Abstract

We have developed a stable, reliable source of continuous-wave squeezed vacuum at 1064 nm, using a subthreshold monolithic lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator. Quantum-noise reduction below the vacuum noise level in a bandwidth of 30 MHz with a maximum of 5.5 ± 0.2 dB at 2 MHz is demonstrated. The reconstruction of the Wigner function of a continuous-wave, strongly squeezed-vacuum state is obtained.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. See J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(1987); J. Mod. Opt. 34(1987) (special issues on squeezed states of light); Appl. Phys. B 55, (1992) (special issue on quantum-noise reduction in optical systems).
  2. L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, and H. Wu, “Generation of squeezed states by parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  3. E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble, “Atomic spectroscopy with squeezed light for sensitivity beyond the vacuum-state limit,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 279 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Mertz, T. Debuisschert, A. Heidmann, C. Fabre, and E. Giacobino, “Improvements in the observed intensity correlation of optical parametric oscillator twin beams,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1234 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, and H. J. Kimble, “Precision measurement beyond the shot-noise limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987); P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. La Porta, “Squeezed-light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble, “Spectroscopy with squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3020 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, and H. J. Kimble, “Quantum noise reduction in optical amplification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3229 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. F. Pereira, Z. Y. Ou, and H. J. Kimble, “Back-action evading measurements for quantum nondemolition detection and quantum optical tapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 214 (1994)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. B. Yurke, “Optical back-action-evading amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 732 (1985); P. Smith, M. Collett, and D. F. Walls, “Quantum nondemolition measurement with an optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 102, 1051 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  10. I. E. Protsenko, L. A. Lugiato, and C. Fabre, “Spectral analysis of the degenerate optical parametric oscillator as a noiseless amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 1627 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. L. Krippner, W. J. Munro, and M. D. Reid, “Transient macroscopic quantum superposition states in degenerate parametric oscillation: calculations in the large quantum limit using the positive P-representation,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 4330 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, “Efficient second harmonic generation of a diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser using monolithic MgO:LiNbO3external resonant cavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 913 (1988); W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, “Monolithic MgO:LiNbO3doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator pumped by a frequency-doubled diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 14, 66 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. R. Paschotta, K. Fiedler, P. Kürz, R. Henking, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, “82% Efficient continuous-wave frequency doubling of 1.06 μ m with a monolithic MgO:LiNbO3resonator,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1325 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. C. D. Nabors and R. M. Shelby, “Two-color squeezing and sub-shot noise signal recovery in doubly resonant optical parametric amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 556 (1990); A. Sizmann, R. J. Horowicz, G. Wagner, and G. Leuchs, “Observation of amplitude squeezing of the up-converted mode in second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 80, 138 (1990); P. Kürz, R. Paschotta, K. Fiedler, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light by second-harmonic generation in a monolithic resonator,” Europhys. Lett. 24, 449 (1993); R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kürz, K. Fiedler, H.-A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light from a singly-resonant frequency doubler,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3807 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. A. Giazotto, “Wide-band measurement of gravitational waves: the VIRGO project,” Nuovo Cimento C 6, 955 (1992); J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, B. F. Schutz, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, and W. Winkler, “Proposal for a 600 m laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna—GEO 600,” (Max Planck Institut für Quantenoptik, Munich, 1994).
    [Crossref]
  16. D. Bakalov, G. Cantatore, G. Carugno, S. Carusotto, P. Favaron, F. Della Valle, I. Gabrielli, U. Gastaldi, E. Iacopini, P. Micossi, E. Milotti, R. Onofrio, R. Pengo, F. Perrone, G. Petrucci, E. Polacco, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, E. Zavattini, and G. Zavattini, “PV-LAS: vacuum birefringence and production and detection of nearly massless, weakly coupled particles by optical techniques,” Nucl. Phys. B Proc. Suppl. 35, 180 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  17. K. Vogel and H. Risken, “Determination of quasiprobability distributions in terms of probability distributions for the rotated quadrature phase,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 2847 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. G. Raymer, and A. Faridani, “Measurement of the Wigner distribution and the density matrix of a light mode using optical homodyne tomography: application to squeezed states and the vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. G. Breitenbach, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, “81% Conversion efficiency in frequency-stable continuous-wave parametric oscillation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2095 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  20. R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  21. H. P. Yuen and V. W. S. Chen, “Noise in homodyne and heterodyne detection,” Opt. Lett. 18, 177 (1983); B. Schumaker, “Noise in homodyne detection,” Opt. Lett. 19, 189 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. J. Collett and D. F. Walls, “Squeezing spectra for nonlinear optical systems,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 2887 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. E. P. Wigner, “On the quantum correction for thermodynamic equilibrium,” Phys. Rev. 40, 749 (1932).
    [Crossref]
  24. R. Loudon, “Graphical representation of squeezed-state variances,” Opt. Commun. 70, 109 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  25. S. Schiller, G. Breitenbach, S. F. Pereira, R. Paschotta, A. G. White, and J. Mlynek, “Generation of continuous-wave bright squeezed light,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization and Noise Reduction, Y. Shevy, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2378, 91 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  26. U. Leonhardt, Department of Physics, Humboldt-Universität, 12484 Berlin, Germany (personal communication, 1995; M. G. Raymer, Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (personal communication, 1995); G. M. D’Ariano, C. Macchiavello, and M. G. A. Paris, “Detection of the density matrix through optical homodyne tomography without filtered back projection,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 4298 (1994).
    [Crossref]

