Abstract

Optical properties of Er3+ -doped fluoride glasses in the pseudoternary systems MFn–BaF2–YF3, where M is Zr, Hf, Al, Sc, Ga, In, or Zn, were investigated, and the variation of the local structure was discussed. Of the three Judd–Ofelt Ωt parameters (t = 2, 4, 6) that dominate the f–f transition probabilities of Er3+ ions, Ω2 increased as the cationic field strength of network-forming Mn+ ions was increased. Ω6 showed a correlation with the Er—F bond length. The intensity of the 4S3/24I15/2 green upconversion luminescence at 0.55 μm induced by 0.80-μm laser pumping varied with the kind of MFn; the InF3-based glass showed the largest intensity, and the AlF3-based glass the lowest. The quantum efficiency and nonradiative decay rates of the 4S3/2 level changed with Mn+ and were not strongly dependent on the cutoff phonon energy of the host. The transition probability of the excitation process at 0.80-μm absorption and that of 0.55-μm emission can play a more important role in the upconversion intensity than the nonradiative loss in the present fluoride glasses with a low multiphonon decay rate.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Poulain, M. Poulain, and J. Lucas, "Fluorine-containing glass with ZrF4-optical properties of a glass doped with Nd3+," Mater. Res. Bull. 10, 243–246 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, "Blue upconversion fluorozirconate fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 26, 166–168 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Snitzer, "Rare earth fiber lasers," J. Less-Common Met. 148, 45–58 (1989); Y. Ohishi and E. Snitzer, "Optical properties of Pr3+ in fluoride glass for a new amplifier operating at 1.3 μm band," Proceedings of the International Conference on Science and Technology of New Glasses (Ceramics Society of Japan, Tokyo, 1991), pp. 199–204.
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, "Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses," Phys. Rev. B 16, 10–20 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Tesar, J. Campbell, M. J. Weber, C. Weinzapfel, Y. Lin, H. Meissner, and H. Toratani, "Optical properties and laser parameters of Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses," Opt. Mater. 1, 217–234 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Takahara, R. Kanno, Y. Kawamoto, S. Tanabe, and K. Hirao, "Er3+ upconversion fluorescence ofMFn–BaF2–YF3–ErF3 (M : Zr, Hf, Al, Ga, In, Sc, or Zn) glasses," Nippon Kagaku Kaishi 10, 1220–1222 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Takahashi, Y. Kawamoto, R. Kanno, S. Tanabe, and K. Hirao, "Compositional dependence of Er3+ upconversion luminescence in MF–LiF–ZrF4 based glasses (M : alkali metals)," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 137–143 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Tanabe, K. Hirao, and H. Toratani, "Rare-earth containing upconversion laser glasses," Kotai Butsuri 27, 186–196 (1992).
  9. S. Tanabe and S. Todoroki, "Analysis of local structure of rare earth ions in glasses by phonon sideband spectra," New Glass 7, 189–195 (1992).
  10. S. Tanabe, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Local structure of rare earth ions in fluorophosphate glasses by phonon sideband and Mössbauer spectroscopy," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 142, 148–154 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, "Compositional dependence of Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters of Er3+ ions in alkali–metal borate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 46, 3305–3310 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. J. Weber, "Probabilities of radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3," Phys. Rev. 157, 262–272 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. D. Peacock, "The intensities of lanthanide ƒ ↔ ƒ transitions," in Structure and Bonding (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975), Vol. 22, pp. 83ndash;121.
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Tanabe, S. Todoroki, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Phonon sideband of Eu3+ in sodium borate glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 122, 59–65 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Tanabe, N. Soga, K. Hirao, and T. Hanada, "Physical properties and structure of silica–alumina–europium oxide glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 73, 1733–1736 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Tanabe, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Mössbauer spectroscopy of 151Eu in oxide crystals and glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 113, 178–184 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. K. Gallagher, C. R. Kurkjian, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, "Absorption and fluorescence of trivalent europium in borate glasses," Phys. Chem. Glasses 6, 95–103 (1965).
  20. C. K. Jørgensen and B. R. Judd, "Hypersensitive pseudoquadrupole transitions in lanthanides," Mol. Phys. 8, 281–290 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. D. Shannon and C. T. Prewitt, "Ionic radii of atoms," Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B 25, 925 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Kawamoto, T. Kobayashi, K. Takahara, and M. Takahashi, "Molecular dynamic simulation of various fluoride glasses," Proceedings of Japan–Russia–China International Seminar on the Structure and Formation of Glasses (Ceramic Society of Japan, Kyoto, 1992), pp. 61–68.
  23. Y. Kawamoto, M. Takahashi, K. Ogura, K. Kadona, H. Kageyama, and N. Kamijo, "Eu and Er–EXAFS analysis of MFn–BaF2– Eu(or ER)F3 (M = Zr, Hf, Al, Ga, In, Sc or Zn) glasses," Photon Activity Report No. 10 (National Laboratory for High Energy Physics KEK, Tsukuba, Japan, to be published).
  24. M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, and K. Suzuki, "Efficient Er3+-doped optical fiber amplifier pumped by a 1.48 μm InGaAsP laser diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 295–297 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, S. Todoroki, T. Hanada, and N. Soga, "Relation between Ω6 intensity parameters of Er3+ and 151Eu isomer shift in oxide glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8451–8454 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, T. Hanada, and N. Soga, "Correlation between 151Eu Mössbauer isomer shift and Judd–Ofelt Ω6 parameters of Nd3+ ions in phosphate and silicate laser glasses," Phys. Rev. B 48, 10591–10594 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  27. K. Takahara, "Local structure and upconversion characteristics of rare-earth ions in fluoride glasses," Master Thesis (Kobe University, Kobe, Japan, 1993).
  28. M. Rotenberg, R. Bivens, N. Metropolis, and J. K. Wooten, The 3-j and 6-j Symbols (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1964).
  29. S. Tanabe, "Optical functions and upconversion characteristics of rare earth compounds," Rare Earths (Kidorui) 23, 67–94 (1993).
  30. S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Upconversion properties, multiphonon relaxation and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 45, 4620–4625 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  31. S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, T. Hanada, and N. Soga, "Upconversion and local structure of Er3+ doped aluminate glasses," J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 101, 78–83 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  32. S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Upconversion of Er3+-doped fluoride glass by tunable dye laser," in Science and Technology of New Glasses, S. Sakka and N. Soga, eds. (Ceramic Society of Japan, Tokyo, 1991), pp. 193–198.
  33. S. Tanabe, K. Suzuki, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, "Selective sensitization of 480-nm blue upconversion by Tm3+–Er3+ energy transfer in tellurite glass," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 933–942 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1994 (2)

