Abstract

Continuous-wave power performance of a chromium-doped YAG laser pumped by a Nd:YAG laser is investigated as a function of crystal temperature, output coupling transmission, and emission wavelength. Using a 2%-transmitting output coupler, we obtained as much as 1.9 W of cw output power at 1.45 μm with an absorbed power slope efficiency of 42% when the gain medium was cooled at 3°C. Using the laser efficiency data, we estimated the emission and excited-state absorption cross sections at 1.45 μm and compared them with the previously reported values.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  3. M. L. Shand and S. T. Lai, "Cw laser pumped emerald laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 105–108 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, H. W. Newkirk, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, "LiCaAlF6:Cr 3: a promising new solid-state laser material," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2243–2252 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and H. W. Newkirk, "Laser performance of LiSrAlF6Cr3+," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 1051–1056 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Struve, G. Huber, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, and E. V. Zharikov, "Tunable room-temperature cw laser action in Cr3+:GdScGa-garnet," Appl. Phys. B 30, 117–120 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, K. Yamagashi, H. Anzai, and Y. Yamaguchi, "Laser action in chromiumdoped forsterite," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1040–1042 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. B. Angert, N. I. Borodin, V. M. Garmash, V. A. Zhitnyuk, A. G. Okhrimchuk, O. G. Siyuchenko, and A. V. Shestakov, "Lasing due to impurity color centers in yttrium aluminum garnet crystals at wavelengths in the range 1.35–1.45 μm," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 18, 73–74 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. J. F. Pinto, E. Georgiou, and C. R. Pollock, "Stable color-center laser in OH-doped NaCl operating in the 1.41- to 1.81-μm region," Opt. Lett. 11, 519–521 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. I. J. Miller, A. J. Alcock, and J. E. Bernard, "Experimental Investigation of Cr4+ in YAG as a passive Q-switch," in Proceedings on Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 322–325.
  12. N. I. Borodin, V. A. Zhitnyuk, A. G. Okhrimchuk, and A. V. Shestakov, "Oscillation of a Y3Al5O12:Cr4+ laser in wavelength region of 1.34–1.6 μm," Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Fiz. 54, 1500–1506 (1990).
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  14. A. V. Shestakov, N. I. Borodin, V. A. Zhitnyuk, A. G. Okrimtchyuk, and V. P. Gapontsev, "Tunable Cr4+:YAG lasers," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CPDP11.
  15. P. M. W. French, N. H. Rizvi, J. R. Taylor, and A. V. Shestakov, "Continuous-wave mode-locked Cr4+:YAG laser," Opt. Lett. 18, 39–41 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. L. I. Krutova, N. A. Kulagin, V. A. Sandulenko, and A. V. Sandulenko, "Electronic state and positions of chromium ions in garnet crystals," Sov. Phys. Solid State 31, 1193–1196 (1989).
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  20. W. Jia, B. M. Tissue, L. Lu, K. R. Hoffman, and W. M. Yen, "Near-infrared luminescence in Cr, Ca-doped yttrium aluminum garnet," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, G. Dube and L. Chase, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 87–91.
  21. S. Kuck, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, "Spectroscopic investigation of the Cr4+-center in YAG," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, G. Dube and L. Chase, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 92–94.
  22. N. I. Borodin, A. G. Okhrimchuk, and A. V. Shestakov, "Polarizing spectroscopy of Y3Al5O12, SrAl2O4, and CaAl2O4 crystals containing Cr4+," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 42–46.
  23. A. G. Okhrimchuk and A. V. Shestakov, "Performance of a YAG:Cr4+ laser crystal," Opt. Mater. 3, 1–13 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. W. Milonni and J. H. Eberly, Lasers (Wiley, New York, 1988).
  25. A. Sennaroglu, C. R. Pollock, and H. Nathel, "Characterization of a continuous-wave chromium-doped YAG laser," in Annual Meeting, Vol. 16 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper WZ3.
  26. A. Sennaroglu, C. R. Pollock, and H. Nathel, "Continuous-wave and self-mode-locked operation of a chromium-doped YAG laser," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series, T. Y. Fan and B. H. T. Chai, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper AMB1.

1994 (2)

1993 (2)

1992 (1)

P. F. Moulton, "Tunable solid-state lasers," Proc. IEEE 80, 348–364 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

N. I. Borodin, V. A. Zhitnyuk, A. G. Okhrimchuk, and A. V. Shestakov, "Oscillation of a Y3Al5O12:Cr4+ laser in wavelength region of 1.34–1.6 μm," Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Fiz. 54, 1500–1506 (1990).