1995 (1)

1994 (5)

R. Paschotta, K. Fiedler, P. Kürz, R. Henking, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, “82% Efficient continuous-wave frequency doubling of 1.06 μ m with a monolithic MgO:LiNbO3resonator,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1325 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. F. Pereira, Z. Y. Ou, and H. J. Kimble, “Back-action evading measurements for quantum nondemolition detection and quantum optical tapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 214 (1994)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. E. Protsenko, L. A. Lugiato, and C. Fabre, “Spectral analysis of the degenerate optical parametric oscillator as a noiseless amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 1627 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Krippner, W. J. Munro, and M. D. Reid, “Transient macroscopic quantum superposition states in degenerate parametric oscillation: calculations in the large quantum limit using the positive P-representation,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 4330 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Bakalov, G. Cantatore, G. Carugno, S. Carusotto, P. Favaron, F. Della Valle, I. Gabrielli, U. Gastaldi, E. Iacopini, P. Micossi, E. Milotti, R. Onofrio, R. Pengo, F. Perrone, G. Petrucci, E. Polacco, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, E. Zavattini, and G. Zavattini, “PV-LAS: vacuum birefringence and production and detection of nearly massless, weakly coupled particles by optical techniques,” Nucl. Phys. B Proc. Suppl. 35, 180 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. G. Raymer, and A. Faridani, “Measurement of the Wigner distribution and the density matrix of a light mode using optical homodyne tomography: application to squeezed states and the vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, and H. J. Kimble, “Quantum noise reduction in optical amplification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3229 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (3)

E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble, “Spectroscopy with squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3020 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Giazotto, “Wide-band measurement of gravitational waves: the VIRGO project,” Nuovo Cimento C 6, 955 (1992); J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, B. F. Schutz, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, and W. Winkler, “Proposal for a 600 m laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna—GEO 600,” (Max Planck Institut für Quantenoptik, Munich, 1994).
[Crossref]

E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble, “Atomic spectroscopy with squeezed light for sensitivity beyond the vacuum-state limit,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 279 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

C. D. Nabors and R. M. Shelby, “Two-color squeezing and sub-shot noise signal recovery in doubly resonant optical parametric amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 556 (1990); A. Sizmann, R. J. Horowicz, G. Wagner, and G. Leuchs, “Observation of amplitude squeezing of the up-converted mode in second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 80, 138 (1990); P. Kürz, R. Paschotta, K. Fiedler, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light by second-harmonic generation in a monolithic resonator,” Europhys. Lett. 24, 449 (1993); R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kürz, K. Fiedler, H.-A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light from a singly-resonant frequency doubler,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3807 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

K. Vogel and H. Risken, “Determination of quasiprobability distributions in terms of probability distributions for the rotated quadrature phase,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 2847 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Loudon, “Graphical representation of squeezed-state variances,” Opt. Commun. 70, 109 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, “Efficient second harmonic generation of a diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser using monolithic MgO:LiNbO3external resonant cavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 913 (1988); W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, “Monolithic MgO:LiNbO3doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator pumped by a frequency-doubled diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 14, 66 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, and H. J. Kimble, “Precision measurement beyond the shot-noise limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987); P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. La Porta, “Squeezed-light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

See J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(1987); J. Mod. Opt. 34(1987) (special issues on squeezed states of light); Appl. Phys. B 55, (1992) (special issue on quantum-noise reduction in optical systems).

1986 (1)

L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, and H. Wu, “Generation of squeezed states by parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
[Crossref]

1985 (2)

1983 (2)

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[Crossref]

H. P. Yuen and V. W. S. Chen, “Noise in homodyne and heterodyne detection,” Opt. Lett. 18, 177 (1983); B. Schumaker, “Noise in homodyne detection,” Opt. Lett. 19, 189 (1984).
[Crossref]

1932 (1)

E. P. Wigner, “On the quantum correction for thermodynamic equilibrium,” Phys. Rev. 40, 749 (1932).
[Crossref]

Bakalov, D.

