Abstract

The 13CH3OH isotopomer of methanol has been reinvestigated as a source of far-infrared (FIR) laser emission by the use of the extended line coverage available from an efficient CO2 laser recently developed for optical pumping. With this system we have observed 19 new FIR laser lines, pumped by 11 different CO2 transitions, with five of the pump lines belonging to the new 9HP CO2 hot band. Accurate heterodyne frequency measurements of the FIR laser and the pump offset have been made for 16 FIR laser lines, including three previously reported in the literature. High-resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopic results for the CO-stretching and the CH3-rocking infrared fundamentals of 13CH3OH have been applied to assign the pump and lasing lines for five of the transition systems. One system has the novel feature that two different CO2 pump lines excite the same upper level, and hence two FIR laser lines of the identical frequency are observed for two different pump lines.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Y. Chang, T. J. Bridges, and E. G. Burkhardt, "cw Sub-millimeter laser action in optically pumped methyl fluoride, methyl alcohol, and vinyl chloride gases," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 249–251 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Moruzzi, J. C. S. Moraes, and F. Strumia, "Far infrared laser lines and assignments of CH3OH: a review," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 13, 1269–1312 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Pereira, J. C. S. Moraes, E. M. Telles, A. Scalabrin, F. Strumia, A. Moretti, G. Carelli, and C. A. Massa, "A review of optically pumped far-infrared laser lines from methanol isotopes," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 15, 1–44 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. C. Zerbetto and E. C. C. Vasconcellos, "Far infrared laser lines produced by methanol and its isotopic species: a review," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 15, 889–933 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. M. Evenson, C.-C. Chou, B. W. Bach, and K. G. Bach, "New cw CO2 laser lines: the 9 μu;m hot band," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1187–1188 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. G. Maki, C. -C. Chou, K. M. Evenson, L. Zink, and J.-T. Shy, "Improved molecular constants and frequencies for the CO2 laser from new high- J regular and hot band frequency measurements," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 167, 221–224 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L.-H. Xu, R. M. Lees, K. M. Evenson, C.-C. Shou, J.-T. Shy, and E. C. C. Vasconcellos, "Spectroscopy of new CH3OH FIR laser lines pumped by new CO2 laser lines," Can. J. Phys. 72, 1155–1164 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. O. Henningsen and J. C. Petersen, "Observation and assignment of far-infrared laser lines from optically pumped 13CH3OH," Infrared Phys. 18, 475–479 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. M. Lees, "Far-infrared and infrared spectroscopy of methanol applied to FIR laser assignments," in Far-Infrared Science and Technology, J. R. Izatt, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 666, 158–170 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. C. Petersen, "Infrared radio-frequency double resonance of 13CH3OH," Opt. Lett. 12, 471–473 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. I. Mukhopadhyay, R. M. Lees, W. Lewis-Bevan, J. W. C. Johns, F. Strumia, and G. Moruzzi, "Applications of high resolution spectroscopy to the identification of far-infrared laser emission from optically pumped 13CH3OH," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 8, 1483–1502 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. Mukhopadhyay, R. M. Lees, and J. W. C. Johns, "High-resolution far-infrared spectroscopy of C-13 methanol," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 9, 1119–1140 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. C. Petersen, "Infrared-infrared double-resonance spectra of 13CH3OH and 12CH3OH," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 350–355 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. M. Telles, J. C. S. Moraes, A. Scalabrin, D. Pereira, A. Moretti, and F. Strumia, "Doppler-free optoacoustic measurements in FIR laser active molecules," Infrared Phys. 31, 415–423 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  15. I. Mukhopadhyay and R. M. Lees, "High-resolution spectroscopy of methanol: Coriolis resonances and far infrared laser identification," Opt. Commun. 97, 194–198 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Pereira, F. C. Cruz, J. C. S. Moraes, and A. Scalabrin, "Diode laser and Fourier transform spectroscopy of the 13CH3OH C-O stretching mode," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 15, 417–428 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. I. Mukhopadhyay, R. M. Lees, W. Lewis-Bevan, and J. W. C. Johns, "Fourier transform spectroscopy of the CO-stretching band of C-13 methanol in the torsional ground state," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 6444–6455 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  18. I. Mukhopadhyay and R. M. Lees, "Far-infrared spectrum of excited torsional states of C-13 methanol," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 16, 99–115 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. M. Lees, A. Predoi, and L.-H. Xu, "Far infrared laser assignments for CO-stretching and CH3-rocking states of optically pumped 13CH3OH," presented at the Fourth Conference on Optics, ROMOPTO'94, Bucharest, Romania, September, 1994.
  20. M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, K. M. Evenson, D. A. Jennings, A. Scalabrin, and S. R. Stein, "Far infrared CH3F Stark laser," Opt. Lett. 4, 9–11 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. N. Ioli, A. Moretti, F. Strumia, and F. D'Amato, "13CH3OH and 13CD3OH optically pumped FIR laser: new large offset emission and optoacoustic spectroscopy," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 7, 459–486(1986).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. Pereira and A. Scalabrin, "Measurement and assignment of new FIR laser lines in 12CH3OH and 13CH3OH," Appl. Phys. B 44, 67–69 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  23. F. R. Petersen, K. M. Evenson, D. A. Jennings, J. S. Wells, K. Goto, and J. J. Jimenez, "Far infrared frequency synthesis with stabilized CO2 lasers: accurate measurements of the water vapor and methyl alcohol laser frequencies," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 838–843 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. Anderson, E. Herbst, and F. C. De Lucia, "The millimeter and submillimeter-wave spectrum of 13CH3OH revisited," Astrophys. J. Suppl. 74, 647–664 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. O. Henningsen, "New FIR laser lines from optically pumped CH3OH: measurements and assignments," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 958–962 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. O. Henningsen, "Molecular spectroscopy by far-infrared laser emission," in Infrared and Millimeter Waves 5. Coherent Sources and Applications, K. J. Button, ed. (Academic, New York, 1982), Chap. 2, pp. 29–128.
  27. J. O. Henningsen, "Assignment of laser lines in optically pumped CH3OH," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 435–441 (1977).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (1)