1989 (2)

L. I. Krutova, N. A. Kulagin, V. A. Sandulenko, and A. V. Sandulenko, "Electronic state and positions of chromium ions in garnet crystals," Sov. Phys. Solid State 31, 1193–1196 (1989).

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and H. W. Newkirk, "Laser performance of LiSrAlF6Cr3+," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 1051–1056 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, K. Yamagashi, H. Anzai, and Y. Yamaguchi, "Laser action in chromiumdoped forsterite," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1040–1042 (1988).
[CrossRef]

N. B. Angert, N. I. Borodin, V. M. Garmash, V. A. Zhitnyuk, A. G. Okhrimchuk, O. G. Siyuchenko, and A. V. Shestakov, "Lasing due to impurity color centers in yttrium aluminum garnet crystals at wavelengths in the range 1.35–1.45 μm," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 18, 73–74 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, H. W. Newkirk, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, "LiCaAlF6:Cr 3: a promising new solid-state laser material," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2243–2252 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1984 (1)

M. L. Shand and S. T. Lai, "Cw laser pumped emerald laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 105–108 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

B. Struve, G. Huber, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, and E. V. Zharikov, "Tunable room-temperature cw laser action in Cr3+:GdScGa-garnet," Appl. Phys. B 30, 117–120 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

Alcock, A. J.

I. J. Miller, A. J. Alcock, and J. E. Bernard, "Experimental Investigation of Cr4+ in YAG as a passive Q-switch," in Proceedings on Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 322–325.

Alfano, R. R.

V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, K. Yamagashi, H. Anzai, and Y. Yamaguchi, "Laser action in chromiumdoped forsterite," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1040–1042 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Angert, N. B.

N. B. Angert, N. I. Borodin, V. M. Garmash, V. A. Zhitnyuk, A. G. Okhrimchuk, O. G. Siyuchenko, and A. V. Shestakov, "Lasing due to impurity color centers in yttrium aluminum garnet crystals at wavelengths in the range 1.35–1.45 μm," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 18, 73–74 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Anzai, H.

V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, K. Yamagashi, H. Anzai, and Y. Yamaguchi, "Laser action in chromiumdoped forsterite," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1040–1042 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bass, M.

B. H. T. Chai, Y. Shimony, C. Deka, X. X. Zhang, E. Munin, and M. Bass, "Laser performance of Cr4+:Y2SiO5 at liquid nitrogen temperature," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 28–30.
[CrossRef]

Benson, H. P.

Bernard, J. E.

I. J. Miller, A. J. Alcock, and J. E. Bernard, "Experimental Investigation of Cr4+ in YAG as a passive Q-switch," in Proceedings on Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 322–325.

Birnbaum, M.

Borodin, N. I.

N. I. Borodin, V. A. Zhitnyuk, A. G. Okhrimchuk, and A. V. Shestakov, "Oscillation of a Y3Al5O12:Cr4+ laser in wavelength region of 1.34–1.6 μm," Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Fiz. 54, 1500–1506 (1990).

N. B. Angert, N. I. Borodin, V. M. Garmash, V. A. Zhitnyuk, A. G. Okhrimchuk, O. G. Siyuchenko, and A. V. Shestakov, "Lasing due to impurity color centers in yttrium aluminum garnet crystals at wavelengths in the range 1.35–1.45 μm," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 18, 73–74 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Shestakov, N. I. Borodin, V. A. Zhitnyuk, A. G. Okrimtchyuk, and V. P. Gapontsev, "Tunable Cr4+:YAG lasers," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CPDP11.

N. I. Borodin, A. G. Okhrimchuk, and A. V. Shestakov, "Polarizing spectroscopy of Y3Al5O12, SrAl2O4, and CaAl2O4 crystals containing Cr4+," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 42–46.

Chai, B. H. T.

B. H. T. Chai, Y. Shimony, C. Deka, X. X. Zhang, E. Munin, and M. Bass, "Laser performance of Cr4+:Y2SiO5 at liquid nitrogen temperature," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 28–30.
[CrossRef]

Chase, L. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and H. W. Newkirk, "Laser performance of LiSrAlF6Cr3+," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 1051–1056 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, H. W. Newkirk, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, "LiCaAlF6:Cr 3: a promising new solid-state laser material," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2243–2252 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

Deka, C.