M. Takahashi, Y. Kawamoto, R. Kanno, S. Tanabe, and K. Hirao, "Compositional dependence of Er3+ upconversion luminescence in MF–LiF–ZrF4 based glasses (M : alkali metals)," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 137–143 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, K. Suzuki, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, "Selective sensitization of 480-nm blue upconversion by Tm3+–Er3+ energy transfer in tellurite glass," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 933–942 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (4)

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, T. Hanada, and N. Soga, "Upconversion and local structure of Er3+ doped aluminate glasses," J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 101, 78–83 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, S. Todoroki, T. Hanada, and N. Soga, "Relation between Ω6 intensity parameters of Er3+ and 151Eu isomer shift in oxide glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8451–8454 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, T. Hanada, and N. Soga, "Correlation between 151Eu Mössbauer isomer shift and Judd–Ofelt Ω6 parameters of Nd3+ ions in phosphate and silicate laser glasses," Phys. Rev. B 48, 10591–10594 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, "Optical functions and upconversion characteristics of rare earth compounds," Rare Earths (Kidorui) 23, 67–94 (1993).

1992 (7)

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Upconversion properties, multiphonon relaxation and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 45, 4620–4625 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, K. Hirao, and H. Toratani, "Rare-earth containing upconversion laser glasses," Kotai Butsuri 27, 186–196 (1992).

S. Tanabe and S. Todoroki, "Analysis of local structure of rare earth ions in glasses by phonon sideband spectra," New Glass 7, 189–195 (1992).

S. Tanabe, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Local structure of rare earth ions in fluorophosphate glasses by phonon sideband and Mössbauer spectroscopy," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 142, 148–154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, "Compositional dependence of Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters of Er3+ ions in alkali–metal borate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 46, 3305–3310 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Tesar, J. Campbell, M. J. Weber, C. Weinzapfel, Y. Lin, H. Meissner, and H. Toratani, "Optical properties and laser parameters of Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses," Opt. Mater. 1, 217–234 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Takahara, R. Kanno, Y. Kawamoto, S. Tanabe, and K. Hirao, "Er3+ upconversion fluorescence ofMFn–BaF2–YF3–ErF3 (M : Zr, Hf, Al, Ga, In, Sc, or Zn) glasses," Nippon Kagaku Kaishi 10, 1220–1222 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, "Blue upconversion fluorozirconate fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 26, 166–168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, S. Todoroki, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Phonon sideband of Eu3+ in sodium borate glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 122, 59–65 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, N. Soga, K. Hirao, and T. Hanada, "Physical properties and structure of silica–alumina–europium oxide glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 73, 1733–1736 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

S. Tanabe, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Mössbauer spectroscopy of 151Eu in oxide crystals and glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 113, 178–184 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, and K. Suzuki, "Efficient Er3+-doped optical fiber amplifier pumped by a 1.48 μm InGaAsP laser diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 295–297 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. Snitzer, "Rare earth fiber lasers," J. Less-Common Met. 148, 45–58 (1989); Y. Ohishi and E. Snitzer, "Optical properties of Pr3+ in fluoride glass for a new amplifier operating at 1.3 μm band," Proceedings of the International Conference on Science and Technology of New Glasses (Ceramics Society of Japan, Tokyo, 1991), pp. 199–204.
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, "Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses," Phys. Rev. B 16, 10–20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

M. Poulain, M. Poulain, and J. Lucas, "Fluorine-containing glass with ZrF4-optical properties of a glass doped with Nd3+," Mater. Res. Bull. 10, 243–246 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

R. D. Shannon and C. T. Prewitt, "Ionic radii of atoms," Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B 25, 925 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

M. J. Weber, "Probabilities of radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3," Phys. Rev. 157, 262–272 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

P. K. Gallagher, C. R. Kurkjian, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, "Absorption and fluorescence of trivalent europium in borate glasses," Phys. Chem. Glasses 6, 95–103 (1965).

