1978).
  33. J. W. Hahn, S. N. Park, and C. Rhee, "Fabry–Perot wavemeter for shot-by-shot analysis of pulsed lasers," Appl. Opt. 32, 1095–1099 (1993).
  34. H. W. Schrotter and H. W. Klockner, "Raman scattering cross sections in gases and liquids," in Raman Spectroscopy of Gases and Liquids, A. Weber, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), pp. 123–166.
  35. J. Martin, "Raman intensities of propane in the gas phase," J. Raman Spectrosc. 16, 139–142 (1985).
  36. M. G. Littman and H. J. Metcalf, "Spectral narrow pulsed dye laser without beam expander," Appl. Opt. 17, 2224–2227 (1978).
  37. R. E. Palmer, "The CARSFIT computer code for calculating coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectra: user and programmer information," Sandia National Laboratories Rep. SAND89–8206.UC–13, 20 (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Calif., 1989).
  38. G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure, II. Infrared and Raman Spectra of Polyatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1945), p. 276, pp. 370–372, pp. 394–395.
  39. W. L. Barnes, J. Susskind, R. H. Hunt, and E. K. Plyler, "Measurement and analysis of the v3 band of methane," J. Chem. Phys. 56, 5160–5172 (1972).
  40. S. N. Suchard and J. E. Melzer, Spectroscopic Data (Information for Industry/Plenum, New York, 1976), Vol. 2, pp. 435–462.
  41. K. H. Hellwege, Landolt–Bornstein Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Group II: Atomic and Molecular Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), Vol. 14, pp. 2–148
  42. D. P. Shelton and J. E. Rice, "Measurements and calculations of the hyperpolarizabilities of atoms and small molecules in the gas phase," Chem. Rev. 94, 3–29 (1994).
  43. B. Lange and J. Wolfrum, "The impact of laser field statistics in determination of temperature and concentration by multiple USED CARS," Appl. Phys. B 51, 53–58 (1990).

1994 (1)

D. P. Shelton and J. E. Rice, "Measurements and calculations of the hyperpolarizabilities of atoms and small molecules in the gas phase," Chem. Rev. 94, 3–29 (1994).

1993 (2)

1992 (1)

E. S. Lee, J. W. Hahn, S. N. Park, and C. Rhee, "Study on the interference of nonlinear-optical signals," J. Korean Opt. Soc. 3, 239–243 (1992).

1991 (1)

J. W. Hahn, S. N. Park, E. S. Lee, and C. Rhee, "Construction and performance test of a coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectrometer," Korean J. Appl. Phys. 4, 314–320 (1991).

1990 (2)

B. Lange and J. Wolfrum, "The impact of laser field statistics in determination of temperature and concentration by multiple USED CARS," Appl. Phys. B 51, 53–58 (1990).

G. Marowsky and G. Lupke, "CARS-background suppression by phase-controlled nonlinear interferometry," Appl. Phys. B 51, 49–51 (1990).

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

1986 (2)

1985 (4)

R. L. Farrow, R. P. Lucht, G. L. Clark, and R. E. Palmer, "Species concentration measurements using CARS with nonresonant susceptibility normalization," Appl. Opt. 24, 2241–2251 (1985).

R. L. Farrow and L. A. Rahn, "Interpreting coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectra measured with multimode Nd:YAG pump lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 903–907 (1985).

J. Martin, "Raman intensities of propane in the gas phase," J. Raman Spectrosc. 16, 139–142 (1985).

G. J. Rosasco and W. S. Hurst, "Measurement of resonant and nonresonant third-order nonlinear susceptibilities by coherent Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 32, 281–299 (1985).

1984 (2)

1983 (2)

T. Lundeen, S. Y. Hou, and J. W. Nibler, "Nonresonant thirdorder susceptibilities for various gases," J. Chem. Phys. 79, 6301–6305 (1983).

D. A. Greenhalgh, F. M. Porter, and W. A. England, "The application of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering to turbulent combustion thermometry," Combust. Flame 49, 171–181 (1983).

1981 (2)

1980 (1)

Y. Yacoby, R. Fitzgibbon, and B. Lax, "Coherent cancellation of background in four-wave mixing spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3072–3077 (1980).

1979 (3)

1978 (2)

M. G. Littman and H. J. Metcalf, "Spectral narrow pulsed dye laser without beam expander," Appl. Opt. 17, 2224–2227 (1978).