B. H. T. Chai, Y. Shimony, C. Deka, X. X. Zhang, E. Munin, and M. Bass, "Laser performance of Cr4+:Y2SiO5 at liquid nitrogen temperature," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 28–30.
[CrossRef]

Dennis, W. M.

W. Jia, H. Eilers, W. M. Dennis, W. M. Yen, and A. V. Shestakov, "Performance of a Cr 4+:YAG laser in the near infrared," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 31–33.

Eberly, J. H.

P. W. Milonni and J. H. Eberly, Lasers (Wiley, New York, 1988).

Eilers, H.

W. Jia, H. Eilers, W. M. Dennis, W. M. Yen, and A. V. Shestakov, "Performance of a Cr 4+:YAG laser in the near infrared," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 31–33.

French, P. M. W.

Gapontsev, V. P.

A. V. Shestakov, N. I. Borodin, V. A. Zhitnyuk, A. G. Okrimtchyuk, and V. P. Gapontsev, "Tunable Cr4+:YAG lasers," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CPDP11.

Garmash, V. M.

N. B. Angert, N. I. Borodin, V. M. Garmash, V. A. Zhitnyuk, A. G. Okhrimchuk, O. G. Siyuchenko, and A. V. Shestakov, "Lasing due to impurity color centers in yttrium aluminum garnet crystals at wavelengths in the range 1.35–1.45 μm," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 18, 73–74 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gayen, S. K.

V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, K. Yamagashi, H. Anzai, and Y. Yamaguchi, "Laser action in chromiumdoped forsterite," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1040–1042 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Georgiou, E.

Hoffman, K. R.

W. Jia, B. M. Tissue, L. Lu, K. R. Hoffman, and W. M. Yen, "Near-infrared luminescence in Cr, Ca-doped yttrium aluminum garnet," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, G. Dube and L. Chase, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 87–91.

Huber, G.

B. Struve, G. Huber, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, and E. V. Zharikov, "Tunable room-temperature cw laser action in Cr3+:GdScGa-garnet," Appl. Phys. B 30, 117–120 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuck, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, "Spectroscopic investigation of the Cr4+-center in YAG," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, G. Dube and L. Chase, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 92–94.

Jia, W.

W. Jia, B. M. Tissue, L. Lu, K. R. Hoffman, and W. M. Yen, "Near-infrared luminescence in Cr, Ca-doped yttrium aluminum garnet," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, G. Dube and L. Chase, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 87–91.

W. Jia, H. Eilers, W. M. Dennis, W. M. Yen, and A. V. Shestakov, "Performance of a Cr 4+:YAG laser in the near infrared," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 31–33.

Krupke, W. F.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, H. W. Newkirk, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, "LiCaAlF6:Cr 3: a promising new solid-state laser material," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2243–2252 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Krutova, L. I.

L. I. Krutova, N. A. Kulagin, V. A. Sandulenko, and A. V. Sandulenko, "Electronic state and positions of chromium ions in garnet crystals," Sov. Phys. Solid State 31, 1193–1196 (1989).

Kuck, S.

S. Kuck, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, "Spectroscopic investigation of the Cr4+-center in YAG," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, G. Dube and L. Chase, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 92–94.

Kulagin, N. A.

L. I. Krutova, N. A. Kulagin, V. A. Sandulenko, and A. V. Sandulenko, "Electronic state and positions of chromium ions in garnet crystals," Sov. Phys. Solid State 31, 1193–1196 (1989).

Kway, W. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and H. W. Newkirk, "Laser performance of LiSrAlF6Cr3+," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 1051–1056 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lai, S. T.

M. L. Shand and S. T. Lai, "Cw laser pumped emerald laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 105–108 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Laptev, V. V.

B. Struve, G. Huber, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, and E. V. Zharikov, "Tunable room-temperature cw laser action in Cr3+:GdScGa-garnet," Appl. Phys. B 30, 117–120 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lu, L.

W. Jia, B. M. Tissue, L. Lu, K. R. Hoffman, and W. M. Yen, "Near-infrared luminescence in Cr, Ca-doped yttrium aluminum garnet," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, G. Dube and L. Chase, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 87–91.

Miller, I. J.

I. J. Miller, A. J. Alcock, and J. E. Bernard, "Experimental Investigation of Cr4+ in YAG as a passive Q-switch," in Proceedings on Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 322–325.