I. Mukhopadhyay and R. M. Lees, "Far-infrared spectrum of excited torsional states of C-13 methanol," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 16, 99–115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (6)

D. Pereira, F. C. Cruz, J. C. S. Moraes, and A. Scalabrin, "Diode laser and Fourier transform spectroscopy of the 13CH3OH C-O stretching mode," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 15, 417–428 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Pereira, J. C. S. Moraes, E. M. Telles, A. Scalabrin, F. Strumia, A. Moretti, G. Carelli, and C. A. Massa, "A review of optically pumped far-infrared laser lines from methanol isotopes," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 15, 1–44 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Zerbetto and E. C. C. Vasconcellos, "Far infrared laser lines produced by methanol and its isotopic species: a review," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 15, 889–933 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Evenson, C.-C. Chou, B. W. Bach, and K. G. Bach, "New cw CO2 laser lines: the 9 μu;m hot band," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1187–1188 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Maki, C. -C. Chou, K. M. Evenson, L. Zink, and J.-T. Shy, "Improved molecular constants and frequencies for the CO2 laser from new high- J regular and hot band frequency measurements," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 167, 221–224 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L.-H. Xu, R. M. Lees, K. M. Evenson, C.-C. Shou, J.-T. Shy, and E. C. C. Vasconcellos, "Spectroscopy of new CH3OH FIR laser lines pumped by new CO2 laser lines," Can. J. Phys. 72, 1155–1164 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

I. Mukhopadhyay and R. M. Lees, "High-resolution spectroscopy of methanol: Coriolis resonances and far infrared laser identification," Opt. Commun. 97, 194–198 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

G. Moruzzi, J. C. S. Moraes, and F. Strumia, "Far infrared laser lines and assignments of CH3OH: a review," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 13, 1269–1312 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

E. M. Telles, J. C. S. Moraes, A. Scalabrin, D. Pereira, A. Moretti, and F. Strumia, "Doppler-free optoacoustic measurements in FIR laser active molecules," Infrared Phys. 31, 415–423 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

T. Anderson, E. Herbst, and F. C. De Lucia, "The millimeter and submillimeter-wave spectrum of 13CH3OH revisited," Astrophys. J. Suppl. 74, 647–664 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

I. Mukhopadhyay, R. M. Lees, and J. W. C. Johns, "High-resolution far-infrared spectroscopy of C-13 methanol," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 9, 1119–1140 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (3)

I. Mukhopadhyay, R. M. Lees, W. Lewis-Bevan, J. W. C. Johns, F. Strumia, and G. Moruzzi, "Applications of high resolution spectroscopy to the identification of far-infrared laser emission from optically pumped 13CH3OH," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 8, 1483–1502 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Petersen, "Infrared radio-frequency double resonance of 13CH3OH," Opt. Lett. 12, 471–473 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pereira and A. Scalabrin, "Measurement and assignment of new FIR laser lines in 12CH3OH and 13CH3OH," Appl. Phys. B 44, 67–69 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

N. Ioli, A. Moretti, F. Strumia, and F. D'Amato, "13CH3OH and 13CD3OH optically pumped FIR laser: new large offset emission and optoacoustic spectroscopy," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 7, 459–486(1986).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1978 (2)