A. C. Eckbreth, "BOXCARS: Cross-beam phase-matched CARS generation in gases," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 421–423 (1978).

1977 (1)

1976 (2)

D. Heiman, R. W. Hellwarth, M. D. Levenson, and G. Martin, "Raman-induced Kerr effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 189–192 (1976).

W. B. Rho, P. W. Schreibre, and J. P. E. Taran, "Singlepulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 174–176 (1976).

1973 (1)

P. R. Regnier and J. P. E. Taran, "On the possibility of measuring gas concentrations by stimulated anti-Stokes scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 240–242 (1973).

1972 (1)

W. L. Barnes, J. Susskind, R. H. Hunt, and E. K. Plyler, "Measurement and analysis of the v3 band of methane," J. Chem. Phys. 56, 5160–5172 (1972).

1967 (1)

W. G. Rado, "The nonlinear third-order dielectric susceptibility coefficients of gases and optical third-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 123–125 (1967).

1965 (1)

J. Chang, J. Ducuing, and N. Bloembergen, "Relative phase measurement between fundamental and second-harmonic light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 6–8 (1965).

Alden, M.

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, J. Susskind, R. H. Hunt, and E. K. Plyler, "Measurement and analysis of the v3 band of methane," J. Chem. Phys. 56, 5160–5172 (1972).

Bloembergen, N.

J. Chang, J. Ducuing, and N. Bloembergen, "Relative phase measurement between fundamental and second-harmonic light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 6–8 (1965).

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975), pp. 87–90.

Bradley, R. B.

Chang, J.

J. Chang, J. Ducuing, and N. Bloembergen, "Relative phase measurement between fundamental and second-harmonic light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 6–8 (1965).

Choi, C. Y.

Chung, S. H.

Clark, G. L.

Cole, J. B.

Dobbs, G. M.

Druet, S. A. J.

S. A. J. Druet and J. P. E. Taran, "CARS spectroscopy," Prog. Quantum Electron. 7, 1–72 (1981).

Ducuing, J.

J. Chang, J. Ducuing, and N. Bloembergen, "Relative phase measurement between fundamental and second-harmonic light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 6–8 (1965).

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, G. M. Dobbs, J. H. Stufflebeam, and P. A. Tellex, "CARS temperature and species measurements in augmented jet engine exhausts," Appl. Opt. 23, 1328–1339 (1984).

A. C. Eckbreth, "BOXCARS: Cross-beam phase-matched CARS generation in gases," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 421–423 (1978).

R. J. Hall and A. C. Eckbreth, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS): Application to combustion diagnostics," in Laser Applications, J. F. Ready and R. K. Erf, eds. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1984), Vol. 5, pp. 213–309.

England, W. A.

W. A. England, J. M. Milne, S. N. Jenny, and D. A. Greenhalgh, "Application of CARS to an operating chemical reactor," Appl. Spectrosc. 38, 867–875 (1984).

D. A. Greenhalgh, F. M. Porter, and W. A. England, "The application of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering to turbulent combustion thermometry," Combust. Flame 49, 171–181 (1983).

Farrow, R. L.

Fitzgibbon, R.

Y. Yacoby, R. Fitzgibbon, and B. Lax, "Coherent cancellation of background in four-wave mixing spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3072–3077 (1980).

Greenhalgh, D. A.

W. A. England, J. M. Milne, S. N. Jenny, and D. A. Greenhalgh, "Application of CARS to an operating chemical reactor," Appl. Spectrosc. 38, 867–875 (1984).

D. A. Greenhalgh, F. M. Porter, and W. A. England, "The application of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering to turbulent combustion thermometry," Combust. Flame 49, 171–181 (1983).

Hahn, J. W.

J. W. Hahn, S. N. Park, E. S. Lee, C. Rhee, K. T. Kang, S. H. Chung, C. Y. Choi, and Y. D. Huh, "Measuring the concentration of minor species from the modulation dip of the nonresonant background of broadband CARS spectra," Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 710–714 (1993).

J. W. Hahn, S. N. Park, and C. Rhee, "Fabry–Perot wavemeter for shot-by-shot analysis of pulsed lasers," Appl. Opt. 32, 1095–1099 (1993).

E. S. Lee, J. W. Hahn, S. N. Park, and C. Rhee, "Study on the interference of nonlinear-optical signals," J. Korean Opt. Soc. 3, 239–243 (1992).