Milonni, P. W.

P. W. Milonni and J. H. Eberly, Lasers (Wiley, New York, 1988).

Morris, R. C.

Moulton, P. F.

P. F. Moulton, "Tunable solid-state lasers," Proc. IEEE 80, 348–364 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Munin, E.

B. H. T. Chai, Y. Shimony, C. Deka, X. X. Zhang, E. Munin, and M. Bass, "Laser performance of Cr4+:Y2SiO5 at liquid nitrogen temperature," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 28–30.
[CrossRef]

Nathel, H.

A. Sennaroglu, C. R. Pollock, and H. Nathel, "Continuouswave self-mode-locked operation of a femtosecond Cr4+:YAG laser," Opt. Lett. 19, 390–392 (1994).
[PubMed]

A. Sennaroglu, C. R. Pollock, and H. Nathel, "Characterization of a continuous-wave chromium-doped YAG laser," in Annual Meeting, Vol. 16 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper WZ3.

A. Sennaroglu, C. R. Pollock, and H. Nathel, "Continuous-wave and self-mode-locked operation of a chromium-doped YAG laser," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series, T. Y. Fan and B. H. T. Chai, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper AMB1.

Newkirk, H. W.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and H. W. Newkirk, "Laser performance of LiSrAlF6Cr3+," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 1051–1056 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, H. W. Newkirk, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, "LiCaAlF6:Cr 3: a promising new solid-state laser material," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2243–2252 (1988).
[CrossRef]

O'Dell, E. W.

Okhrimchuk, A. G.

A. G. Okhrimchuk and A. V. Shestakov, "Performance of a YAG:Cr4+ laser crystal," Opt. Mater. 3, 1–13 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Borodin, V. A. Zhitnyuk, A. G. Okhrimchuk, and A. V. Shestakov, "Oscillation of a Y3Al5O12:Cr4+ laser in wavelength region of 1.34–1.6 μm," Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Fiz. 54, 1500–1506 (1990).

N. B. Angert, N. I. Borodin, V. M. Garmash, V. A. Zhitnyuk, A. G. Okhrimchuk, O. G. Siyuchenko, and A. V. Shestakov, "Lasing due to impurity color centers in yttrium aluminum garnet crystals at wavelengths in the range 1.35–1.45 μm," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 18, 73–74 (1988).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Borodin, A. G. Okhrimchuk, and A. V. Shestakov, "Polarizing spectroscopy of Y3Al5O12, SrAl2O4, and CaAl2O4 crystals containing Cr4+," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 42–46.

Okrimtchyuk, A. G.

A. V. Shestakov, N. I. Borodin, V. A. Zhitnyuk, A. G. Okrimtchyuk, and V. P. Gapontsev, "Tunable Cr4+:YAG lasers," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CPDP11.

Payne, S. A.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and H. W. Newkirk, "Laser performance of LiSrAlF6Cr3+," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 1051–1056 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, H. W. Newkirk, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, "LiCaAlF6:Cr 3: a promising new solid-state laser material," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2243–2252 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

S. Kuck, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, "Spectroscopic investigation of the Cr4+-center in YAG," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, G. Dube and L. Chase, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 92–94.

Peterson, O. G.

Petricevic, V.

V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, K. Yamagashi, H. Anzai, and Y. Yamaguchi, "Laser action in chromiumdoped forsterite," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1040–1042 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pinto, J. F.

Pollock, C. R.

A. Sennaroglu, C. R. Pollock, and H. Nathel, "Continuouswave self-mode-locked operation of a femtosecond Cr4+:YAG laser," Opt. Lett. 19, 390–392 (1994).
[PubMed]

J. F. Pinto, E. Georgiou, and C. R. Pollock, "Stable color-center laser in OH-doped NaCl operating in the 1.41- to 1.81-μm region," Opt. Lett. 11, 519–521 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sennaroglu, C. R. Pollock, and H. Nathel, "Continuous-wave and self-mode-locked operation of a chromium-doped YAG laser," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series, T. Y. Fan and B. H. T. Chai, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper AMB1.

A. Sennaroglu, C. R. Pollock, and H. Nathel, "Characterization of a continuous-wave chromium-doped YAG laser," in Annual Meeting, Vol. 16 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper WZ3.

Rizvi, N. H.

Sandulenko, A. V.