J. O. Henningsen, "New FIR laser lines from optically pumped CH3OH: measurements and assignments," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 958–962 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Henningsen and J. C. Petersen, "Observation and assignment of far-infrared laser lines from optically pumped 13CH3OH," Infrared Phys. 18, 475–479 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

J. O. Henningsen, "Assignment of laser lines in optically pumped CH3OH," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 435–441 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

F. R. Petersen, K. M. Evenson, D. A. Jennings, J. S. Wells, K. Goto, and J. J. Jimenez, "Far infrared frequency synthesis with stabilized CO2 lasers: accurate measurements of the water vapor and methyl alcohol laser frequencies," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 838–843 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

T. Y. Chang, T. J. Bridges, and E. G. Burkhardt, "cw Sub-millimeter laser action in optically pumped methyl fluoride, methyl alcohol, and vinyl chloride gases," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 249–251 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

I. Mukhopadhyay, R. M. Lees, W. Lewis-Bevan, and J. W. C. Johns, "Fourier transform spectroscopy of the CO-stretching band of C-13 methanol in the torsional ground state," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 6444–6455 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T.

T. Anderson, E. Herbst, and F. C. De Lucia, "The millimeter and submillimeter-wave spectrum of 13CH3OH revisited," Astrophys. J. Suppl. 74, 647–664 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bach, B. W.

K. M. Evenson, C.-C. Chou, B. W. Bach, and K. G. Bach, "New cw CO2 laser lines: the 9 μu;m hot band," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1187–1188 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bach, K. G.

K. M. Evenson, C.-C. Chou, B. W. Bach, and K. G. Bach, "New cw CO2 laser lines: the 9 μu;m hot band," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1187–1188 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bridges, T. J.

T. Y. Chang, T. J. Bridges, and E. G. Burkhardt, "cw Sub-millimeter laser action in optically pumped methyl fluoride, methyl alcohol, and vinyl chloride gases," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 249–251 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Burkhardt, E. G.

T. Y. Chang, T. J. Bridges, and E. G. Burkhardt, "cw Sub-millimeter laser action in optically pumped methyl fluoride, methyl alcohol, and vinyl chloride gases," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 249–251 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Carelli, G.

D. Pereira, J. C. S. Moraes, E. M. Telles, A. Scalabrin, F. Strumia, A. Moretti, G. Carelli, and C. A. Massa, "A review of optically pumped far-infrared laser lines from methanol isotopes," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 15, 1–44 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T. Y.

T. Y. Chang, T. J. Bridges, and E. G. Burkhardt, "cw Sub-millimeter laser action in optically pumped methyl fluoride, methyl alcohol, and vinyl chloride gases," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 249–251 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C. -C.

A. G. Maki, C. -C. Chou, K. M. Evenson, L. Zink, and J.-T. Shy, "Improved molecular constants and frequencies for the CO2 laser from new high- J regular and hot band frequency measurements," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 167, 221–224 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C.-C.

K. M. Evenson, C.-C. Chou, B. W. Bach, and K. G. Bach, "New cw CO2 laser lines: the 9 μu;m hot band," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1187–1188 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, F. C.

D. Pereira, F. C. Cruz, J. C. S. Moraes, and A. Scalabrin, "Diode laser and Fourier transform spectroscopy of the 13CH3OH C-O stretching mode," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 15, 417–428 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D'Amato, F.

N. Ioli, A. Moretti, F. Strumia, and F. D'Amato, "13CH3OH and 13CD3OH optically pumped FIR laser: new large offset emission and optoacoustic spectroscopy," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 7, 459–486(1986).
[CrossRef]

Evenson, K. M.

A. G. Maki, C. -C. Chou, K. M. Evenson, L. Zink, and J.-T. Shy, "Improved molecular constants and frequencies for the CO2 laser from new high- J regular and hot band frequency measurements," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 167, 221–224 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L.-H. Xu, R. M. Lees, K. M. Evenson, C.-C. Shou, J.-T. Shy, and E. C. C. Vasconcellos, "Spectroscopy of new CH3OH FIR laser lines pumped by new CO2 laser lines," Can. J. Phys. 72, 1155–1164 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Evenson, C.-C. Chou, B. W. Bach, and K. G. Bach, "New cw CO2 laser lines: the 9 μu;m hot band," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1187–1188 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, K. M. Evenson, D. A. Jennings, A. Scalabrin, and S. R. Stein, "Far infrared CH3F Stark laser," Opt. Lett. 4, 9–11 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. R. Petersen, K. M. Evenson, D. A. Jennings, J. S. Wells, K. Goto, and J. J. Jimenez, "Far infrared frequency synthesis with stabilized CO2 lasers: accurate measurements of the water vapor and methyl alcohol laser frequencies," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 838–843 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Goto, K.