J. W. Hahn, S. N. Park, E. S. Lee, and C. Rhee, "Construction and performance test of a coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectrometer," Korean J. Appl. Phys. 4, 314–320 (1991).

Hall, R. J.

R. J. Hall and A. C. Eckbreth, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS): Application to combustion diagnostics," in Laser Applications, J. F. Ready and R. K. Erf, eds. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1984), Vol. 5, pp. 213–309.

Harris, L. E.

Harvey, A. B.

Heiman, D.

D. Heiman, R. W. Hellwarth, M. D. Levenson, and G. Martin, "Raman-induced Kerr effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 189–192 (1976).

Hellwarth, R. W.

D. Heiman, R. W. Hellwarth, M. D. Levenson, and G. Martin, "Raman-induced Kerr effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 189–192 (1976).

Hellwege, K. H.

K. H. Hellwege, Landolt–Bornstein Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Group II: Atomic and Molecular Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), Vol. 14, pp. 2–148

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure, II. Infrared and Raman Spectra of Polyatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1945), p. 276, pp. 370–372, pp. 394–395.

Hou, S. Y.

T. Lundeen, S. Y. Hou, and J. W. Nibler, "Nonresonant thirdorder susceptibilities for various gases," J. Chem. Phys. 79, 6301–6305 (1983).

Huh, Y. D.

Hunt, R. H.

W. L. Barnes, J. Susskind, R. H. Hunt, and E. K. Plyler, "Measurement and analysis of the v3 band of methane," J. Chem. Phys. 56, 5160–5172 (1972).

Hurst, W. S.

G. J. Rosasco and W. S. Hurst, "Dispersion of the electronic contribution to the third-order nonlinear susceptibility of H2," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1251–1256 (1986).

G. J. Rosasco and W. S. Hurst, "Measurement of resonant and nonresonant third-order nonlinear susceptibilities by coherent Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 32, 281–299 (1985).

Jenny, S. N.

Johnston, S. C.

L. A. Rahn, S. C. Johnston, R. L. Farrow, and P. L. Mattern, "CARS thermometry in an internal combustion engine," in Temperature, Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, J. F. Schooley, ed. (Instrument Society of America, Pittsburgh, 1982), Vol. 5, Part 1, pp. 609–613.

Kang, K. T.

Klick, D. A.

Klockner, H. W.

H. W. Schrotter and H. W. Klockner, "Raman scattering cross sections in gases and liquids," in Raman Spectroscopy of Gases and Liquids, A. Weber, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), pp. 123–166.

Knighten, G. V.

J. W. Nibler and G. V. Knighten, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," in Raman Spectroscopy of Gases and Liquids, A. Weber, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), pp. 253–299.

La, S.

Lange, B.

B. Lange and J. Wolfrum, "The impact of laser field statistics in determination of temperature and concentration by multiple USED CARS," Appl. Phys. B 51, 53–58 (1990).

Lax, B.

Y. Yacoby, R. Fitzgibbon, and B. Lax, "Coherent cancellation of background in four-wave mixing spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3072–3077 (1980).

Lee, E. S.

J. W. Hahn, S. N. Park, E. S. Lee, C. Rhee, K. T. Kang, S. H. Chung, C. Y. Choi, and Y. D. Huh, "Measuring the concentration of minor species from the modulation dip of the nonresonant background of broadband CARS spectra," Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 710–714 (1993).

E. S. Lee, J. W. Hahn, S. N. Park, and C. Rhee, "Study on the interference of nonlinear-optical signals," J. Korean Opt. Soc. 3, 239–243 (1992).

J. W. Hahn, S. N. Park, E. S. Lee, and C. Rhee, "Construction and performance test of a coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectrometer," Korean J. Appl. Phys. 4, 314–320 (1991).

Levenson, M. D.

D. Heiman, R. W. Hellwarth, M. D. Levenson, and G. Martin, "Raman-induced Kerr effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 189–192 (1976).

Littman, M. G.

Lucht, R. P.

Lundeen, T.

T. Lundeen, S. Y. Hou, and J. W. Nibler, "Nonresonant thirdorder susceptibilities for various gases," J. Chem. Phys. 79, 6301–6305 (1983).

Lupke, G.

G. Marowsky and G. Lupke, "CARS-background suppression by phase-controlled nonlinear interferometry," Appl. Phys. B 51, 49–51 (1990).

Marko, K. A.

Marowsky, G.