L. I. Krutova, N. A. Kulagin, V. A. Sandulenko, and A. V. Sandulenko, "Electronic state and positions of chromium ions in garnet crystals," Sov. Phys. Solid State 31, 1193–1196 (1989).

Sandulenko, V. A.

L. I. Krutova, N. A. Kulagin, V. A. Sandulenko, and A. V. Sandulenko, "Electronic state and positions of chromium ions in garnet crystals," Sov. Phys. Solid State 31, 1193–1196 (1989).

Sennaroglu, A.

A. Sennaroglu, C. R. Pollock, and H. Nathel, "Continuouswave self-mode-locked operation of a femtosecond Cr4+:YAG laser," Opt. Lett. 19, 390–392 (1994).
[PubMed]

A. Sennaroglu, C. R. Pollock, and H. Nathel, "Characterization of a continuous-wave chromium-doped YAG laser," in Annual Meeting, Vol. 16 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper WZ3.

A. Sennaroglu, C. R. Pollock, and H. Nathel, "Continuous-wave and self-mode-locked operation of a chromium-doped YAG laser," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series, T. Y. Fan and B. H. T. Chai, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper AMB1.

Shand, M. L.

M. L. Shand and S. T. Lai, "Cw laser pumped emerald laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 105–108 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Shcherbakov, I. A.

B. Struve, G. Huber, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, and E. V. Zharikov, "Tunable room-temperature cw laser action in Cr3+:GdScGa-garnet," Appl. Phys. B 30, 117–120 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Shestakov, A. V.

A. G. Okhrimchuk and A. V. Shestakov, "Performance of a YAG:Cr4+ laser crystal," Opt. Mater. 3, 1–13 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Spariosu, W. Chen, R. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, and A. V. Shestakov, "Dual Q switching and laser action at 1.06 and 1.44 μm in a Nd3+:YAG–Cr4+:YAG oscillator at 300 K," Opt. Lett. 18, 814–816 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. W. French, N. H. Rizvi, J. R. Taylor, and A. V. Shestakov, "Continuous-wave mode-locked Cr4+:YAG laser," Opt. Lett. 18, 39–41 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Borodin, V. A. Zhitnyuk, A. G. Okhrimchuk, and A. V. Shestakov, "Oscillation of a Y3Al5O12:Cr4+ laser in wavelength region of 1.34–1.6 μm," Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Fiz. 54, 1500–1506 (1990).

N. B. Angert, N. I. Borodin, V. M. Garmash, V. A. Zhitnyuk, A. G. Okhrimchuk, O. G. Siyuchenko, and A. V. Shestakov, "Lasing due to impurity color centers in yttrium aluminum garnet crystals at wavelengths in the range 1.35–1.45 μm," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 18, 73–74 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. Jia, H. Eilers, W. M. Dennis, W. M. Yen, and A. V. Shestakov, "Performance of a Cr 4+:YAG laser in the near infrared," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 31–33.

A. V. Shestakov, N. I. Borodin, V. A. Zhitnyuk, A. G. Okrimtchyuk, and V. P. Gapontsev, "Tunable Cr4+:YAG lasers," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CPDP11.

G. M. Zverev and A. V. Shestakov, "Tunable near-infrared oxide crystal lasers," in Tunable Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 5 of OSA Proceedings Series, M. Shand and H. P. Jenssen, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 66–70.

N. I. Borodin, A. G. Okhrimchuk, and A. V. Shestakov, "Polarizing spectroscopy of Y3Al5O12, SrAl2O4, and CaAl2O4 crystals containing Cr4+," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 42–46.

Shimony, Y.

B. H. T. Chai, Y. Shimony, C. Deka, X. X. Zhang, E. Munin, and M. Bass, "Laser performance of Cr4+:Y2SiO5 at liquid nitrogen temperature," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 28–30.
[CrossRef]

Siyuchenko, O. G.

N. B. Angert, N. I. Borodin, V. M. Garmash, V. A. Zhitnyuk, A. G. Okhrimchuk, O. G. Siyuchenko, and A. V. Shestakov, "Lasing due to impurity color centers in yttrium aluminum garnet crystals at wavelengths in the range 1.35–1.45 μm," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 18, 73–74 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and H. W. Newkirk, "Laser performance of LiSrAlF6Cr3+," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 1051–1056 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, H. W. Newkirk, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, "LiCaAlF6:Cr 3: a promising new solid-state laser material," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2243–2252 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Spariosu, K.

Struve, B.

