Abstract

We describe relatively simple procedures permitting the control of a continuously tunable pulsed optical parametric oscillator with effective optical bandwidths ranging from more than 10 cm−1 to as low as ~0.01 cm−1. These techniques are surveyed, and their effectiveness is demonstrated in terms of a variety of atomic and molecular spectroscopic applications. Spatiospectral phenomena in the optical parametric oscillator output beam are found, with significant implications for spectroscopy at moderate resolution. For higher resolution, injection seeding of a passive ring-cavity optical parametric oscillator by a single-mode diode laser is shown to permit continuous tunability with effective spectroscopic bandwidths approaching the Fourier-transform limit.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. J. Orr, M. J. Johnson, and J. G. Haub, "Spectroscopic applications of tunable optical parametric oscillators," in Tunable Laser Applications, F. J. Duarte, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1995), Chap. 2, pp. 11–83.
  2. There are numerous pre-1980 reviews of the operating characteristics and applications of OPO's, of which the following sample is a representative: S. E. Harris, "Tunable optical parametric oscillators," Proc. IEEE 57, 2096–2113 (1969); R. L. Byer, "Parametric oscillators," in Laser Spectroscopy, R. G. Brewer and A. Mooradian, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1973), pp. 77–101; R. L. Byer, "Optical parametric oscillators," in Quantum Electronics: A Treatise, H. Rabin and C. L. Tang, eds. (Academic, New York, 1975), Vol. 1, part B, pp. 587–702; R. L. Byer and R. L. Herbst, "Parametric oscillation and mixing," in Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Y.-R. Shen, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), pp. 81–137; R. L. Byer, "Parametric oscillators and nonlinear materials," in Nonlinear Optics: Proceedings of the Sixteenth Scottish Universities Summer School in Physics, 1975, P. G. Harper and B. S. Wherrett, eds. (Academic, New York, 1977), pp. 47–160.
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Fix, T. Schröder, R. Wallenstein, J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, and B. J. Orr, "A tunable β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator: operating characteristics with and without injection seeding," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1744–1750 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, and B. J. Orr, "Spectroscopic and nonlinear-optical applications of a tunable β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1765–1777 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. J. Brosnan and R. L. Byer, "Optical parametric oscillator threshold and linewidth studies," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 415–431 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. J. Henderson, and M. H. Dunn, "An excimer-pumped β-BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator tunable from 354 nm to 2.370 μm," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1241–1252 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Fix, T. Schröder, and R. Wallenstein, "The optical parametric oscillators of beta-bariumborate and lithiumborate: new sources of powerful tunable laser radiation in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared," Laser Optoelektronik 23, 106–110 (1991).
  8. M. J. Johnson, J. G. Haub, H.-D. Barth, and B. J. Orr, "Rotationally resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy using a tunable optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 18, 441–443 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Brüggemann, J. Hertzberg, B. Wies, Y. Waschke, R. Noll, K.-F. Knoche, and G. Herziger, "Test of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a compact and fast tunable Stokes source in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS)," Appl. Phys. B 55, 378–380 (1992); J. Hertzberg, D. Brüggemann, and B. Wies, "Optical parametric oscillator (OPO)—compact and fast tunable Stokes source in CARS spectroscopy," in Coherent Raman Spectroscopy: Applications and New Developments, E. M. Castellucci, R. Righini, and P. Foggi, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993), pp. 15–20.
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Brunner and H. Paul, "The optical parametric oscillator as a means for intracavity absorption spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 19, 253–256 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K.-J. Boller and T. Schröder, "Demonstration of broadband intracavity spectroscopy in a pulsed optical parametric oscillator made of β-barium borate," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1778–1784 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. R. Bosenberg and C. L. Tang, "Type II phase matching in a β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1819–1821 (1990); C. L. Tang, W. R. Bosenberg, T. Ukachi, R. J. Lane, and L. K. Cheng, "Optical parametric oscillators," Proc. IEEE 80, 365–374 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. R. Bosenberg, W. S. Pelouch, and C. L. Tang, "High-efficiency and narrow-linewidth operation of a two-crystal β-BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1952–1954 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. K. Minton, S. A. Reid, H. L. Kim, and J. D. McDonald, "A scanning, single-mode, LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Commun. 69, 289–293 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. R. Bosenberg and D. R. Guyer, "Single-frequency optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 387–389 (1992); W. R. Bosenberg and D. R. Guyer, "Broadly tunable, single-frequency optical parametric frequency-conversion system," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1716–1722 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, B. J. Orr, and R. Wallenstein, "Continuously tunable, injection-seeded β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator: spectroscopic applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1718–1720 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. J. Johnson, J. G. Haub, and B. J. Orr, "Continuously tunable, narrow-band operation of an injection-seeded ringcavity optical parametric oscillator: spectroscopic applications," Opt. Lett. 20, 1277–1279 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, A. J. Powell, and B. J. Orr, "Bandwidth characteristics of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator: application to degenerate four-wave mixing spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 20, 1637–1639 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. H. Komine, "Average-power scaling for ultraviolet-pumped β-barium borate and lithium triborate optical parametric oscillators," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1751–1757 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. Schröder, K.-J. Boller, A. Fix, and R. Wallenstein, "Spectral properties and numerical modeling of a critically phase-matched nanosecond LiB3O5 optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B 58, 425–438 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Abacus, Cambridge, Mass., 1988).