G. Marowsky and G. Lupke, "CARS-background suppression by phase-controlled nonlinear interferometry," Appl. Phys. B 51, 49–51 (1990).

Martin, G.

D. Heiman, R. W. Hellwarth, M. D. Levenson, and G. Martin, "Raman-induced Kerr effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 189–192 (1976).

Martin, J.

J. Martin, "Raman intensities of propane in the gas phase," J. Raman Spectrosc. 16, 139–142 (1985).

Mattern, P. L.

L. A. Rahn, S. C. Johnston, R. L. Farrow, and P. L. Mattern, "CARS thermometry in an internal combustion engine," in Temperature, Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, J. F. Schooley, ed. (Instrument Society of America, Pittsburgh, 1982), Vol. 5, Part 1, pp. 609–613.

McDonald, J. R.

Melzer, J. E.

S. N. Suchard and J. E. Melzer, Spectroscopic Data (Information for Industry/Plenum, New York, 1976), Vol. 2, pp. 435–462.

Metcalf, H. J.

Miller, C. K.

J. F. Ward and C. K. Miller, "Measurements of nonlinear optical polarizabilities for twelve small molecules," Phys. Rev. A 19, 826–833 (1979).

Milne, J. M.

Nibler, J. W.

T. Lundeen, S. Y. Hou, and J. W. Nibler, "Nonresonant thirdorder susceptibilities for various gases," J. Chem. Phys. 79, 6301–6305 (1983).

W. M. Tolles, J. W. Nibler, J. R. McDonald, and A. B. Harvey, "A review of the theory and application of coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 31, 253–271 (1977).

J. W. Nibler and G. V. Knighten, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," in Raman Spectroscopy of Gases and Liquids, A. Weber, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), pp. 253–299.

Palmer, R. E.

R. L. Farrow, R. P. Lucht, G. L. Clark, and R. E. Palmer, "Species concentration measurements using CARS with nonresonant susceptibility normalization," Appl. Opt. 24, 2241–2251 (1985).

R. E. Palmer, "The CARSFIT computer code for calculating coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectra: user and programmer information," Sandia National Laboratories Rep. SAND89–8206.UC–13, 20 (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Calif., 1989).

Park, S. N.

J. W. Hahn, S. N. Park, and C. Rhee, "Fabry–Perot wavemeter for shot-by-shot analysis of pulsed lasers," Appl. Opt. 32, 1095–1099 (1993).

J. W. Hahn, S. N. Park, E. S. Lee, C. Rhee, K. T. Kang, S. H. Chung, C. Y. Choi, and Y. D. Huh, "Measuring the concentration of minor species from the modulation dip of the nonresonant background of broadband CARS spectra," Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 710–714 (1993).

E. S. Lee, J. W. Hahn, S. N. Park, and C. Rhee, "Study on the interference of nonlinear-optical signals," J. Korean Opt. Soc. 3, 239–243 (1992).

J. W. Hahn, S. N. Park, E. S. Lee, and C. Rhee, "Construction and performance test of a coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectrometer," Korean J. Appl. Phys. 4, 314–320 (1991).

Plyler, E. K.

W. L. Barnes, J. Susskind, R. H. Hunt, and E. K. Plyler, "Measurement and analysis of the v3 band of methane," J. Chem. Phys. 56, 5160–5172 (1972).

Porter, F. M.

D. A. Greenhalgh, F. M. Porter, and W. A. England, "The application of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering to turbulent combustion thermometry," Combust. Flame 49, 171–181 (1983).

Rado, W. G.

W. G. Rado, "The nonlinear third-order dielectric susceptibility coefficients of gases and optical third-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 123–125 (1967).

Rahn, L. A.

R. L. Farrow, R. P. Lucht, and L. A. Rahn, "Measurements of the nonresonant third-order susceptibilities of gases using coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1241–1246 (1987).

R. L. Farrow and L. A. Rahn, "Interpreting coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectra measured with multimode Nd:YAG pump lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 903–907 (1985).

L. A. Rahn, S. C. Johnston, R. L. Farrow, and P. L. Mattern, "CARS thermometry in an internal combustion engine," in Temperature, Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, J. F. Schooley, ed. (Instrument Society of America, Pittsburgh, 1982), Vol. 5, Part 1, pp. 609–613.

Regnier, P. R.

P. R. Regnier and J. P. E. Taran, "On the possibility of measuring gas concentrations by stimulated anti-Stokes scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 240–242 (1973).

Rhee, C.