1964 (1)

C. K. Jørgensen and B. R. Judd, "Hypersensitive pseudoquadrupole transitions in lanthanides," Mol. Phys. 8, 281–290 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Allain, J. Y.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, "Blue upconversion fluorozirconate fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 26, 166–168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bivens, R.

M. Rotenberg, R. Bivens, N. Metropolis, and J. K. Wooten, The 3-j and 6-j Symbols (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1964).

Bridenbaugh, P. M.

P. K. Gallagher, C. R. Kurkjian, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, "Absorption and fluorescence of trivalent europium in borate glasses," Phys. Chem. Glasses 6, 95–103 (1965).

Campbell, J.

A. Tesar, J. Campbell, M. J. Weber, C. Weinzapfel, Y. Lin, H. Meissner, and H. Toratani, "Optical properties and laser parameters of Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses," Opt. Mater. 1, 217–234 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, P. K.

P. K. Gallagher, C. R. Kurkjian, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, "Absorption and fluorescence of trivalent europium in borate glasses," Phys. Chem. Glasses 6, 95–103 (1965).

Hanada, T.

S. Tanabe, K. Suzuki, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, "Selective sensitization of 480-nm blue upconversion by Tm3+–Er3+ energy transfer in tellurite glass," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 933–942 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, T. Hanada, and N. Soga, "Correlation between 151Eu Mössbauer isomer shift and Judd–Ofelt Ω6 parameters of Nd3+ ions in phosphate and silicate laser glasses," Phys. Rev. B 48, 10591–10594 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, S. Todoroki, T. Hanada, and N. Soga, "Relation between Ω6 intensity parameters of Er3+ and 151Eu isomer shift in oxide glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8451–8454 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, T. Hanada, and N. Soga, "Upconversion and local structure of Er3+ doped aluminate glasses," J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 101, 78–83 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, "Compositional dependence of Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters of Er3+ ions in alkali–metal borate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 46, 3305–3310 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, N. Soga, K. Hirao, and T. Hanada, "Physical properties and structure of silica–alumina–europium oxide glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 73, 1733–1736 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

M. Takahashi, Y. Kawamoto, R. Kanno, S. Tanabe, and K. Hirao, "Compositional dependence of Er3+ upconversion luminescence in MF–LiF–ZrF4 based glasses (M : alkali metals)," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 137–143 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Local structure of rare earth ions in fluorophosphate glasses by phonon sideband and Mössbauer spectroscopy," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 142, 148–154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, K. Hirao, and H. Toratani, "Rare-earth containing upconversion laser glasses," Kotai Butsuri 27, 186–196 (1992).

K. Takahara, R. Kanno, Y. Kawamoto, S. Tanabe, and K. Hirao, "Er3+ upconversion fluorescence ofMFn–BaF2–YF3–ErF3 (M : Zr, Hf, Al, Ga, In, Sc, or Zn) glasses," Nippon Kagaku Kaishi 10, 1220–1222 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Upconversion properties, multiphonon relaxation and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 45, 4620–4625 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, S. Todoroki, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Phonon sideband of Eu3+ in sodium borate glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 122, 59–65 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, N. Soga, K. Hirao, and T. Hanada, "Physical properties and structure of silica–alumina–europium oxide glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 73, 1733–1736 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Mössbauer spectroscopy of 151Eu in oxide crystals and glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 113, 178–184 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Upconversion of Er3+-doped fluoride glass by tunable dye laser," in Science and Technology of New Glasses, S. Sakka and N. Soga, eds. (Ceramic Society of Japan, Tokyo, 1991), pp. 193–198.

Jørgensen, C. K.

C. K. Jørgensen and B. R. Judd, "Hypersensitive pseudoquadrupole transitions in lanthanides," Mol. Phys. 8, 281–290 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Judd, B. R.

C. K. Jørgensen and B. R. Judd, "Hypersensitive pseudoquadrupole transitions in lanthanides," Mol. Phys. 8, 281–290 (1964).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Kadona, K.

Y. Kawamoto, M. Takahashi, K. Ogura, K. Kadona, H. Kageyama, and N. Kamijo, "Eu and Er–EXAFS analysis of MFn–BaF2– Eu(or ER)F3 (M = Zr, Hf, Al, Ga, In, Sc or Zn) glasses," Photon Activity Report No. 10 (National Laboratory for High Energy Physics KEK, Tsukuba, Japan, to be published).