D. Bakalov, G. Cantatore, G. Carugno, S. Carusotto, P. Favaron, F. Della Valle, I. Gabrielli, U. Gastaldi, E. Iacopini, P. Micossi, E. Milotti, R. Onofrio, R. Pengo, F. Perrone, G. Petrucci, E. Polacco, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, E. Zavattini, and G. Zavattini, “PV-LAS: vacuum birefringence and production and detection of nearly massless, weakly coupled particles by optical techniques,” Nucl. Phys. B Proc. Suppl. 35, 180 (1994).
[Crossref]

Beck, M.

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. G. Raymer, and A. Faridani, “Measurement of the Wigner distribution and the density matrix of a light mode using optical homodyne tomography: application to squeezed states and the vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breitenbach, G.

G. Breitenbach, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, “81% Conversion efficiency in frequency-stable continuous-wave parametric oscillation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2095 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Schiller, G. Breitenbach, S. F. Pereira, R. Paschotta, A. G. White, and J. Mlynek, “Generation of continuous-wave bright squeezed light,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization and Noise Reduction, Y. Shevy, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2378, 91 (1995).
[Crossref]

Byer, R. L.

W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, “Efficient second harmonic generation of a diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser using monolithic MgO:LiNbO3external resonant cavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 913 (1988); W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, “Monolithic MgO:LiNbO3doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator pumped by a frequency-doubled diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 14, 66 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cantatore, G.

D. Bakalov, G. Cantatore, G. Carugno, S. Carusotto, P. Favaron, F. Della Valle, I. Gabrielli, U. Gastaldi, E. Iacopini, P. Micossi, E. Milotti, R. Onofrio, R. Pengo, F. Perrone, G. Petrucci, E. Polacco, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, E. Zavattini, and G. Zavattini, “PV-LAS: vacuum birefringence and production and detection of nearly massless, weakly coupled particles by optical techniques,” Nucl. Phys. B Proc. Suppl. 35, 180 (1994).
[Crossref]

Carri, J.

E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble, “Atomic spectroscopy with squeezed light for sensitivity beyond the vacuum-state limit,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 279 (1992).
[Crossref]

E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble, “Spectroscopy with squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3020 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carugno, G.

D. Bakalov, G. Cantatore, G. Carugno, S. Carusotto, P. Favaron, F. Della Valle, I. Gabrielli, U. Gastaldi, E. Iacopini, P. Micossi, E. Milotti, R. Onofrio, R. Pengo, F. Perrone, G. Petrucci, E. Polacco, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, E. Zavattini, and G. Zavattini, “PV-LAS: vacuum birefringence and production and detection of nearly massless, weakly coupled particles by optical techniques,” Nucl. Phys. B Proc. Suppl. 35, 180 (1994).
[Crossref]

Carusotto, S.

D. Bakalov, G. Cantatore, G. Carugno, S. Carusotto, P. Favaron, F. Della Valle, I. Gabrielli, U. Gastaldi, E. Iacopini, P. Micossi, E. Milotti, R. Onofrio, R. Pengo, F. Perrone, G. Petrucci, E. Polacco, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, E. Zavattini, and G. Zavattini, “PV-LAS: vacuum birefringence and production and detection of nearly massless, weakly coupled particles by optical techniques,” Nucl. Phys. B Proc. Suppl. 35, 180 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chen, V. W. S.

H. P. Yuen and V. W. S. Chen, “Noise in homodyne and heterodyne detection,” Opt. Lett. 18, 177 (1983); B. Schumaker, “Noise in homodyne detection,” Opt. Lett. 19, 189 (1984).
[Crossref]

Collett, M. J.

M. J. Collett and D. F. Walls, “Squeezing spectra for nonlinear optical systems,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 2887 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Debuisschert, T.

Della Valle, F.

D. Bakalov, G. Cantatore, G. Carugno, S. Carusotto, P. Favaron, F. Della Valle, I. Gabrielli, U. Gastaldi, E. Iacopini, P. Micossi, E. Milotti, R. Onofrio, R. Pengo, F. Perrone, G. Petrucci, E. Polacco, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, E. Zavattini, and G. Zavattini, “PV-LAS: vacuum birefringence and production and detection of nearly massless, weakly coupled particles by optical techniques,” Nucl. Phys. B Proc. Suppl. 35, 180 (1994).
[Crossref]

Drever, R.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[Crossref]

Fabre, C.

I. E. Protsenko, L. A. Lugiato, and C. Fabre, “Spectral analysis of the degenerate optical parametric oscillator as a noiseless amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 1627 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mertz, T. Debuisschert, A. Heidmann, C. Fabre, and E. Giacobino, “Improvements in the observed intensity correlation of optical parametric oscillator twin beams,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1234 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faridani, A.

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. G. Raymer, and A. Faridani, “Measurement of the Wigner distribution and the density matrix of a light mode using optical homodyne tomography: application to squeezed states and the vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Favaron, P.