F. R. Petersen, K. M. Evenson, D. A. Jennings, J. S. Wells, K. Goto, and J. J. Jimenez, "Far infrared frequency synthesis with stabilized CO2 lasers: accurate measurements of the water vapor and methyl alcohol laser frequencies," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 838–843 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Henningsen, J. O.

J. O. Henningsen and J. C. Petersen, "Observation and assignment of far-infrared laser lines from optically pumped 13CH3OH," Infrared Phys. 18, 475–479 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Henningsen, "New FIR laser lines from optically pumped CH3OH: measurements and assignments," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 958–962 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Henningsen, "Assignment of laser lines in optically pumped CH3OH," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 435–441 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Henningsen, "Molecular spectroscopy by far-infrared laser emission," in Infrared and Millimeter Waves 5. Coherent Sources and Applications, K. J. Button, ed. (Academic, New York, 1982), Chap. 2, pp. 29–128.

Herbst, E.

T. Anderson, E. Herbst, and F. C. De Lucia, "The millimeter and submillimeter-wave spectrum of 13CH3OH revisited," Astrophys. J. Suppl. 74, 647–664 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Inguscio, M.

Ioli, N.

N. Ioli, A. Moretti, F. Strumia, and F. D'Amato, "13CH3OH and 13CD3OH optically pumped FIR laser: new large offset emission and optoacoustic spectroscopy," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 7, 459–486(1986).
[CrossRef]

Jennings, D. A.

M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, K. M. Evenson, D. A. Jennings, A. Scalabrin, and S. R. Stein, "Far infrared CH3F Stark laser," Opt. Lett. 4, 9–11 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. R. Petersen, K. M. Evenson, D. A. Jennings, J. S. Wells, K. Goto, and J. J. Jimenez, "Far infrared frequency synthesis with stabilized CO2 lasers: accurate measurements of the water vapor and methyl alcohol laser frequencies," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 838–843 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Jimenez, J. J.

F. R. Petersen, K. M. Evenson, D. A. Jennings, J. S. Wells, K. Goto, and J. J. Jimenez, "Far infrared frequency synthesis with stabilized CO2 lasers: accurate measurements of the water vapor and methyl alcohol laser frequencies," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 838–843 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Johns, J. W. C.

I. Mukhopadhyay, R. M. Lees, and J. W. C. Johns, "High-resolution far-infrared spectroscopy of C-13 methanol," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 9, 1119–1140 (1988).
[CrossRef]

I. Mukhopadhyay, R. M. Lees, W. Lewis-Bevan, J. W. C. Johns, F. Strumia, and G. Moruzzi, "Applications of high resolution spectroscopy to the identification of far-infrared laser emission from optically pumped 13CH3OH," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 8, 1483–1502 (1987).
[CrossRef]

I. Mukhopadhyay, R. M. Lees, W. Lewis-Bevan, and J. W. C. Johns, "Fourier transform spectroscopy of the CO-stretching band of C-13 methanol in the torsional ground state," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 6444–6455 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Lees, R. M.

I. Mukhopadhyay and R. M. Lees, "Far-infrared spectrum of excited torsional states of C-13 methanol," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 16, 99–115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L.-H. Xu, R. M. Lees, K. M. Evenson, C.-C. Shou, J.-T. Shy, and E. C. C. Vasconcellos, "Spectroscopy of new CH3OH FIR laser lines pumped by new CO2 laser lines," Can. J. Phys. 72, 1155–1164 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Mukhopadhyay and R. M. Lees, "High-resolution spectroscopy of methanol: Coriolis resonances and far infrared laser identification," Opt. Commun. 97, 194–198 (1993).
[CrossRef]

I. Mukhopadhyay, R. M. Lees, and J. W. C. Johns, "High-resolution far-infrared spectroscopy of C-13 methanol," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 9, 1119–1140 (1988).
[CrossRef]

I. Mukhopadhyay, R. M. Lees, W. Lewis-Bevan, J. W. C. Johns, F. Strumia, and G. Moruzzi, "Applications of high resolution spectroscopy to the identification of far-infrared laser emission from optically pumped 13CH3OH," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 8, 1483–1502 (1987).
[CrossRef]

I. Mukhopadhyay, R. M. Lees, W. Lewis-Bevan, and J. W. C. Johns, "Fourier transform spectroscopy of the CO-stretching band of C-13 methanol in the torsional ground state," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 6444–6455 (1955).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Lees, A. Predoi, and L.-H. Xu, "Far infrared laser assignments for CO-stretching and CH3-rocking states of optically pumped 13CH3OH," presented at the Fourth Conference on Optics, ROMOPTO'94, Bucharest, Romania, September, 1994.

R. M. Lees, "Far-infrared and infrared spectroscopy of methanol applied to FIR laser assignments," in Far-Infrared Science and Technology, J. R. Izatt, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 666, 158–170 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lewis-Bevan, W.

