Abstract

We report spectral and temporal characteristics of λ ~ 1.5 μm, nominally 150-fs signal pulses from a KTP-based high-repetition-rate optical parametric oscillator (OPO) synchronously pumped by a 90-fs, 85-MHz mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser. This OPO can be operated with cavity detunings as large as ±2 μm, although stably for only ±1.3 μm. When the OPO is operated without dispersion compensation at average powers <20 mW the spectrum is singly peaked, with a width of ~20 nm; for output powers between 20 and 150 mW self-phase modulation induces a double-peak structure in the spectrum and broadens it to 50 nm. Because of time-dependent gain effects in the OPO, the spectrum is asymmetric, and the asymmetry changes dramatically with detuning, reversing when the detuning changes from +1.3 to −1.3 μm. Cross-correlation measurements between pump and signal pulses reveal asymmetric temporal pulse shapes consistent with the observed spectra. For optimum power, which we use to define the zero-detuning condition, the pulse has a trailing edge steeper than its leading edge. The operation of the OPO for nonzero detuning can be understood in terms of group-velocity dispersion effects, whereby shifts in the signal spectrum compensate for as much as 50% of the time lag induced at each round trip between the pump and the signal pulses.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. C. Edelstein, E. S. Wachman, and C. L. Tang, “Broadly tunable high repetition rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1728 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  2. Q. Fu, G. Mak, and H. M. van Driel, “High-power, 62-fs infrared optical parametric oscillator synchronously pumped by a 76-MHz Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1006 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. W. S. Pelouch, P. E. Powers, and C. L. Tang, “Ti:sapphire-pumped, high-repetition-rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1070 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. M. Dudley, D. T. Reid, M. Ebrahimzadeh, and W. Sibbett, “Characteristics of a noncritically phasematched Ti:sapphire pumped femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 104, 419 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  5. E. Treacy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 454 (1969); W. Dietel, J. J. Fontaine, and J.-C. Diels, “Intracavity pulse compression with glass: a new method of generating pulses shorter than 60 femtoseconds,” Opt. Lett. 8, 4 (1983); J. A. Valdmanis, R. L. Fork, and J. P. Gordon, “Generation of optical pulses as short as 27 fs directly from a laser balancing self-phase modulation, group-velocity dispersion, saturable absorption, and saturable gain,” Opt. Lett. 10, 131 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  7. F. DeMartini, C. H. Townes, T. K. Gustafson, and P. L. Kelly, “Self-steepening of light pulses,” Phys. Rev. 164, 312 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  8. V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), Chap. 3, p. 103.
  9. T. J. Driscoll, G. M. Gale, and F. Hache, “Ti:sapphire second-harmonic-pumped visible range femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 110, 5 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  10. E. C. Cheung and J. M. Liu, “Theory of a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator in steady-state operation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 1385 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  11. G. Albrecht, A. Antonetti, and G. Mourou, “Temporal shape analysis of Nd3+:YAG active mode-locked pulses,” Opt. Commun. 40, 59 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. D. Kafka, M. L. Watts, and J. W. Pieterse, “Subpicosecond infrared pulse generation using a synchronously pumped OPO,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics 1994, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 237.

1994 (2)

J. M. Dudley, D. T. Reid, M. Ebrahimzadeh, and W. Sibbett, “Characteristics of a noncritically phasematched Ti:sapphire pumped femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 104, 419 (1994).
[Crossref]

T. J. Driscoll, G. M. Gale, and F. Hache, “Ti:sapphire second-harmonic-pumped visible range femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 110, 5 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

1990 (1)

1989 (2)

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337 (1989).
[Crossref]

D. C. Edelstein, E. S. Wachman, and C. L. Tang, “Broadly tunable high repetition rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1728 (1989).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

G. Albrecht, A. Antonetti, and G. Mourou, “Temporal shape analysis of Nd3+:YAG active mode-locked pulses,” Opt. Commun. 40, 59 (1981).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