  22. B. Zhang, W. R. Lempert, R. B. Miles, and G. Diskin, "Efficient vibrational Raman conversion in O2 and N2 cells by use of superfluorescence seeding," Opt. Lett. 18, 1132–1134 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. L. Byer, "Parametric oscillators," in Tunable Lasers and Applications: Proceedings of the Loen Conference, A. Mooradian, T. Jaeger, and R. Stoksteth, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 70–80; S. J. Brosnan, R. N. Fleming, R. L. Herbst, and R. L. Byer, "Tunable infrared generation by coherent Raman mixing in H2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 330–332 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. D. Raymond, W. J. Alford, A. V. Smith, and M. S. Bowers, "Frequency shifts in injection-seeded optical parametric oscillators with phase mismatch," Opt. Lett. 19, 1520–1522 (1994); A. V. Smith, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, and M. S. Bowers, "Comparison of a numerical model with measured performance of a seeded, nanosecond KTP optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2253–2267 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. R. L. Farrow and D. J. Rakestraw, "Detection of trace molecular species using degenerate four-wave mixing," Science 257, 1894–1899 (1992); G. Hall and B. J. Whitaker, "Laser-induced grating spectroscopy," J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 90, 1–16 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. A. Fix, R. Urschel, G. Goeritz, A. Borsutzky, and R. Wallenstein, "Single-mode BBO/KNB optical parametric oscillator–amplifier system, broadly tunable from the visible (0.4 μm) to the infrared (4 μm)," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 199–200.
  27. G. Meijer, M. G. H. Boogaarts, R. T. Jongma, D. H. Parker, and A. M. Wodtke, "Coherent cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 217, 112–116 (1994); see also A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), pp. 761–769.
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. E. Bjorkholm and H. G. Danielmeyer, "Frequency control of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator by radiation injection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 171–173 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  29. D. C. Hovde, J. H. Timmermans, G. Scoles, and K. K. Lehmann, "High power injection seeded optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Commun. 86, 294–300 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  30. L. R. Marshall, A. Kaz, O. Aytur, and R. L. Burnham, "New-generation diode-pumped tunable lasers," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 13 of 1992 OSA Proceedings Series, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 338–342.
  31. C. E. Hamilton and W. R. Bosenberg, "Single-frequency injection-seeded KTP ring cavity optical parametric oscillator," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 370–371.
  32. A. Fix, R. Feldbausch, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, and R. Wallenstein, "Injection-seeded single longitudinal mode optical parametric oscillator of beta-barium-borate," in International Conference on Quantum Electronics, Vol. 9 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 528–529.
  33. A. Fix, R. Feldbausch, and R. Wallenstein, "Tuning, output, and spectral characteristics of seeded and unseeded Nd:YAG laser-pumped optical parametric oscillators of beta-bariumborate," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 244–246.
  34. D. J. Nesbitt, "Probing potential-energy surfaces via high-resolution IR laser spectroscopy," Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 97, 1–18 (1994).
  35. J. M. Boon-Engering, W. E. van der Veer, and W. Hogervorst, "Scanning of an injection seeded BBO optical parametric oscillator," in 1994 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Europe (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1994), pp. 185–186; J. M. Boon-Engering, W. E. van der Veer, J. W. Gerritsen, and W. Hogervorst, "Bandwidth studies of an injection-seeded β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 20, 380–382 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. P. Bourdon, M. Péalat, and V. I. Fabelinsky, "Continuous-wave diode-laser injection-seeded β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator: a reliable source for spectroscopic studies," Opt. Lett. 20, 474–476 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinback, and C. Wieman, "A narrow-band tunable diode laser system with grating feedback, and a saturated absorption spectrometer for CS and Rb," Am. J. Phys. 60, 1098–1111 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  38. X. Zhan, O. Vaittinen, and L. Halonen, "High-resolution photoacoustic study of acetylene between 11500 and 11900 cm−1 using a titanium:sapphire ring laser," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 160, 172–180 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  39. J. L. Remo, "Diffraction losses for symmetrically tilted plane reflectors in open resonators," Appl. Opt. 19, 774–777 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. R. E. Ryan, L. A. Westling, and H. J. Metcalf, "Two-photon spectroscopy in rubidium with a diode laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1643–1648 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  41. C. Wieman and T. Hänsch, "Precision measurement of the 1S Lamb shift and of the 1S–2S isotope shift of hydrogen and deuterium," Phys. Rev. A 22, 192–205 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  42. D. S. Elliott, M. W. Hamiton, K. Arnett, and S. J. Smith, "Correlation effects of a phase diffusing field on two-photon absorption," Phys. Rev. A 32, 887–895 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. R. G. Bray, R. M. Hochstrasser, and J. E. Wessel, "Continuously tunable two-photon excitation of individual rotational levels of the A 2+ state of nitric oxide," Chem. Phys. Lett. 27, 167–171 (1974).
    [CrossRef]