D. Bakalov, G. Cantatore, G. Carugno, S. Carusotto, P. Favaron, F. Della Valle, I. Gabrielli, U. Gastaldi, E. Iacopini, P. Micossi, E. Milotti, R. Onofrio, R. Pengo, F. Perrone, G. Petrucci, E. Polacco, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, E. Zavattini, and G. Zavattini, “PV-LAS: vacuum birefringence and production and detection of nearly massless, weakly coupled particles by optical techniques,” Nucl. Phys. B Proc. Suppl. 35, 180 (1994).
[Crossref]

Fiedler, K.

Ford, G.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[Crossref]

Gabrielli, I.

D. Bakalov, G. Cantatore, G. Carugno, S. Carusotto, P. Favaron, F. Della Valle, I. Gabrielli, U. Gastaldi, E. Iacopini, P. Micossi, E. Milotti, R. Onofrio, R. Pengo, F. Perrone, G. Petrucci, E. Polacco, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, E. Zavattini, and G. Zavattini, “PV-LAS: vacuum birefringence and production and detection of nearly massless, weakly coupled particles by optical techniques,” Nucl. Phys. B Proc. Suppl. 35, 180 (1994).
[Crossref]

Gastaldi, U.

D. Bakalov, G. Cantatore, G. Carugno, S. Carusotto, P. Favaron, F. Della Valle, I. Gabrielli, U. Gastaldi, E. Iacopini, P. Micossi, E. Milotti, R. Onofrio, R. Pengo, F. Perrone, G. Petrucci, E. Polacco, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, E. Zavattini, and G. Zavattini, “PV-LAS: vacuum birefringence and production and detection of nearly massless, weakly coupled particles by optical techniques,” Nucl. Phys. B Proc. Suppl. 35, 180 (1994).
[Crossref]

Giacobino, E.

Giazotto, A.

A. Giazotto, “Wide-band measurement of gravitational waves: the VIRGO project,” Nuovo Cimento C 6, 955 (1992); J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, B. F. Schutz, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, and W. Winkler, “Proposal for a 600 m laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna—GEO 600,” (Max Planck Institut für Quantenoptik, Munich, 1994).
[Crossref]

Hall, J.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[Crossref]

Hall, J. L.

L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, and H. Wu, “Generation of squeezed states by parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
[Crossref]

Heidmann, A.

Henking, R.

Hough, J.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[Crossref]

Iacopini, E.

D. Bakalov, G. Cantatore, G. Carugno, S. Carusotto, P. Favaron, F. Della Valle, I. Gabrielli, U. Gastaldi, E. Iacopini, P. Micossi, E. Milotti, R. Onofrio, R. Pengo, F. Perrone, G. Petrucci, E. Polacco, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, E. Zavattini, and G. Zavattini, “PV-LAS: vacuum birefringence and production and detection of nearly massless, weakly coupled particles by optical techniques,” Nucl. Phys. B Proc. Suppl. 35, 180 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kimble, H. J.

S. F. Pereira, Z. Y. Ou, and H. J. Kimble, “Back-action evading measurements for quantum nondemolition detection and quantum optical tapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 214 (1994)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, and H. J. Kimble, “Quantum noise reduction in optical amplification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3229 (1993).
[Crossref]

E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble, “Spectroscopy with squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3020 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble, “Atomic spectroscopy with squeezed light for sensitivity beyond the vacuum-state limit,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 279 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, and H. J. Kimble, “Precision measurement beyond the shot-noise limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987); P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. La Porta, “Squeezed-light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, and H. Wu, “Generation of squeezed states by parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
[Crossref]

Kowalski, F.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[Crossref]

Kozlovsky, W. J.

W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, “Efficient second harmonic generation of a diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser using monolithic MgO:LiNbO3external resonant cavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 913 (1988); W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, “Monolithic MgO:LiNbO3doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator pumped by a frequency-doubled diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 14, 66 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krippner, L.

L. Krippner, W. J. Munro, and M. D. Reid, “Transient macroscopic quantum superposition states in degenerate parametric oscillation: calculations in the large quantum limit using the positive P-representation,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 4330 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kürz, P.

Leonhardt, U.

U. Leonhardt, Department of Physics, Humboldt-Universität, 12484 Berlin, Germany (personal communication, 1995; M. G. Raymer, Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (personal communication, 1995); G. M. D’Ariano, C. Macchiavello, and M. G. A. Paris, “Detection of the density matrix through optical homodyne tomography without filtered back projection,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 4298 (1994).
[Crossref]

Loudon, R.

R. Loudon, “Graphical representation of squeezed-state variances,” Opt. Commun. 70, 109 (1989).
[Crossref]

Lugiato, L. A.