B. Struve, G. Huber, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, and E. V. Zharikov, "Tunable room-temperature cw laser action in Cr3+:GdScGa-garnet," Appl. Phys. B 30, 117–120 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Stultz, R.

Taylor, J. R.

Tissue, B. M.

W. Jia, B. M. Tissue, L. Lu, K. R. Hoffman, and W. M. Yen, "Near-infrared luminescence in Cr, Ca-doped yttrium aluminum garnet," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, G. Dube and L. Chase, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 87–91.

Walling, J. C.

Yamagashi, K.

V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, K. Yamagashi, H. Anzai, and Y. Yamaguchi, "Laser action in chromiumdoped forsterite," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1040–1042 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, Y.

V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, K. Yamagashi, H. Anzai, and Y. Yamaguchi, "Laser action in chromiumdoped forsterite," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1040–1042 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yen, W. M.

W. Jia, H. Eilers, W. M. Dennis, W. M. Yen, and A. V. Shestakov, "Performance of a Cr 4+:YAG laser in the near infrared," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 31–33.

W. Jia, B. M. Tissue, L. Lu, K. R. Hoffman, and W. M. Yen, "Near-infrared luminescence in Cr, Ca-doped yttrium aluminum garnet," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, G. Dube and L. Chase, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 87–91.

Zhang, X. X.

B. H. T. Chai, Y. Shimony, C. Deka, X. X. Zhang, E. Munin, and M. Bass, "Laser performance of Cr4+:Y2SiO5 at liquid nitrogen temperature," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 28–30.
[CrossRef]

Zharikov, E. V.

B. Struve, G. Huber, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, and E. V. Zharikov, "Tunable room-temperature cw laser action in Cr3+:GdScGa-garnet," Appl. Phys. B 30, 117–120 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Zhitnyuk, V. A.

N. I. Borodin, V. A. Zhitnyuk, A. G. Okhrimchuk, and A. V. Shestakov, "Oscillation of a Y3Al5O12:Cr4+ laser in wavelength region of 1.34–1.6 μm," Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Fiz. 54, 1500–1506 (1990).

N. B. Angert, N. I. Borodin, V. M. Garmash, V. A. Zhitnyuk, A. G. Okhrimchuk, O. G. Siyuchenko, and A. V. Shestakov, "Lasing due to impurity color centers in yttrium aluminum garnet crystals at wavelengths in the range 1.35–1.45 μm," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 18, 73–74 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Shestakov, N. I. Borodin, V. A. Zhitnyuk, A. G. Okrimtchyuk, and V. P. Gapontsev, "Tunable Cr4+:YAG lasers," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CPDP11.

Zverev, G. M.

G. M. Zverev and A. V. Shestakov, "Tunable near-infrared oxide crystal lasers," in Tunable Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 5 of OSA Proceedings Series, M. Shand and H. P. Jenssen, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 66–70.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

B. Struve, G. Huber, V. V. Laptev, I. A. Shcherbakov, and E. V. Zharikov, "Tunable room-temperature cw laser action in Cr3+:GdScGa-garnet," Appl. Phys. B 30, 117–120 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, K. Yamagashi, H. Anzai, and Y. Yamaguchi, "Laser action in chromiumdoped forsterite," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1040–1042 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. L. Shand and S. T. Lai, "Cw laser pumped emerald laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 105–108 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, H. W. Newkirk, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, "LiCaAlF6:Cr 3: a promising new solid-state laser material," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2243–2252 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Fiz. (1)

N. I. Borodin, V. A. Zhitnyuk, A. G. Okhrimchuk, and A. V. Shestakov, "Oscillation of a Y3Al5O12:Cr4+ laser in wavelength region of 1.34–1.6 μm," Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Fiz. 54, 1500–1506 (1990).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and H. W. Newkirk, "Laser performance of LiSrAlF6Cr3+," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 1051–1056 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Mater. (1)

A. G. Okhrimchuk and A. V. Shestakov, "Performance of a YAG:Cr4+ laser crystal," Opt. Mater. 3, 1–13 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. F. Moulton, "Tunable solid-state lasers," Proc. IEEE 80, 348–364 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. B. Angert, N. I. Borodin, V. M. Garmash, V. A. Zhitnyuk, A. G. Okhrimchuk, O. G. Siyuchenko, and A. V. Shestakov, "Lasing due to impurity color centers in yttrium aluminum garnet crystals at wavelengths in the range 1.35–1.45 μm," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 18, 73–74 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Solid State (1)

L. I. Krutova, N. A. Kulagin, V. A. Sandulenko, and A. V. Sandulenko, "Electronic state and positions of chromium ions in garnet crystals," Sov. Phys. Solid State 31, 1193–1196 (1989).