J. W. Hahn, S. N. Park, and C. Rhee, "Fabry–Perot wavemeter for shot-by-shot analysis of pulsed lasers," Appl. Opt. 32, 1095–1099 (1993).

J. W. Hahn, S. N. Park, E. S. Lee, C. Rhee, K. T. Kang, S. H. Chung, C. Y. Choi, and Y. D. Huh, "Measuring the concentration of minor species from the modulation dip of the nonresonant background of broadband CARS spectra," Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 710–714 (1993).

E. S. Lee, J. W. Hahn, S. N. Park, and C. Rhee, "Study on the interference of nonlinear-optical signals," J. Korean Opt. Soc. 3, 239–243 (1992).

J. W. Hahn, S. N. Park, E. S. Lee, and C. Rhee, "Construction and performance test of a coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectrometer," Korean J. Appl. Phys. 4, 314–320 (1991).

Rho, W. B.

G. L. Switzer, W. M. Roquemore, R. B. Bradley, P. W. Schreiber, and W. B. Rho, "CARS measurements in a bluffbody stabilized diffusion flame," Appl. Opt. 18, 2343–2345 (1979).

W. B. Rho, P. W. Schreibre, and J. P. E. Taran, "Singlepulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 174–176 (1976).

Rice, J. E.

D. P. Shelton and J. E. Rice, "Measurements and calculations of the hyperpolarizabilities of atoms and small molecules in the gas phase," Chem. Rev. 94, 3–29 (1994).

Rimai, L.

Roquemore, W. M.

Rosasco, G. J.

G. J. Rosasco and W. S. Hurst, "Dispersion of the electronic contribution to the third-order nonlinear susceptibility of H2," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1251–1256 (1986).

G. J. Rosasco and W. S. Hurst, "Measurement of resonant and nonresonant third-order nonlinear susceptibilities by coherent Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 32, 281–299 (1985).

Schreiber, P. W.

Schreibre, P. W.

W. B. Rho, P. W. Schreibre, and J. P. E. Taran, "Singlepulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 174–176 (1976).

Schrotter, H. W.

H. W. Schrotter and H. W. Klockner, "Raman scattering cross sections in gases and liquids," in Raman Spectroscopy of Gases and Liquids, A. Weber, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), pp. 123–166.

Shelton, D. P.

D. P. Shelton and J. E. Rice, "Measurements and calculations of the hyperpolarizabilities of atoms and small molecules in the gas phase," Chem. Rev. 94, 3–29 (1994).

Stenhouse, I. A.

Stufflebeam, J. H.

Suchard, S. N.

S. N. Suchard and J. E. Melzer, Spectroscopic Data (Information for Industry/Plenum, New York, 1976), Vol. 2, pp. 435–462.

Susskind, J.

W. L. Barnes, J. Susskind, R. H. Hunt, and E. K. Plyler, "Measurement and analysis of the v3 band of methane," J. Chem. Phys. 56, 5160–5172 (1972).

Switzer, G. L.

Swords, M. D.

Taran, J. P. E.

S. A. J. Druet and J. P. E. Taran, "CARS spectroscopy," Prog. Quantum Electron. 7, 1–72 (1981).

W. B. Rho, P. W. Schreibre, and J. P. E. Taran, "Singlepulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 174–176 (1976).

P. R. Regnier and J. P. E. Taran, "On the possibility of measuring gas concentrations by stimulated anti-Stokes scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 240–242 (1973).

Tellex, P. A.

Tolles, W. M.

Ward, J. F.

J. F. Ward and C. K. Miller, "Measurements of nonlinear optical polarizabilities for twelve small molecules," Phys. Rev. A 19, 826–833 (1979).

Wendt, W.

Williams, D. R.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975), pp. 87–90.

Wolfrum, J.

B. Lange and J. Wolfrum, "The impact of laser field statistics in determination of temperature and concentration by multiple USED CARS," Appl. Phys. B 51, 53–58 (1990).

Yacoby, Y.

Y. Yacoby, R. Fitzgibbon, and B. Lax, "Coherent cancellation of background in four-wave mixing spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3072–3077 (1980).

Appl. Opt. (8)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

B. Lange and J. Wolfrum, "The impact of laser field statistics in determination of temperature and concentration by multiple USED CARS," Appl. Phys. B 51, 53–58 (1990).