Kageyama, H.

Y. Kawamoto, M. Takahashi, K. Ogura, K. Kadona, H. Kageyama, and N. Kamijo, "Eu and Er–EXAFS analysis of MFn–BaF2– Eu(or ER)F3 (M = Zr, Hf, Al, Ga, In, Sc or Zn) glasses," Photon Activity Report No. 10 (National Laboratory for High Energy Physics KEK, Tsukuba, Japan, to be published).

Kamijo, N.

Y. Kawamoto, M. Takahashi, K. Ogura, K. Kadona, H. Kageyama, and N. Kamijo, "Eu and Er–EXAFS analysis of MFn–BaF2– Eu(or ER)F3 (M = Zr, Hf, Al, Ga, In, Sc or Zn) glasses," Photon Activity Report No. 10 (National Laboratory for High Energy Physics KEK, Tsukuba, Japan, to be published).

Kanno, R.

M. Takahashi, Y. Kawamoto, R. Kanno, S. Tanabe, and K. Hirao, "Compositional dependence of Er3+ upconversion luminescence in MF–LiF–ZrF4 based glasses (M : alkali metals)," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 137–143 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Takahara, R. Kanno, Y. Kawamoto, S. Tanabe, and K. Hirao, "Er3+ upconversion fluorescence ofMFn–BaF2–YF3–ErF3 (M : Zr, Hf, Al, Ga, In, Sc, or Zn) glasses," Nippon Kagaku Kaishi 10, 1220–1222 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kawamoto, Y.

M. Takahashi, Y. Kawamoto, R. Kanno, S. Tanabe, and K. Hirao, "Compositional dependence of Er3+ upconversion luminescence in MF–LiF–ZrF4 based glasses (M : alkali metals)," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 137–143 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Takahara, R. Kanno, Y. Kawamoto, S. Tanabe, and K. Hirao, "Er3+ upconversion fluorescence ofMFn–BaF2–YF3–ErF3 (M : Zr, Hf, Al, Ga, In, Sc, or Zn) glasses," Nippon Kagaku Kaishi 10, 1220–1222 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawamoto, M. Takahashi, K. Ogura, K. Kadona, H. Kageyama, and N. Kamijo, "Eu and Er–EXAFS analysis of MFn–BaF2– Eu(or ER)F3 (M = Zr, Hf, Al, Ga, In, Sc or Zn) glasses," Photon Activity Report No. 10 (National Laboratory for High Energy Physics KEK, Tsukuba, Japan, to be published).

Y. Kawamoto, T. Kobayashi, K. Takahara, and M. Takahashi, "Molecular dynamic simulation of various fluoride glasses," Proceedings of Japan–Russia–China International Seminar on the Structure and Formation of Glasses (Ceramic Society of Japan, Kyoto, 1992), pp. 61–68.

Kimura, Y.

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, and K. Suzuki, "Efficient Er3+-doped optical fiber amplifier pumped by a 1.48 μm InGaAsP laser diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 295–297 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

Y. Kawamoto, T. Kobayashi, K. Takahara, and M. Takahashi, "Molecular dynamic simulation of various fluoride glasses," Proceedings of Japan–Russia–China International Seminar on the Structure and Formation of Glasses (Ceramic Society of Japan, Kyoto, 1992), pp. 61–68.

Kurkjian, C. R.

P. K. Gallagher, C. R. Kurkjian, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, "Absorption and fluorescence of trivalent europium in borate glasses," Phys. Chem. Glasses 6, 95–103 (1965).

Layne, C. B.

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, "Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses," Phys. Rev. B 16, 10–20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.

A. Tesar, J. Campbell, M. J. Weber, C. Weinzapfel, Y. Lin, H. Meissner, and H. Toratani, "Optical properties and laser parameters of Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses," Opt. Mater. 1, 217–234 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lowdermilk, W. H.

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, "Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses," Phys. Rev. B 16, 10–20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, J.

M. Poulain, M. Poulain, and J. Lucas, "Fluorine-containing glass with ZrF4-optical properties of a glass doped with Nd3+," Mater. Res. Bull. 10, 243–246 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Meissner, H.

A. Tesar, J. Campbell, M. J. Weber, C. Weinzapfel, Y. Lin, H. Meissner, and H. Toratani, "Optical properties and laser parameters of Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses," Opt. Mater. 1, 217–234 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Metropolis, N.

M. Rotenberg, R. Bivens, N. Metropolis, and J. K. Wooten, The 3-j and 6-j Symbols (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1964).

Monerie, M.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, "Blue upconversion fluorozirconate fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 26, 166–168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, M.

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, and K. Suzuki, "Efficient Er3+-doped optical fiber amplifier pumped by a 1.48 μm InGaAsP laser diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 295–297 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Ogura, K.

Y. Kawamoto, M. Takahashi, K. Ogura, K. Kadona, H. Kageyama, and N. Kamijo, "Eu and Er–EXAFS analysis of MFn–BaF2– Eu(or ER)F3 (M = Zr, Hf, Al, Ga, In, Sc or Zn) glasses," Photon Activity Report No. 10 (National Laboratory for High Energy Physics KEK, Tsukuba, Japan, to be published).