I. Mukhopadhyay, R. M. Lees, W. Lewis-Bevan, J. W. C. Johns, F. Strumia, and G. Moruzzi, "Applications of high resolution spectroscopy to the identification of far-infrared laser emission from optically pumped 13CH3OH," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 8, 1483–1502 (1987).
[CrossRef]

I. Mukhopadhyay, R. M. Lees, W. Lewis-Bevan, and J. W. C. Johns, "Fourier transform spectroscopy of the CO-stretching band of C-13 methanol in the torsional ground state," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 6444–6455 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Lucia, F. C. De

T. Anderson, E. Herbst, and F. C. De Lucia, "The millimeter and submillimeter-wave spectrum of 13CH3OH revisited," Astrophys. J. Suppl. 74, 647–664 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Maki, A. G.

A. G. Maki, C. -C. Chou, K. M. Evenson, L. Zink, and J.-T. Shy, "Improved molecular constants and frequencies for the CO2 laser from new high- J regular and hot band frequency measurements," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 167, 221–224 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Massa, C. A.

D. Pereira, J. C. S. Moraes, E. M. Telles, A. Scalabrin, F. Strumia, A. Moretti, G. Carelli, and C. A. Massa, "A review of optically pumped far-infrared laser lines from methanol isotopes," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 15, 1–44 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moraes, J. C. S.

D. Pereira, J. C. S. Moraes, E. M. Telles, A. Scalabrin, F. Strumia, A. Moretti, G. Carelli, and C. A. Massa, "A review of optically pumped far-infrared laser lines from methanol isotopes," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 15, 1–44 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Pereira, F. C. Cruz, J. C. S. Moraes, and A. Scalabrin, "Diode laser and Fourier transform spectroscopy of the 13CH3OH C-O stretching mode," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 15, 417–428 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Moruzzi, J. C. S. Moraes, and F. Strumia, "Far infrared laser lines and assignments of CH3OH: a review," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 13, 1269–1312 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Telles, J. C. S. Moraes, A. Scalabrin, D. Pereira, A. Moretti, and F. Strumia, "Doppler-free optoacoustic measurements in FIR laser active molecules," Infrared Phys. 31, 415–423 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Moretti, A.

D. Pereira, J. C. S. Moraes, E. M. Telles, A. Scalabrin, F. Strumia, A. Moretti, G. Carelli, and C. A. Massa, "A review of optically pumped far-infrared laser lines from methanol isotopes," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 15, 1–44 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Telles, J. C. S. Moraes, A. Scalabrin, D. Pereira, A. Moretti, and F. Strumia, "Doppler-free optoacoustic measurements in FIR laser active molecules," Infrared Phys. 31, 415–423 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. Ioli, A. Moretti, F. Strumia, and F. D'Amato, "13CH3OH and 13CD3OH optically pumped FIR laser: new large offset emission and optoacoustic spectroscopy," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 7, 459–486(1986).
[CrossRef]

Moruzzi, G.

G. Moruzzi, J. C. S. Moraes, and F. Strumia, "Far infrared laser lines and assignments of CH3OH: a review," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 13, 1269–1312 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. Mukhopadhyay, R. M. Lees, W. Lewis-Bevan, J. W. C. Johns, F. Strumia, and G. Moruzzi, "Applications of high resolution spectroscopy to the identification of far-infrared laser emission from optically pumped 13CH3OH," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 8, 1483–1502 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mukhopadhyay, I.

I. Mukhopadhyay and R. M. Lees, "Far-infrared spectrum of excited torsional states of C-13 methanol," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 16, 99–115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Mukhopadhyay and R. M. Lees, "High-resolution spectroscopy of methanol: Coriolis resonances and far infrared laser identification," Opt. Commun. 97, 194–198 (1993).
[CrossRef]

I. Mukhopadhyay, R. M. Lees, and J. W. C. Johns, "High-resolution far-infrared spectroscopy of C-13 methanol," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 9, 1119–1140 (1988).
[CrossRef]

I. Mukhopadhyay, R. M. Lees, W. Lewis-Bevan, J. W. C. Johns, F. Strumia, and G. Moruzzi, "Applications of high resolution spectroscopy to the identification of far-infrared laser emission from optically pumped 13CH3OH," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 8, 1483–1502 (1987).
[CrossRef]

I. Mukhopadhyay, R. M. Lees, W. Lewis-Bevan, and J. W. C. Johns, "Fourier transform spectroscopy of the CO-stretching band of C-13 methanol in the torsional ground state," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 6444–6455 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, D.