I. E. Protsenko, L. A. Lugiato, and C. Fabre, “Spectral analysis of the degenerate optical parametric oscillator as a noiseless amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 1627 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mertz, J.

Micossi, P.

D. Bakalov, G. Cantatore, G. Carugno, S. Carusotto, P. Favaron, F. Della Valle, I. Gabrielli, U. Gastaldi, E. Iacopini, P. Micossi, E. Milotti, R. Onofrio, R. Pengo, F. Perrone, G. Petrucci, E. Polacco, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, E. Zavattini, and G. Zavattini, “PV-LAS: vacuum birefringence and production and detection of nearly massless, weakly coupled particles by optical techniques,” Nucl. Phys. B Proc. Suppl. 35, 180 (1994).
[Crossref]

Milotti, E.

D. Bakalov, G. Cantatore, G. Carugno, S. Carusotto, P. Favaron, F. Della Valle, I. Gabrielli, U. Gastaldi, E. Iacopini, P. Micossi, E. Milotti, R. Onofrio, R. Pengo, F. Perrone, G. Petrucci, E. Polacco, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, E. Zavattini, and G. Zavattini, “PV-LAS: vacuum birefringence and production and detection of nearly massless, weakly coupled particles by optical techniques,” Nucl. Phys. B Proc. Suppl. 35, 180 (1994).
[Crossref]

Mlynek, J.

Munley, A.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[Crossref]

Munro, W. J.

L. Krippner, W. J. Munro, and M. D. Reid, “Transient macroscopic quantum superposition states in degenerate parametric oscillation: calculations in the large quantum limit using the positive P-representation,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 4330 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nabors, C. D.

C. D. Nabors and R. M. Shelby, “Two-color squeezing and sub-shot noise signal recovery in doubly resonant optical parametric amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 556 (1990); A. Sizmann, R. J. Horowicz, G. Wagner, and G. Leuchs, “Observation of amplitude squeezing of the up-converted mode in second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 80, 138 (1990); P. Kürz, R. Paschotta, K. Fiedler, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light by second-harmonic generation in a monolithic resonator,” Europhys. Lett. 24, 449 (1993); R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kürz, K. Fiedler, H.-A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light from a singly-resonant frequency doubler,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3807 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, “Efficient second harmonic generation of a diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser using monolithic MgO:LiNbO3external resonant cavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 913 (1988); W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, “Monolithic MgO:LiNbO3doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator pumped by a frequency-doubled diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 14, 66 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Onofrio, R.

D. Bakalov, G. Cantatore, G. Carugno, S. Carusotto, P. Favaron, F. Della Valle, I. Gabrielli, U. Gastaldi, E. Iacopini, P. Micossi, E. Milotti, R. Onofrio, R. Pengo, F. Perrone, G. Petrucci, E. Polacco, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, E. Zavattini, and G. Zavattini, “PV-LAS: vacuum birefringence and production and detection of nearly massless, weakly coupled particles by optical techniques,” Nucl. Phys. B Proc. Suppl. 35, 180 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ou, Z. Y.

S. F. Pereira, Z. Y. Ou, and H. J. Kimble, “Back-action evading measurements for quantum nondemolition detection and quantum optical tapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 214 (1994)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, and H. J. Kimble, “Quantum noise reduction in optical amplification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3229 (1993).
[Crossref]

Paschotta, R.

R. Paschotta, K. Fiedler, P. Kürz, R. Henking, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, “82% Efficient continuous-wave frequency doubling of 1.06 μ m with a monolithic MgO:LiNbO3resonator,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1325 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schiller, G. Breitenbach, S. F. Pereira, R. Paschotta, A. G. White, and J. Mlynek, “Generation of continuous-wave bright squeezed light,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization and Noise Reduction, Y. Shevy, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2378, 91 (1995).
[Crossref]

Pengo, R.

D. Bakalov, G. Cantatore, G. Carugno, S. Carusotto, P. Favaron, F. Della Valle, I. Gabrielli, U. Gastaldi, E. Iacopini, P. Micossi, E. Milotti, R. Onofrio, R. Pengo, F. Perrone, G. Petrucci, E. Polacco, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, E. Zavattini, and G. Zavattini, “PV-LAS: vacuum birefringence and production and detection of nearly massless, weakly coupled particles by optical techniques,” Nucl. Phys. B Proc. Suppl. 35, 180 (1994).
[Crossref]

Pereira, S. F.

S. F. Pereira, Z. Y. Ou, and H. J. Kimble, “Back-action evading measurements for quantum nondemolition detection and quantum optical tapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 214 (1994)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, and H. J. Kimble, “Quantum noise reduction in optical amplification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3229 (1993).
[Crossref]

S. Schiller, G. Breitenbach, S. F. Pereira, R. Paschotta, A. G. White, and J. Mlynek, “Generation of continuous-wave bright squeezed light,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization and Noise Reduction, Y. Shevy, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2378, 91 (1995).
[Crossref]

Perrone, F.