G. Marowsky and G. Lupke, "CARS-background suppression by phase-controlled nonlinear interferometry," Appl. Phys. B 51, 49–51 (1990).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

W. G. Rado, "The nonlinear third-order dielectric susceptibility coefficients of gases and optical third-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 123–125 (1967).

A. C. Eckbreth, "BOXCARS: Cross-beam phase-matched CARS generation in gases," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 421–423 (1978).

P. R. Regnier and J. P. E. Taran, "On the possibility of measuring gas concentrations by stimulated anti-Stokes scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 240–242 (1973).

W. B. Rho, P. W. Schreibre, and J. P. E. Taran, "Singlepulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 174–176 (1976).

Appl. Spectrosc. (4)

Chem. Rev. (1)

D. P. Shelton and J. E. Rice, "Measurements and calculations of the hyperpolarizabilities of atoms and small molecules in the gas phase," Chem. Rev. 94, 3–29 (1994).

Combust. Flame (1)

D. A. Greenhalgh, F. M. Porter, and W. A. England, "The application of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering to turbulent combustion thermometry," Combust. Flame 49, 171–181 (1983).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Yacoby, R. Fitzgibbon, and B. Lax, "Coherent cancellation of background in four-wave mixing spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3072–3077 (1980).

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

T. Lundeen, S. Y. Hou, and J. W. Nibler, "Nonresonant thirdorder susceptibilities for various gases," J. Chem. Phys. 79, 6301–6305 (1983).

W. L. Barnes, J. Susskind, R. H. Hunt, and E. K. Plyler, "Measurement and analysis of the v3 band of methane," J. Chem. Phys. 56, 5160–5172 (1972).

J. Korean Opt. Soc. (1)

E. S. Lee, J. W. Hahn, S. N. Park, and C. Rhee, "Study on the interference of nonlinear-optical signals," J. Korean Opt. Soc. 3, 239–243 (1992).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

J. Martin, "Raman intensities of propane in the gas phase," J. Raman Spectrosc. 16, 139–142 (1985).

Korean J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. W. Hahn, S. N. Park, E. S. Lee, and C. Rhee, "Construction and performance test of a coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectrometer," Korean J. Appl. Phys. 4, 314–320 (1991).

Phys. Rev. A (2)

G. J. Rosasco and W. S. Hurst, "Measurement of resonant and nonresonant third-order nonlinear susceptibilities by coherent Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 32, 281–299 (1985).

J. F. Ward and C. K. Miller, "Measurements of nonlinear optical polarizabilities for twelve small molecules," Phys. Rev. A 19, 826–833 (1979).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

D. Heiman, R. W. Hellwarth, M. D. Levenson, and G. Martin, "Raman-induced Kerr effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 189–192 (1976).

J. Chang, J. Ducuing, and N. Bloembergen, "Relative phase measurement between fundamental and second-harmonic light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 6–8 (1965).

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. A. J. Druet and J. P. E. Taran, "CARS spectroscopy," Prog. Quantum Electron. 7, 1–72 (1981).

Other (9)

J. W. Nibler and G. V. Knighten, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," in Raman Spectroscopy of Gases and Liquids, A. Weber, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), pp. 253–299.

R. J. Hall and A. C. Eckbreth, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS): Application to combustion diagnostics," in Laser Applications, J. F. Ready and R. K. Erf, eds. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1984), Vol. 5, pp. 213–309.

L. A. Rahn, S. C. Johnston, R. L. Farrow, and P. L. Mattern, "CARS thermometry in an internal combustion engine," in Temperature, Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, J. F. Schooley, ed. (Instrument Society of America, Pittsburgh, 1982), Vol. 5, Part 1, pp. 609–613.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975), pp. 87–90.

R. E. Palmer, "The CARSFIT computer code for calculating coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectra: user and programmer information," Sandia National Laboratories Rep. SAND89–8206.UC–13, 20 (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Calif., 1989).

G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure, II. Infrared and Raman Spectra of Polyatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1945), p. 276, pp. 370–372, pp. 394–395.

S. N. Suchard and J. E. Melzer, Spectroscopic Data (Information for Industry/Plenum, New York, 1976), Vol. 2, pp. 435–462.

K. H. Hellwege, Landolt–Bornstein Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Group II: Atomic and Molecular Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), Vol. 14, pp. 2–148

H. W. Schrotter and H. W. Klockner, "Raman scattering cross sections in gases and liquids," in Raman Spectroscopy of Gases and Liquids, A. Weber, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), pp. 123–166.

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