D. Pereira, F. C. Cruz, J. C. S. Moraes, and A. Scalabrin, "Diode laser and Fourier transform spectroscopy of the 13CH3OH C-O stretching mode," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 15, 417–428 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Pereira, J. C. S. Moraes, E. M. Telles, A. Scalabrin, F. Strumia, A. Moretti, G. Carelli, and C. A. Massa, "A review of optically pumped far-infrared laser lines from methanol isotopes," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 15, 1–44 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Telles, J. C. S. Moraes, A. Scalabrin, D. Pereira, A. Moretti, and F. Strumia, "Doppler-free optoacoustic measurements in FIR laser active molecules," Infrared Phys. 31, 415–423 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Pereira and A. Scalabrin, "Measurement and assignment of new FIR laser lines in 12CH3OH and 13CH3OH," Appl. Phys. B 44, 67–69 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, F. R.

F. R. Petersen, K. M. Evenson, D. A. Jennings, J. S. Wells, K. Goto, and J. J. Jimenez, "Far infrared frequency synthesis with stabilized CO2 lasers: accurate measurements of the water vapor and methyl alcohol laser frequencies," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 838–843 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, J. C.

Predoi, A.

R. M. Lees, A. Predoi, and L.-H. Xu, "Far infrared laser assignments for CO-stretching and CH3-rocking states of optically pumped 13CH3OH," presented at the Fourth Conference on Optics, ROMOPTO'94, Bucharest, Romania, September, 1994.

Scalabrin, A.

D. Pereira, F. C. Cruz, J. C. S. Moraes, and A. Scalabrin, "Diode laser and Fourier transform spectroscopy of the 13CH3OH C-O stretching mode," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 15, 417–428 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Pereira, J. C. S. Moraes, E. M. Telles, A. Scalabrin, F. Strumia, A. Moretti, G. Carelli, and C. A. Massa, "A review of optically pumped far-infrared laser lines from methanol isotopes," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 15, 1–44 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Telles, J. C. S. Moraes, A. Scalabrin, D. Pereira, A. Moretti, and F. Strumia, "Doppler-free optoacoustic measurements in FIR laser active molecules," Infrared Phys. 31, 415–423 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Pereira and A. Scalabrin, "Measurement and assignment of new FIR laser lines in 12CH3OH and 13CH3OH," Appl. Phys. B 44, 67–69 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, K. M. Evenson, D. A. Jennings, A. Scalabrin, and S. R. Stein, "Far infrared CH3F Stark laser," Opt. Lett. 4, 9–11 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shou, C.-C.

L.-H. Xu, R. M. Lees, K. M. Evenson, C.-C. Shou, J.-T. Shy, and E. C. C. Vasconcellos, "Spectroscopy of new CH3OH FIR laser lines pumped by new CO2 laser lines," Can. J. Phys. 72, 1155–1164 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shy, J.-T.

L.-H. Xu, R. M. Lees, K. M. Evenson, C.-C. Shou, J.-T. Shy, and E. C. C. Vasconcellos, "Spectroscopy of new CH3OH FIR laser lines pumped by new CO2 laser lines," Can. J. Phys. 72, 1155–1164 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Maki, C. -C. Chou, K. M. Evenson, L. Zink, and J.-T. Shy, "Improved molecular constants and frequencies for the CO2 laser from new high- J regular and hot band frequency measurements," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 167, 221–224 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stein, S. R.

Strumia, F.

D. Pereira, J. C. S. Moraes, E. M. Telles, A. Scalabrin, F. Strumia, A. Moretti, G. Carelli, and C. A. Massa, "A review of optically pumped far-infrared laser lines from methanol isotopes," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 15, 1–44 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Moruzzi, J. C. S. Moraes, and F. Strumia, "Far infrared laser lines and assignments of CH3OH: a review," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 13, 1269–1312 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Telles, J. C. S. Moraes, A. Scalabrin, D. Pereira, A. Moretti, and F. Strumia, "Doppler-free optoacoustic measurements in FIR laser active molecules," Infrared Phys. 31, 415–423 (1991).
[CrossRef]

I. Mukhopadhyay, R. M. Lees, W. Lewis-Bevan, J. W. C. Johns, F. Strumia, and G. Moruzzi, "Applications of high resolution spectroscopy to the identification of far-infrared laser emission from optically pumped 13CH3OH," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 8, 1483–1502 (1987).
[CrossRef]

N. Ioli, A. Moretti, F. Strumia, and F. D'Amato, "13CH3OH and 13CD3OH optically pumped FIR laser: new large offset emission and optoacoustic spectroscopy," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 7, 459–486(1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, K. M. Evenson, D. A. Jennings, A. Scalabrin, and S. R. Stein, "Far infrared CH3F Stark laser," Opt. Lett. 4, 9–11 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Telles, E. M.