E. Treacy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 454 (1969); W. Dietel, J. J. Fontaine, and J.-C. Diels, “Intracavity pulse compression with glass: a new method of generating pulses shorter than 60 femtoseconds,” Opt. Lett. 8, 4 (1983); J. A. Valdmanis, R. L. Fork, and J. P. Gordon, “Generation of optical pulses as short as 27 fs directly from a laser balancing self-phase modulation, group-velocity dispersion, saturable absorption, and saturable gain,” Opt. Lett. 10, 131 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

F. DeMartini, C. H. Townes, T. K. Gustafson, and P. L. Kelly, “Self-steepening of light pulses,” Phys. Rev. 164, 312 (1967).
[Crossref]

Adair, R.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337 (1989).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, G.

G. Albrecht, A. Antonetti, and G. Mourou, “Temporal shape analysis of Nd3+:YAG active mode-locked pulses,” Opt. Commun. 40, 59 (1981).
[Crossref]

Antonetti, A.

G. Albrecht, A. Antonetti, and G. Mourou, “Temporal shape analysis of Nd3+:YAG active mode-locked pulses,” Opt. Commun. 40, 59 (1981).
[Crossref]

Chase, L. L.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337 (1989).
[Crossref]

Cheung, E. C.

DeMartini, F.

F. DeMartini, C. H. Townes, T. K. Gustafson, and P. L. Kelly, “Self-steepening of light pulses,” Phys. Rev. 164, 312 (1967).
[Crossref]

Dmitriev, V. G.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), Chap. 3, p. 103.

Driscoll, T. J.

T. J. Driscoll, G. M. Gale, and F. Hache, “Ti:sapphire second-harmonic-pumped visible range femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 110, 5 (1994).
[Crossref]

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, D. T. Reid, M. Ebrahimzadeh, and W. Sibbett, “Characteristics of a noncritically phasematched Ti:sapphire pumped femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 104, 419 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ebrahimzadeh, M.

J. M. Dudley, D. T. Reid, M. Ebrahimzadeh, and W. Sibbett, “Characteristics of a noncritically phasematched Ti:sapphire pumped femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 104, 419 (1994).
[Crossref]

Edelstein, D. C.

D. C. Edelstein, E. S. Wachman, and C. L. Tang, “Broadly tunable high repetition rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1728 (1989).
[Crossref]

Fu, Q.

Gale, G. M.

T. J. Driscoll, G. M. Gale, and F. Hache, “Ti:sapphire second-harmonic-pumped visible range femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 110, 5 (1994).
[Crossref]

Gurzadyan, G. G.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), Chap. 3, p. 103.

Gustafson, T. K.

F. DeMartini, C. H. Townes, T. K. Gustafson, and P. L. Kelly, “Self-steepening of light pulses,” Phys. Rev. 164, 312 (1967).
[Crossref]

Hache, F.

T. J. Driscoll, G. M. Gale, and F. Hache, “Ti:sapphire second-harmonic-pumped visible range femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 110, 5 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kafka, J. D.

J. D. Kafka, M. L. Watts, and J. W. Pieterse, “Subpicosecond infrared pulse generation using a synchronously pumped OPO,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics 1994, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 237.

Kelly, P. L.

F. DeMartini, C. H. Townes, T. K. Gustafson, and P. L. Kelly, “Self-steepening of light pulses,” Phys. Rev. 164, 312 (1967).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. M.

Mak, G.

Mourou, G.

G. Albrecht, A. Antonetti, and G. Mourou, “Temporal shape analysis of Nd3+:YAG active mode-locked pulses,” Opt. Commun. 40, 59 (1981).
[Crossref]

Nikogosyan, D. N.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), Chap. 3, p. 103.

Payne, S. A.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337 (1989).
[Crossref]

Pelouch, W. S.

Pieterse, J. W.

J. D. Kafka, M. L. Watts, and J. W. Pieterse, “Subpicosecond infrared pulse generation using a synchronously pumped OPO,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics 1994, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 237.

Powers, P. E.

Reid, D. T.

J. M. Dudley, D. T. Reid, M. Ebrahimzadeh, and W. Sibbett, “Characteristics of a noncritically phasematched Ti:sapphire pumped femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 104, 419 (1994).
[Crossref]

Sibbett, W.