Ohyagi, T.

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, T. Hanada, and N. Soga, "Upconversion and local structure of Er3+ doped aluminate glasses," J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 101, 78–83 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, T. Hanada, and N. Soga, "Correlation between 151Eu Mössbauer isomer shift and Judd–Ofelt Ω6 parameters of Nd3+ ions in phosphate and silicate laser glasses," Phys. Rev. B 48, 10591–10594 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, S. Todoroki, T. Hanada, and N. Soga, "Relation between Ω6 intensity parameters of Er3+ and 151Eu isomer shift in oxide glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8451–8454 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, "Compositional dependence of Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters of Er3+ ions in alkali–metal borate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 46, 3305–3310 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, R. D.

R. D. Peacock, "The intensities of lanthanide ƒ ↔ ƒ transitions," in Structure and Bonding (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975), Vol. 22, pp. 83ndash;121.
[CrossRef]

Poignant, H.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, "Blue upconversion fluorozirconate fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 26, 166–168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Poulain, M.

M. Poulain, M. Poulain, and J. Lucas, "Fluorine-containing glass with ZrF4-optical properties of a glass doped with Nd3+," Mater. Res. Bull. 10, 243–246 (1975).
[CrossRef]

M. Poulain, M. Poulain, and J. Lucas, "Fluorine-containing glass with ZrF4-optical properties of a glass doped with Nd3+," Mater. Res. Bull. 10, 243–246 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Prewitt, C. T.

R. D. Shannon and C. T. Prewitt, "Ionic radii of atoms," Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B 25, 925 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Rotenberg, M.

M. Rotenberg, R. Bivens, N. Metropolis, and J. K. Wooten, The 3-j and 6-j Symbols (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1964).

Shannon, R. D.

R. D. Shannon and C. T. Prewitt, "Ionic radii of atoms," Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B 25, 925 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Snitzer, E.

E. Snitzer, "Rare earth fiber lasers," J. Less-Common Met. 148, 45–58 (1989); Y. Ohishi and E. Snitzer, "Optical properties of Pr3+ in fluoride glass for a new amplifier operating at 1.3 μm band," Proceedings of the International Conference on Science and Technology of New Glasses (Ceramics Society of Japan, Tokyo, 1991), pp. 199–204.
[CrossRef]

Soga, N.

S. Tanabe, K. Suzuki, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, "Selective sensitization of 480-nm blue upconversion by Tm3+–Er3+ energy transfer in tellurite glass," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 933–942 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, T. Hanada, and N. Soga, "Correlation between 151Eu Mössbauer isomer shift and Judd–Ofelt Ω6 parameters of Nd3+ ions in phosphate and silicate laser glasses," Phys. Rev. B 48, 10591–10594 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, S. Todoroki, T. Hanada, and N. Soga, "Relation between Ω6 intensity parameters of Er3+ and 151Eu isomer shift in oxide glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8451–8454 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, T. Hanada, and N. Soga, "Upconversion and local structure of Er3+ doped aluminate glasses," J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 101, 78–83 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Upconversion properties, multiphonon relaxation and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 45, 4620–4625 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Local structure of rare earth ions in fluorophosphate glasses by phonon sideband and Mössbauer spectroscopy," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 142, 148–154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, "Compositional dependence of Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters of Er3+ ions in alkali–metal borate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 46, 3305–3310 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, N. Soga, K. Hirao, and T. Hanada, "Physical properties and structure of silica–alumina–europium oxide glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 73, 1733–1736 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, S. Todoroki, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Phonon sideband of Eu3+ in sodium borate glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 122, 59–65 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Mössbauer spectroscopy of 151Eu in oxide crystals and glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 113, 178–184 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Upconversion of Er3+-doped fluoride glass by tunable dye laser," in Science and Technology of New Glasses, S. Sakka and N. Soga, eds. (Ceramic Society of Japan, Tokyo, 1991), pp. 193–198.

Suzuki, K.

S. Tanabe, K. Suzuki, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, "Selective sensitization of 480-nm blue upconversion by Tm3+–Er3+ energy transfer in tellurite glass," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 933–942 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, and K. Suzuki, "Efficient Er3+-doped optical fiber amplifier pumped by a 1.48 μm InGaAsP laser diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 295–297 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Takahara, K.

K. Takahara, R. Kanno, Y. Kawamoto, S. Tanabe, and K. Hirao, "Er3+ upconversion fluorescence ofMFn–BaF2–YF3–ErF3 (M : Zr, Hf, Al, Ga, In, Sc, or Zn) glasses," Nippon Kagaku Kaishi 10, 1220–1222 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Takahara, "Local structure and upconversion characteristics of rare-earth ions in fluoride glasses," Master Thesis (Kobe University, Kobe, Japan, 1993).