D. Bakalov, G. Cantatore, G. Carugno, S. Carusotto, P. Favaron, F. Della Valle, I. Gabrielli, U. Gastaldi, E. Iacopini, P. Micossi, E. Milotti, R. Onofrio, R. Pengo, F. Perrone, G. Petrucci, E. Polacco, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, E. Zavattini, and G. Zavattini, “PV-LAS: vacuum birefringence and production and detection of nearly massless, weakly coupled particles by optical techniques,” Nucl. Phys. B Proc. Suppl. 35, 180 (1994).
[Crossref]

Petrucci, G.

D. Bakalov, G. Cantatore, G. Carugno, S. Carusotto, P. Favaron, F. Della Valle, I. Gabrielli, U. Gastaldi, E. Iacopini, P. Micossi, E. Milotti, R. Onofrio, R. Pengo, F. Perrone, G. Petrucci, E. Polacco, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, E. Zavattini, and G. Zavattini, “PV-LAS: vacuum birefringence and production and detection of nearly massless, weakly coupled particles by optical techniques,” Nucl. Phys. B Proc. Suppl. 35, 180 (1994).
[Crossref]

Polacco, E.

D. Bakalov, G. Cantatore, G. Carugno, S. Carusotto, P. Favaron, F. Della Valle, I. Gabrielli, U. Gastaldi, E. Iacopini, P. Micossi, E. Milotti, R. Onofrio, R. Pengo, F. Perrone, G. Petrucci, E. Polacco, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, E. Zavattini, and G. Zavattini, “PV-LAS: vacuum birefringence and production and detection of nearly massless, weakly coupled particles by optical techniques,” Nucl. Phys. B Proc. Suppl. 35, 180 (1994).
[Crossref]

Polzik, E. S.

E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble, “Atomic spectroscopy with squeezed light for sensitivity beyond the vacuum-state limit,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 279 (1992).
[Crossref]

E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble, “Spectroscopy with squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3020 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Protsenko, I. E.

I. E. Protsenko, L. A. Lugiato, and C. Fabre, “Spectral analysis of the degenerate optical parametric oscillator as a noiseless amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 1627 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raymer, M. G.

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. G. Raymer, and A. Faridani, “Measurement of the Wigner distribution and the density matrix of a light mode using optical homodyne tomography: application to squeezed states and the vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reid, M. D.

L. Krippner, W. J. Munro, and M. D. Reid, “Transient macroscopic quantum superposition states in degenerate parametric oscillation: calculations in the large quantum limit using the positive P-representation,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 4330 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Risken, H.

K. Vogel and H. Risken, “Determination of quasiprobability distributions in terms of probability distributions for the rotated quadrature phase,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 2847 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rizzo, C.

D. Bakalov, G. Cantatore, G. Carugno, S. Carusotto, P. Favaron, F. Della Valle, I. Gabrielli, U. Gastaldi, E. Iacopini, P. Micossi, E. Milotti, R. Onofrio, R. Pengo, F. Perrone, G. Petrucci, E. Polacco, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, E. Zavattini, and G. Zavattini, “PV-LAS: vacuum birefringence and production and detection of nearly massless, weakly coupled particles by optical techniques,” Nucl. Phys. B Proc. Suppl. 35, 180 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ruoso, G.

D. Bakalov, G. Cantatore, G. Carugno, S. Carusotto, P. Favaron, F. Della Valle, I. Gabrielli, U. Gastaldi, E. Iacopini, P. Micossi, E. Milotti, R. Onofrio, R. Pengo, F. Perrone, G. Petrucci, E. Polacco, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, E. Zavattini, and G. Zavattini, “PV-LAS: vacuum birefringence and production and detection of nearly massless, weakly coupled particles by optical techniques,” Nucl. Phys. B Proc. Suppl. 35, 180 (1994).
[Crossref]

Schiller, S.

Shelby, R. M.

C. D. Nabors and R. M. Shelby, “Two-color squeezing and sub-shot noise signal recovery in doubly resonant optical parametric amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 556 (1990); A. Sizmann, R. J. Horowicz, G. Wagner, and G. Leuchs, “Observation of amplitude squeezing of the up-converted mode in second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 80, 138 (1990); P. Kürz, R. Paschotta, K. Fiedler, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light by second-harmonic generation in a monolithic resonator,” Europhys. Lett. 24, 449 (1993); R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kürz, K. Fiedler, H.-A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light from a singly-resonant frequency doubler,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3807 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smithey, D. T.

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. G. Raymer, and A. Faridani, “Measurement of the Wigner distribution and the density matrix of a light mode using optical homodyne tomography: application to squeezed states and the vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vogel, K.