J. M. Dudley, D. T. Reid, M. Ebrahimzadeh, and W. Sibbett, “Characteristics of a noncritically phasematched Ti:sapphire pumped femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 104, 419 (1994).
[Crossref]

Tang, C. L.

W. S. Pelouch, P. E. Powers, and C. L. Tang, “Ti:sapphire-pumped, high-repetition-rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1070 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Edelstein, E. S. Wachman, and C. L. Tang, “Broadly tunable high repetition rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1728 (1989).
[Crossref]

Townes, C. H.

F. DeMartini, C. H. Townes, T. K. Gustafson, and P. L. Kelly, “Self-steepening of light pulses,” Phys. Rev. 164, 312 (1967).
[Crossref]

Treacy, E.

E. Treacy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 454 (1969); W. Dietel, J. J. Fontaine, and J.-C. Diels, “Intracavity pulse compression with glass: a new method of generating pulses shorter than 60 femtoseconds,” Opt. Lett. 8, 4 (1983); J. A. Valdmanis, R. L. Fork, and J. P. Gordon, “Generation of optical pulses as short as 27 fs directly from a laser balancing self-phase modulation, group-velocity dispersion, saturable absorption, and saturable gain,” Opt. Lett. 10, 131 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Driel, H. M.

Wachman, E. S.

D. C. Edelstein, E. S. Wachman, and C. L. Tang, “Broadly tunable high repetition rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1728 (1989).
[Crossref]

Watts, M. L.

J. D. Kafka, M. L. Watts, and J. W. Pieterse, “Subpicosecond infrared pulse generation using a synchronously pumped OPO,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics 1994, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 237.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. C. Edelstein, E. S. Wachman, and C. L. Tang, “Broadly tunable high repetition rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1728 (1989).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. Treacy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 454 (1969); W. Dietel, J. J. Fontaine, and J.-C. Diels, “Intracavity pulse compression with glass: a new method of generating pulses shorter than 60 femtoseconds,” Opt. Lett. 8, 4 (1983); J. A. Valdmanis, R. L. Fork, and J. P. Gordon, “Generation of optical pulses as short as 27 fs directly from a laser balancing self-phase modulation, group-velocity dispersion, saturable absorption, and saturable gain,” Opt. Lett. 10, 131 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (3)

G. Albrecht, A. Antonetti, and G. Mourou, “Temporal shape analysis of Nd3+:YAG active mode-locked pulses,” Opt. Commun. 40, 59 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. M. Dudley, D. T. Reid, M. Ebrahimzadeh, and W. Sibbett, “Characteristics of a noncritically phasematched Ti:sapphire pumped femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 104, 419 (1994).
[Crossref]

T. J. Driscoll, G. M. Gale, and F. Hache, “Ti:sapphire second-harmonic-pumped visible range femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 110, 5 (1994).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

F. DeMartini, C. H. Townes, T. K. Gustafson, and P. L. Kelly, “Self-steepening of light pulses,” Phys. Rev. 164, 312 (1967).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337 (1989).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), Chap. 3, p. 103.

J. D. Kafka, M. L. Watts, and J. W. Pieterse, “Subpicosecond infrared pulse generation using a synchronously pumped OPO,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics 1994, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 237.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral shape for the signal at different cavity detunings (in μm): (a) −1.3, (b) −0.6, (c) +0.6, (d) +1.3.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross-correlation measurements between the 1.5-μm signal beam and an 800-nm Ti:sapphire pump beam for different amounts of cavity detuning: (a) 0.9 μm, (b) zero, (c) −0.9 μm. Negative time delay corresponds to the signal-pulse front. The dashed curve is the reflection of the solid curve (original data) after matching at the 0.1 level.

Equations (3)

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Δ ω = n 2 ω 0 L c d I d t ,
G ( τ ) - + I ω ( t ) I ω ( t - τ ) d t .
G ( τ ) I ω ( τ ) - + I ω ( t ) d t I ω ( τ ) ,

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