Y. Kawamoto, T. Kobayashi, K. Takahara, and M. Takahashi, "Molecular dynamic simulation of various fluoride glasses," Proceedings of Japan–Russia–China International Seminar on the Structure and Formation of Glasses (Ceramic Society of Japan, Kyoto, 1992), pp. 61–68.

Takahashi, M.

M. Takahashi, Y. Kawamoto, R. Kanno, S. Tanabe, and K. Hirao, "Compositional dependence of Er3+ upconversion luminescence in MF–LiF–ZrF4 based glasses (M : alkali metals)," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 137–143 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawamoto, T. Kobayashi, K. Takahara, and M. Takahashi, "Molecular dynamic simulation of various fluoride glasses," Proceedings of Japan–Russia–China International Seminar on the Structure and Formation of Glasses (Ceramic Society of Japan, Kyoto, 1992), pp. 61–68.

Y. Kawamoto, M. Takahashi, K. Ogura, K. Kadona, H. Kageyama, and N. Kamijo, "Eu and Er–EXAFS analysis of MFn–BaF2– Eu(or ER)F3 (M = Zr, Hf, Al, Ga, In, Sc or Zn) glasses," Photon Activity Report No. 10 (National Laboratory for High Energy Physics KEK, Tsukuba, Japan, to be published).

Tanabe, S.

M. Takahashi, Y. Kawamoto, R. Kanno, S. Tanabe, and K. Hirao, "Compositional dependence of Er3+ upconversion luminescence in MF–LiF–ZrF4 based glasses (M : alkali metals)," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 137–143 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, K. Suzuki, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, "Selective sensitization of 480-nm blue upconversion by Tm3+–Er3+ energy transfer in tellurite glass," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 933–942 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, T. Hanada, and N. Soga, "Correlation between 151Eu Mössbauer isomer shift and Judd–Ofelt Ω6 parameters of Nd3+ ions in phosphate and silicate laser glasses," Phys. Rev. B 48, 10591–10594 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, "Optical functions and upconversion characteristics of rare earth compounds," Rare Earths (Kidorui) 23, 67–94 (1993).

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, S. Todoroki, T. Hanada, and N. Soga, "Relation between Ω6 intensity parameters of Er3+ and 151Eu isomer shift in oxide glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8451–8454 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, T. Hanada, and N. Soga, "Upconversion and local structure of Er3+ doped aluminate glasses," J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 101, 78–83 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Upconversion properties, multiphonon relaxation and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 45, 4620–4625 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe and S. Todoroki, "Analysis of local structure of rare earth ions in glasses by phonon sideband spectra," New Glass 7, 189–195 (1992).

K. Takahara, R. Kanno, Y. Kawamoto, S. Tanabe, and K. Hirao, "Er3+ upconversion fluorescence ofMFn–BaF2–YF3–ErF3 (M : Zr, Hf, Al, Ga, In, Sc, or Zn) glasses," Nippon Kagaku Kaishi 10, 1220–1222 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Local structure of rare earth ions in fluorophosphate glasses by phonon sideband and Mössbauer spectroscopy," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 142, 148–154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, K. Hirao, and H. Toratani, "Rare-earth containing upconversion laser glasses," Kotai Butsuri 27, 186–196 (1992).

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, "Compositional dependence of Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters of Er3+ ions in alkali–metal borate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 46, 3305–3310 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, N. Soga, K. Hirao, and T. Hanada, "Physical properties and structure of silica–alumina–europium oxide glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 73, 1733–1736 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, S. Todoroki, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Phonon sideband of Eu3+ in sodium borate glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 122, 59–65 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Mössbauer spectroscopy of 151Eu in oxide crystals and glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 113, 178–184 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Upconversion of Er3+-doped fluoride glass by tunable dye laser," in Science and Technology of New Glasses, S. Sakka and N. Soga, eds. (Ceramic Society of Japan, Tokyo, 1991), pp. 193–198.

Tesar, A.

A. Tesar, J. Campbell, M. J. Weber, C. Weinzapfel, Y. Lin, H. Meissner, and H. Toratani, "Optical properties and laser parameters of Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses," Opt. Mater. 1, 217–234 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Todoroki, S.

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, S. Todoroki, T. Hanada, and N. Soga, "Relation between Ω6 intensity parameters of Er3+ and 151Eu isomer shift in oxide glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8451–8454 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe and S. Todoroki, "Analysis of local structure of rare earth ions in glasses by phonon sideband spectra," New Glass 7, 189–195 (1992).

S. Tanabe, S. Todoroki, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Phonon sideband of Eu3+ in sodium borate glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 122, 59–65 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Toratani, H.

S. Tanabe, K. Hirao, and H. Toratani, "Rare-earth containing upconversion laser glasses," Kotai Butsuri 27, 186–196 (1992).