K. Vogel and H. Risken, “Determination of quasiprobability distributions in terms of probability distributions for the rotated quadrature phase,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 2847 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walls, D. F.

M. J. Collett and D. F. Walls, “Squeezing spectra for nonlinear optical systems,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 2887 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ward, H.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[Crossref]

White, A. G.

S. Schiller, G. Breitenbach, S. F. Pereira, R. Paschotta, A. G. White, and J. Mlynek, “Generation of continuous-wave bright squeezed light,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization and Noise Reduction, Y. Shevy, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2378, 91 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wigner, E. P.

E. P. Wigner, “On the quantum correction for thermodynamic equilibrium,” Phys. Rev. 40, 749 (1932).
[Crossref]

Wu, H.

L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, and H. Wu, “Generation of squeezed states by parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
[Crossref]

Wu, L.-A.

M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, and H. J. Kimble, “Precision measurement beyond the shot-noise limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987); P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. La Porta, “Squeezed-light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, and H. Wu, “Generation of squeezed states by parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
[Crossref]

Xiao, M.

M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, and H. J. Kimble, “Precision measurement beyond the shot-noise limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987); P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. La Porta, “Squeezed-light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuen, H. P.

H. P. Yuen and V. W. S. Chen, “Noise in homodyne and heterodyne detection,” Opt. Lett. 18, 177 (1983); B. Schumaker, “Noise in homodyne detection,” Opt. Lett. 19, 189 (1984).
[Crossref]

Yurke, B.

Zavattini, E.

D. Bakalov, G. Cantatore, G. Carugno, S. Carusotto, P. Favaron, F. Della Valle, I. Gabrielli, U. Gastaldi, E. Iacopini, P. Micossi, E. Milotti, R. Onofrio, R. Pengo, F. Perrone, G. Petrucci, E. Polacco, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, E. Zavattini, and G. Zavattini, “PV-LAS: vacuum birefringence and production and detection of nearly massless, weakly coupled particles by optical techniques,” Nucl. Phys. B Proc. Suppl. 35, 180 (1994).
[Crossref]

Zavattini, G.

D. Bakalov, G. Cantatore, G. Carugno, S. Carusotto, P. Favaron, F. Della Valle, I. Gabrielli, U. Gastaldi, E. Iacopini, P. Micossi, E. Milotti, R. Onofrio, R. Pengo, F. Perrone, G. Petrucci, E. Polacco, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, E. Zavattini, and G. Zavattini, “PV-LAS: vacuum birefringence and production and detection of nearly massless, weakly coupled particles by optical techniques,” Nucl. Phys. B Proc. Suppl. 35, 180 (1994).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble, “Atomic spectroscopy with squeezed light for sensitivity beyond the vacuum-state limit,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 279 (1992).
[Crossref]

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, “Efficient second harmonic generation of a diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser using monolithic MgO:LiNbO3external resonant cavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 913 (1988); W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, “Monolithic MgO:LiNbO3doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator pumped by a frequency-doubled diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 14, 66 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Nucl. Phys. B Proc. Suppl. (1)

D. Bakalov, G. Cantatore, G. Carugno, S. Carusotto, P. Favaron, F. Della Valle, I. Gabrielli, U. Gastaldi, E. Iacopini, P. Micossi, E. Milotti, R. Onofrio, R. Pengo, F. Perrone, G. Petrucci, E. Polacco, C. Rizzo, G. Ruoso, E. Zavattini, and G. Zavattini, “PV-LAS: vacuum birefringence and production and detection of nearly massless, weakly coupled particles by optical techniques,” Nucl. Phys. B Proc. Suppl. 35, 180 (1994).
[Crossref]

Nuovo Cimento C (1)

A. Giazotto, “Wide-band measurement of gravitational waves: the VIRGO project,” Nuovo Cimento C 6, 955 (1992); J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, B. F. Schutz, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, and W. Winkler, “Proposal for a 600 m laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna—GEO 600,” (Max Planck Institut für Quantenoptik, Munich, 1994).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Loudon, “Graphical representation of squeezed-state variances,” Opt. Commun. 70, 109 (1989).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. (1)

E. P. Wigner, “On the quantum correction for thermodynamic equilibrium,” Phys. Rev. 40, 749 (1932).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (5)