D. Pereira, J. C. S. Moraes, E. M. Telles, A. Scalabrin, F. Strumia, A. Moretti, G. Carelli, and C. A. Massa, "A review of optically pumped far-infrared laser lines from methanol isotopes," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 15, 1–44 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Telles, J. C. S. Moraes, A. Scalabrin, D. Pereira, A. Moretti, and F. Strumia, "Doppler-free optoacoustic measurements in FIR laser active molecules," Infrared Phys. 31, 415–423 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vasconcellos, E. C. C.

L.-H. Xu, R. M. Lees, K. M. Evenson, C.-C. Shou, J.-T. Shy, and E. C. C. Vasconcellos, "Spectroscopy of new CH3OH FIR laser lines pumped by new CO2 laser lines," Can. J. Phys. 72, 1155–1164 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Zerbetto and E. C. C. Vasconcellos, "Far infrared laser lines produced by methanol and its isotopic species: a review," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 15, 889–933 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wells, J. S.

F. R. Petersen, K. M. Evenson, D. A. Jennings, J. S. Wells, K. Goto, and J. J. Jimenez, "Far infrared frequency synthesis with stabilized CO2 lasers: accurate measurements of the water vapor and methyl alcohol laser frequencies," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 838–843 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.-H.

L.-H. Xu, R. M. Lees, K. M. Evenson, C.-C. Shou, J.-T. Shy, and E. C. C. Vasconcellos, "Spectroscopy of new CH3OH FIR laser lines pumped by new CO2 laser lines," Can. J. Phys. 72, 1155–1164 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Lees, A. Predoi, and L.-H. Xu, "Far infrared laser assignments for CO-stretching and CH3-rocking states of optically pumped 13CH3OH," presented at the Fourth Conference on Optics, ROMOPTO'94, Bucharest, Romania, September, 1994.

Zerbetto, S. C.

S. C. Zerbetto and E. C. C. Vasconcellos, "Far infrared laser lines produced by methanol and its isotopic species: a review," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 15, 889–933 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zink, L.

A. G. Maki, C. -C. Chou, K. M. Evenson, L. Zink, and J.-T. Shy, "Improved molecular constants and frequencies for the CO2 laser from new high- J regular and hot band frequency measurements," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 167, 221–224 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. Pereira and A. Scalabrin, "Measurement and assignment of new FIR laser lines in 12CH3OH and 13CH3OH," Appl. Phys. B 44, 67–69 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Y. Chang, T. J. Bridges, and E. G. Burkhardt, "cw Sub-millimeter laser action in optically pumped methyl fluoride, methyl alcohol, and vinyl chloride gases," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 249–251 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. Suppl. (1)

T. Anderson, E. Herbst, and F. C. De Lucia, "The millimeter and submillimeter-wave spectrum of 13CH3OH revisited," Astrophys. J. Suppl. 74, 647–664 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

L.-H. Xu, R. M. Lees, K. M. Evenson, C.-C. Shou, J.-T. Shy, and E. C. C. Vasconcellos, "Spectroscopy of new CH3OH FIR laser lines pumped by new CO2 laser lines," Can. J. Phys. 72, 1155–1164 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

K. M. Evenson, C.-C. Chou, B. W. Bach, and K. G. Bach, "New cw CO2 laser lines: the 9 μu;m hot band," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1187–1188 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Petersen, K. M. Evenson, D. A. Jennings, J. S. Wells, K. Goto, and J. J. Jimenez, "Far infrared frequency synthesis with stabilized CO2 lasers: accurate measurements of the water vapor and methyl alcohol laser frequencies," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 838–843 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Henningsen, "New FIR laser lines from optically pumped CH3OH: measurements and assignments," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 958–962 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Henningsen, "Assignment of laser lines in optically pumped CH3OH," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 435–441 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. (2)

E. M. Telles, J. C. S. Moraes, A. Scalabrin, D. Pereira, A. Moretti, and F. Strumia, "Doppler-free optoacoustic measurements in FIR laser active molecules," Infrared Phys. 31, 415–423 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Henningsen and J. C. Petersen, "Observation and assignment of far-infrared laser lines from optically pumped 13CH3OH," Infrared Phys. 18, 475–479 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves (8)

G. Moruzzi, J. C. S. Moraes, and F. Strumia, "Far infrared laser lines and assignments of CH3OH: a review," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 13, 1269–1312 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Pereira, J. C. S. Moraes, E. M. Telles, A. Scalabrin, F. Strumia, A. Moretti, G. Carelli, and C. A. Massa, "A review of optically pumped far-infrared laser lines from methanol isotopes," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 15, 1–44 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Zerbetto and E. C. C. Vasconcellos, "Far infrared laser lines produced by methanol and its isotopic species: a review," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 15, 889–933 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Pereira, F. C. Cruz, J. C. S. Moraes, and A. Scalabrin, "Diode laser and Fourier transform spectroscopy of the 13CH3OH C-O stretching mode," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 15, 417–428 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Mukhopadhyay and R. M. Lees, "Far-infrared spectrum of excited torsional states of C-13 methanol," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 16, 99–115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Mukhopadhyay, R. M. Lees, W. Lewis-Bevan, J. W. C. Johns, F. Strumia, and G. Moruzzi, "Applications of high resolution spectroscopy to the identification of far-infrared laser emission from optically pumped 13CH3OH," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 8, 1483–1502 (1987).
[CrossRef]