A. Tesar, J. Campbell, M. J. Weber, C. Weinzapfel, Y. Lin, H. Meissner, and H. Toratani, "Optical properties and laser parameters of Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses," Opt. Mater. 1, 217–234 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

A. Tesar, J. Campbell, M. J. Weber, C. Weinzapfel, Y. Lin, H. Meissner, and H. Toratani, "Optical properties and laser parameters of Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses," Opt. Mater. 1, 217–234 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, "Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses," Phys. Rev. B 16, 10–20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, "Probabilities of radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3," Phys. Rev. 157, 262–272 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Weinzapfel, C.

A. Tesar, J. Campbell, M. J. Weber, C. Weinzapfel, Y. Lin, H. Meissner, and H. Toratani, "Optical properties and laser parameters of Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses," Opt. Mater. 1, 217–234 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wooten, J. K.

M. Rotenberg, R. Bivens, N. Metropolis, and J. K. Wooten, The 3-j and 6-j Symbols (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1964).

Yoshii, S.

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Upconversion properties, multiphonon relaxation and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 45, 4620–4625 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Upconversion of Er3+-doped fluoride glass by tunable dye laser," in Science and Technology of New Glasses, S. Sakka and N. Soga, eds. (Ceramic Society of Japan, Tokyo, 1991), pp. 193–198.

Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B (1)

R. D. Shannon and C. T. Prewitt, "Ionic radii of atoms," Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B 25, 925 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, and K. Suzuki, "Efficient Er3+-doped optical fiber amplifier pumped by a 1.48 μm InGaAsP laser diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 295–297 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, "Blue upconversion fluorozirconate fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 26, 166–168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

S. Tanabe, N. Soga, K. Hirao, and T. Hanada, "Physical properties and structure of silica–alumina–europium oxide glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 73, 1733–1736 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, S. Todoroki, T. Hanada, and N. Soga, "Relation between Ω6 intensity parameters of Er3+ and 151Eu isomer shift in oxide glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8451–8454 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. (1)

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, T. Hanada, and N. Soga, "Upconversion and local structure of Er3+ doped aluminate glasses," J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 101, 78–83 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Less-Common Met. (1)

E. Snitzer, "Rare earth fiber lasers," J. Less-Common Met. 148, 45–58 (1989); Y. Ohishi and E. Snitzer, "Optical properties of Pr3+ in fluoride glass for a new amplifier operating at 1.3 μm band," Proceedings of the International Conference on Science and Technology of New Glasses (Ceramics Society of Japan, Tokyo, 1991), pp. 199–204.
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (4)

M. Takahashi, Y. Kawamoto, R. Kanno, S. Tanabe, and K. Hirao, "Compositional dependence of Er3+ upconversion luminescence in MF–LiF–ZrF4 based glasses (M : alkali metals)," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 137–143 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Local structure of rare earth ions in fluorophosphate glasses by phonon sideband and Mössbauer spectroscopy," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 142, 148–154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Mössbauer spectroscopy of 151Eu in oxide crystals and glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 113, 178–184 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, S. Todoroki, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Phonon sideband of Eu3+ in sodium borate glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 122, 59–65 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Kotai Butsuri (1)

S. Tanabe, K. Hirao, and H. Toratani, "Rare-earth containing upconversion laser glasses," Kotai Butsuri 27, 186–196 (1992).

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

M. Poulain, M. Poulain, and J. Lucas, "Fluorine-containing glass with ZrF4-optical properties of a glass doped with Nd3+," Mater. Res. Bull. 10, 243–246 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Phys. (1)

C. K. Jørgensen and B. R. Judd, "Hypersensitive pseudoquadrupole transitions in lanthanides," Mol. Phys. 8, 281–290 (1964).
[CrossRef]

New Glass (1)

S. Tanabe and S. Todoroki, "Analysis of local structure of rare earth ions in glasses by phonon sideband spectra," New Glass 7, 189–195 (1992).

Nippon Kagaku Kaishi (1)

K. Takahara, R. Kanno, Y. Kawamoto, S. Tanabe, and K. Hirao, "Er3+ upconversion fluorescence ofMFn–BaF2–YF3–ErF3 (M : Zr, Hf, Al, Ga, In, Sc, or Zn) glasses," Nippon Kagaku Kaishi 10, 1220–1222 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (1)

A. Tesar, J. Campbell, M. J. Weber, C. Weinzapfel, Y. Lin, H. Meissner, and H. Toratani, "Optical properties and laser parameters of Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses," Opt. Mater. 1, 217–234 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Glasses (1)

P. K. Gallagher, C. R. Kurkjian, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, "Absorption and fluorescence of trivalent europium in borate glasses," Phys. Chem. Glasses 6, 95–103 (1965).

Phys. Rev. (2)

B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, "Probabilities of radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3," Phys. Rev. 157, 262–272 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, "Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses," Phys. Rev. B 16, 10–20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, "Compositional dependence of Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters of Er3+ ions in alkali–metal borate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 46, 3305–3310 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, T. Hanada, and N. Soga, "Correlation between 151Eu Mössbauer isomer shift and Judd–Ofelt Ω6 parameters of Nd3+ ions in phosphate and silicate laser glasses," Phys. Rev. B 48, 10591–10594 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Upconversion properties, multiphonon relaxation and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 45, 4620–4625 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rare Earths (1)

S. Tanabe, "Optical functions and upconversion characteristics of rare earth compounds," Rare Earths (Kidorui) 23, 67–94 (1993).