Other (11)

G. M. Zverev and A. V. Shestakov, "Tunable near-infrared oxide crystal lasers," in Tunable Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 5 of OSA Proceedings Series, M. Shand and H. P. Jenssen, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 66–70.

W. Jia, B. M. Tissue, L. Lu, K. R. Hoffman, and W. M. Yen, "Near-infrared luminescence in Cr, Ca-doped yttrium aluminum garnet," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, G. Dube and L. Chase, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 87–91.

S. Kuck, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, "Spectroscopic investigation of the Cr4+-center in YAG," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, G. Dube and L. Chase, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 92–94.

N. I. Borodin, A. G. Okhrimchuk, and A. V. Shestakov, "Polarizing spectroscopy of Y3Al5O12, SrAl2O4, and CaAl2O4 crystals containing Cr4+," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 42–46.

B. H. T. Chai, Y. Shimony, C. Deka, X. X. Zhang, E. Munin, and M. Bass, "Laser performance of Cr4+:Y2SiO5 at liquid nitrogen temperature," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 28–30.
[CrossRef]

P. W. Milonni and J. H. Eberly, Lasers (Wiley, New York, 1988).

A. Sennaroglu, C. R. Pollock, and H. Nathel, "Characterization of a continuous-wave chromium-doped YAG laser," in Annual Meeting, Vol. 16 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper WZ3.

A. Sennaroglu, C. R. Pollock, and H. Nathel, "Continuous-wave and self-mode-locked operation of a chromium-doped YAG laser," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series, T. Y. Fan and B. H. T. Chai, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper AMB1.

I. J. Miller, A. J. Alcock, and J. E. Bernard, "Experimental Investigation of Cr4+ in YAG as a passive Q-switch," in Proceedings on Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 322–325.

W. Jia, H. Eilers, W. M. Dennis, W. M. Yen, and A. V. Shestakov, "Performance of a Cr 4+:YAG laser in the near infrared," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 31–33.

A. V. Shestakov, N. I. Borodin, V. A. Zhitnyuk, A. G. Okrimtchyuk, and V. P. Gapontsev, "Tunable Cr4+:YAG lasers," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CPDP11.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Unpolarized emission spectra of Cr:YAG at room temperature and at 77 K. The sharp peak is due to pump excitation at 1.06 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy-level diagram of the Cr4+ ion with 2d2 electron configuration and D2d point group symmetry.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup of the cw Cr:YAG laser.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated pump and laser beam radii as a function of the distance from the crystal edge.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation of the measured fractional absorption as a function of the incident pump power.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

XY plots at 3 and 20°C to calculate the saturation intensity.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Efficiency curves for the Cr:YAG laser at (a) 3°C and (b) 20°C with various output couplers.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Variation of the output power as a function of the output coupling transmission for a fixed incident pump power of 5.6 W at 1.45 μm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Variation of the output power as a function of the crystal temperature at a fixed incident pump power of 5.6 W for different output couplers.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Variation of the output power as a function of the emission wavelength for various intracavity tuning elements.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Values of the Known Parameters Appearing in Eqs. (8) and (9)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Values of the Emission and ESA Cross Sections Calculated with the cw Laser Efficiency Data

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ e = λ 2 4 π 2 n 2 τ f Δ ν ,
A = 1 T 1 ( P t / P i ) ,
P inc = P s [ α 0 l + ln ( T ) 1 T ] ,
P s = π ω 2 I s ,
I s = h ν p σ a τ f .
N 0 = 1 l σ a ln [ T 0 ] ,
η abs = Δ P out / Δ P abs ,
η abs = λ p λ c η p ( 1 σ ESA σ e ) ( T T + L ) ,
P abs th = π ( ω p 2 + ω c 2 ) h ν p ( T + L ) 4 σ e ( 1 σ ESA σ e ) τ f η p ,
σ e = π 4 h c λ c ( ω p 2 + ω c 2 ) τ f T P abs th η abs = 16.21 × 10 19 ( W cm 2 ) T P abs th η abs .
FOM = α 1.06 / α 1.45 ,
α 1.45 = 1 2 l ln ( 1 L ) ,

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