I. Mukhopadhyay, R. M. Lees, and J. W. C. Johns, "High-resolution far-infrared spectroscopy of C-13 methanol," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 9, 1119–1140 (1988).
[CrossRef]

N. Ioli, A. Moretti, F. Strumia, and F. D'Amato, "13CH3OH and 13CD3OH optically pumped FIR laser: new large offset emission and optoacoustic spectroscopy," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 7, 459–486(1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

I. Mukhopadhyay, R. M. Lees, W. Lewis-Bevan, and J. W. C. Johns, "Fourier transform spectroscopy of the CO-stretching band of C-13 methanol in the torsional ground state," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 6444–6455 (1955).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (1)

A. G. Maki, C. -C. Chou, K. M. Evenson, L. Zink, and J.-T. Shy, "Improved molecular constants and frequencies for the CO2 laser from new high- J regular and hot band frequency measurements," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 167, 221–224 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

I. Mukhopadhyay and R. M. Lees, "High-resolution spectroscopy of methanol: Coriolis resonances and far infrared laser identification," Opt. Commun. 97, 194–198 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

J. O. Henningsen, "Molecular spectroscopy by far-infrared laser emission," in Infrared and Millimeter Waves 5. Coherent Sources and Applications, K. J. Button, ed. (Academic, New York, 1982), Chap. 2, pp. 29–128.

R. M. Lees, A. Predoi, and L.-H. Xu, "Far infrared laser assignments for CO-stretching and CH3-rocking states of optically pumped 13CH3OH," presented at the Fourth Conference on Optics, ROMOPTO'94, Bucharest, Romania, September, 1994.

R. M. Lees, "Far-infrared and infrared spectroscopy of methanol applied to FIR laser assignments," in Far-Infrared Science and Technology, J. R. Izatt, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 666, 158–170 (1986).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Part of the Fourier-transform spectrum of 13CH3OH recorded at a resolution of 0.002 cm−1, showing the coincidence between the 9R(50) CO2 line and the R(013+, 17)rA+ transition of the in-plane CH3-rocking band.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy level and transition scheme for the FIR laser lines of 13CH3OH optically pumped by the 9R(50) CO2 laser line. Line [Lb] is predicted, and the FIR ground-state transitions shown in parentheses have been calculated from IR CO-stretching spectroscopic data by combination differences. Transition wave numbers are given in Table 3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Energy level and transition scheme for the FIR laser emission of 13CH3OH generated by the 9HP(11) hot-band and 9SP(11) sequence-band CO2 lines, in which the same FIR laser transition is optically pumped by two independent CO2 laser lines.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 New FIR Laser Lines with Frequency and Offset Measurements for 13CH3OH Optically Pumped by a CO2 Laser

Tables Icon

Table 2 Assignments of FIR Laser Lines in 13CH3OH Optically Pumped by a CO2 Laser

Tables Icon

Table 3 IR and FIR Spectroscopic Wave Numbersa for Assigned 13CH3OH IR Pump–FIR Laser Transitions Systems

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ν FIR = n 1 ν CO 2 ( I ) - n 2 ν CO 2 ( II ) ± m ν μ wave ± ν beat ,
ν pump = ( ν ref ± ν μ wave ) ± ν beat .
δ 1 = P + ( n ) - F - L a = 1094.7855 + ( 26.7405 ) - 1093.3030 - 28.2233 = - 0.0003 , δ 2 = G + ( l ) - E - L a = 1036.5969 + ( 29.8783 ) - 1038.2525 - 28.2233 = - 0.0006 , δ 3 = P + f - D - L c = 1094.7855 + 35.1446 - 1087.9894 - 41.9405 = 0.0002 , δ 4 = G + d - C - L c = 1036.5969 + 38.2280 - 1032.8845 - 41.9405 = - 0.0001.
[ L b ] = P - ( k ) + i - ( c ) - B = 1094.7855 - ( 0.0205 ) + 35.3719 - ( 26.7110 ) - 1089.2838 = 14.1421 = G - ( j ) + g - ( a ) - A = 1036.5969 - ( 0.0391 ) + 38.5929 - ( 29.8369 ) - 1031.1719 = 14.1419.

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