Other (6)

Y. Kawamoto, T. Kobayashi, K. Takahara, and M. Takahashi, "Molecular dynamic simulation of various fluoride glasses," Proceedings of Japan–Russia–China International Seminar on the Structure and Formation of Glasses (Ceramic Society of Japan, Kyoto, 1992), pp. 61–68.

Y. Kawamoto, M. Takahashi, K. Ogura, K. Kadona, H. Kageyama, and N. Kamijo, "Eu and Er–EXAFS analysis of MFn–BaF2– Eu(or ER)F3 (M = Zr, Hf, Al, Ga, In, Sc or Zn) glasses," Photon Activity Report No. 10 (National Laboratory for High Energy Physics KEK, Tsukuba, Japan, to be published).

K. Takahara, "Local structure and upconversion characteristics of rare-earth ions in fluoride glasses," Master Thesis (Kobe University, Kobe, Japan, 1993).

M. Rotenberg, R. Bivens, N. Metropolis, and J. K. Wooten, The 3-j and 6-j Symbols (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1964).

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Upconversion of Er3+-doped fluoride glass by tunable dye laser," in Science and Technology of New Glasses, S. Sakka and N. Soga, eds. (Ceramic Society of Japan, Tokyo, 1991), pp. 193–198.

R. D. Peacock, "The intensities of lanthanide ƒ ↔ ƒ transitions," in Structure and Bonding (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975), Vol. 22, pp. 83ndash;121.
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectra of Er3+-doped MFn –BaF2 –YF3 fluoride glasses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Decay profiles of (a) 4S3/2 and (b) 4F9/2 levels in glasses by 488-nm excitation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Upconversion luminescence spectra generated by 800-nm diode laser (LD) pumping (P = 250 mW).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Phonon sideband (PET) spectra of Eu3+-doped fluoride glasses.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

151Eu Mössbauer spectra of some fluoride glasses.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relation between the Ω2 parameter of Er3+ and the (5D05F2)/(4D07F1) intensity ratio of Eu3+ in glasses.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relation between the IS of doped 151Eu and the field strength of the network former in fluoride glasses.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relation between the Ω6 parameter of Er3+ and Coulomb splitting of Eu3+:5D07F0 in glasses.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Relation between the Ω6 parameter of Er3+ and Er–F bond length in glasses.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Radiative and fluorescence lifetimes and quantum efficiency of the 4S3/2 level in glasses. Solid circles, ηQ; triangles, τF; squares, τr.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Relation between the green upconversion intensity and the optical parameter, S(4I9/2)2ηQ(4S3/2).

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Compositions of Prepared Glasses

Tables Icon

Table 2 Reduced Matrix Elements of U(t) for Er3+ Ions, Used for the Fitting of Ω and Calculation of Aa

Tables Icon

Table 3 Ωt Parameters (×10−20 nm2) of Er3+ Ions and Refractive Indices of MFn –BaF2 –YF3 Glasses (×10−20 cm2)

Tables Icon

Table 4 Several Optical Parameters of Er3+ in Fluoride Glasses

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S J J = t = 2 , 4 , 6 Ω t | ( S L ) J | | U ( t ) | | ( S L ) J | 2 .
band k ( λ ) d λ = 8 π 3 e 2 ƛ ρ 2 h c ( 2 J + 1 ) 1 n [ ( n 2 + 2 ) 2 9 ] S J J ,
A [ S L ) J ; ( S ¯ L ¯ ) J ¯ ] = 64 π 4 e 2 3 h ( 2 J + 1 ) ƛ 3 n [ ( n 2 + 2 ) 2 9 ] S J J ¯ .
τ NR 1 = τ f 1 J ¯ A J J ¯ ,
I ( t ) = τ 1 τ 2 τ 1 τ 2 I 0 [ exp ( t / τ 1 ) exp ( t / τ 2 ) ] ,
IS = C ( | Ψ ( 0 ) | 2 Y ) ,
Ω 6 = 13 p , s | A s p | 2 Ξ 2 ( s , 6 ) ( 2 s + 1 ) 1 ,
Ξ ( s , 6 ) = 2 n , l ( 2 f + 1 ) ( 2 l + 1 ) ( 1 ) f + 1 { 16 s flf } ( f 1 l 000 ) ( lsf 000 ) × 4 f | r | n l n l | r s | 4 f Δ E ( ψ ) = n [ a ( s , 6 ) 4 f | r | n d n d | r s | 4 f Δ E ( n d ) + b ( s , 6 ) 4 f | r | n g n g | r s | 4 f Δ E ( n g ) ] ,
0 R ( n l ) r k R ( n l ) d r ,
τ f 1 = A + W NR = A + W MP + W ET ,
τ f 1 = A + W MP .
η Q = A A + W NR = τ f A ,

Metrics