I. E. Protsenko, L. A. Lugiato, and C. Fabre, “Spectral analysis of the degenerate optical parametric oscillator as a noiseless amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 1627 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Krippner, W. J. Munro, and M. D. Reid, “Transient macroscopic quantum superposition states in degenerate parametric oscillation: calculations in the large quantum limit using the positive P-representation,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 4330 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Nabors and R. M. Shelby, “Two-color squeezing and sub-shot noise signal recovery in doubly resonant optical parametric amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 556 (1990); A. Sizmann, R. J. Horowicz, G. Wagner, and G. Leuchs, “Observation of amplitude squeezing of the up-converted mode in second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 80, 138 (1990); P. Kürz, R. Paschotta, K. Fiedler, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light by second-harmonic generation in a monolithic resonator,” Europhys. Lett. 24, 449 (1993); R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kürz, K. Fiedler, H.-A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light from a singly-resonant frequency doubler,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3807 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Vogel and H. Risken, “Determination of quasiprobability distributions in terms of probability distributions for the rotated quadrature phase,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 2847 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Collett and D. F. Walls, “Squeezing spectra for nonlinear optical systems,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 2887 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. G. Raymer, and A. Faridani, “Measurement of the Wigner distribution and the density matrix of a light mode using optical homodyne tomography: application to squeezed states and the vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, and H. Wu, “Generation of squeezed states by parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
[Crossref]

M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, and H. J. Kimble, “Precision measurement beyond the shot-noise limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987); P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. La Porta, “Squeezed-light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble, “Spectroscopy with squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3020 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, and H. J. Kimble, “Quantum noise reduction in optical amplification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3229 (1993).
[Crossref]

S. F. Pereira, Z. Y. Ou, and H. J. Kimble, “Back-action evading measurements for quantum nondemolition detection and quantum optical tapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 214 (1994)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

S. Schiller, G. Breitenbach, S. F. Pereira, R. Paschotta, A. G. White, and J. Mlynek, “Generation of continuous-wave bright squeezed light,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization and Noise Reduction, Y. Shevy, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2378, 91 (1995).
[Crossref]

U. Leonhardt, Department of Physics, Humboldt-Universität, 12484 Berlin, Germany (personal communication, 1995; M. G. Raymer, Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (personal communication, 1995); G. M. D’Ariano, C. Macchiavello, and M. G. A. Paris, “Detection of the density matrix through optical homodyne tomography without filtered back projection,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 4298 (1994).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental scheme for the generation of squeezed vacuum with a monolithic LiNbO3 resonator. AOM, acousto-optic modulator; SHG, second-harmonic generator; LO, local oscillator; piezo, piezoelectric mirror actuator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral density of the amplitude noise of the diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser as a function of frequency. Shown are Ψ+ before the filter cavity (top, dashed trace) and Ψ+ after the filter cavity (middle, solid trace). The bottom trace shows Ψ for both cases. The peak at 500 kHz is due to the relaxation oscillation of the laser. The second peak at 600 kHz in the trace of Ψ+ after the filter cavity is the frequency modulation used for locking the cavity. The resolution bandwidth was 10 kHz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral density Ψ as a function of the analysis frequency Ω, with trace (i) being the antisqueezing spectrum and trace (ii) the squeezing spectrum. The theoretical expectations are denoted by the solid curves superimposed upon traces (i) and (ii). The peak at 14.5 MHz and its harmonic at 29 MHz come from the modulation of the doubling cavity used for locking. The resolution bandwidth was 100 kHz; the video bandwidth, 100 Hz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Squeezed vacuum from the monolithic OPO. In trace (i) the phase of the local oscillator is being scanned; in trace (iii) the phase is fixed manually for minimum noise. One obtains the shot-noise level by averaging trace (ii). The resolution bandwidth was 100 kHz; the video bandwidth, 1 kHz.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Standard deviations of the electric-field amplitudes of a squeezed-vacuum state in phase space. The circle represents the unsqueezed vacuum state. (b) The same data transformed into a squeezing ellipse. The points correspond to measured values corrected for total efficiency, and the curves represent the theoretical expectations.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Noise of the photocurrent i of the squeezed vacuum from the OPO at 2 MHz as a function of the local oscillator phase. The detection bandwidth is 100 kHz. (b) Distributions of the photocurrent fluctuations for maximum squeezing, shot noise, and maximum antisqueezing. The curves are fits of Gaussian distributions. The inset shows the distributions for eleven different phase angles from 0 to π.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Reconstruction of the Wigner function for the squeezed vacuum. (b) Contour plot of the Wigner function. The ellipticity of the contours is slightly smaller than in Fig. 5 because no corrections for the detection efficiency were made.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S ± ( Ω , P ) = ± 4 P / P th ( Ω / Γ ) 2 + ( 1 P / P th ) 2 ,
Ψ ± ( Ω , P ) = Ψ 0 [ 1 + ξ ρ S ± ( Ω , P ) ] ,
[ r ( θ ) cos ( θ ) , r ( θ ) sin ( θ ) ] [ a 2 r ( θ ) cos ( θ ) , b 2 r ( θ ) sin ( θ ) ] .
W sq ( x , p ) = ( 1 / 2 π ) exp ( - 1 2 { [ 1 + ρ S - ( Ω ) ] x 2 + [ 1 + ρ S + ( Ω ) ] p 2 } ) ,

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