1995

1994

D. J. Nesbitt, "Probing potential-energy surfaces via high-resolution IR laser spectroscopy," Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 97, 1–18 (1994).

J. M. Boon-Engering, W. E. van der Veer, and W. Hogervorst, "Scanning of an injection seeded BBO optical parametric oscillator," in 1994 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Europe (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1994), pp. 185–186; J. M. Boon-Engering, W. E. van der Veer, J. W. Gerritsen, and W. Hogervorst, "Bandwidth studies of an injection-seeded β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 20, 380–382 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schröder, K.-J. Boller, A. Fix, and R. Wallenstein, "Spectral properties and numerical modeling of a critically phase-matched nanosecond LiB3O5 optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B 58, 425–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Raymond, W. J. Alford, A. V. Smith, and M. S. Bowers, "Frequency shifts in injection-seeded optical parametric oscillators with phase mismatch," Opt. Lett. 19, 1520–1522 (1994); A. V. Smith, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, and M. S. Bowers, "Comparison of a numerical model with measured performance of a seeded, nanosecond KTP optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2253–2267 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fix, R. Urschel, G. Goeritz, A. Borsutzky, and R. Wallenstein, "Single-mode BBO/KNB optical parametric oscillator–amplifier system, broadly tunable from the visible (0.4 μm) to the infrared (4 μm)," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 199–200.

G. Meijer, M. G. H. Boogaarts, R. T. Jongma, D. H. Parker, and A. M. Wodtke, "Coherent cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 217, 112–116 (1994); see also A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), pp. 761–769.
[CrossRef]

1993

B. Zhang, W. R. Lempert, R. B. Miles, and G. Diskin, "Efficient vibrational Raman conversion in O2 and N2 cells by use of superfluorescence seeding," Opt. Lett. 18, 1132–1134 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fix, R. Feldbausch, and R. Wallenstein, "Tuning, output, and spectral characteristics of seeded and unseeded Nd:YAG laser-pumped optical parametric oscillators of beta-bariumborate," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 244–246.

X. Zhan, O. Vaittinen, and L. Halonen, "High-resolution photoacoustic study of acetylene between 11500 and 11900 cm−1 using a titanium:sapphire ring laser," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 160, 172–180 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Komine, "Average-power scaling for ultraviolet-pumped β-barium borate and lithium triborate optical parametric oscillators," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1751–1757 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Boller and T. Schröder, "Demonstration of broadband intracavity spectroscopy in a pulsed optical parametric oscillator made of β-barium borate," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1778–1784 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Fix, T. Schröder, R. Wallenstein, J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, and B. J. Orr, "A tunable β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator: operating characteristics with and without injection seeding," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1744–1750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, and B. J. Orr, "Spectroscopic and nonlinear-optical applications of a tunable β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1765–1777 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Johnson, J. G. Haub, H.-D. Barth, and B. J. Orr, "Rotationally resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy using a tunable optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 18, 441–443 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Ryan, L. A. Westling, and H. J. Metcalf, "Two-photon spectroscopy in rubidium with a diode laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1643–1648 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

D. Brüggemann, J. Hertzberg, B. Wies, Y. Waschke, R. Noll, K.-F. Knoche, and G. Herziger, "Test of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a compact and fast tunable Stokes source in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS)," Appl. Phys. B 55, 378–380 (1992); J. Hertzberg, D. Brüggemann, and B. Wies, "Optical parametric oscillator (OPO)—compact and fast tunable Stokes source in CARS spectroscopy," in Coherent Raman Spectroscopy: Applications and New Developments, E. M. Castellucci, R. Righini, and P. Foggi, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993), pp. 15–20.
[CrossRef]

W. R. Bosenberg and D. R. Guyer, "Single-frequency optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 387–389 (1992); W. R. Bosenberg and D. R. Guyer, "Broadly tunable, single-frequency optical parametric frequency-conversion system," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1716–1722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinback, and C. Wieman, "A narrow-band tunable diode laser system with grating feedback, and a saturated absorption spectrometer for CS and Rb," Am. J. Phys. 60, 1098–1111 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Farrow and D. J. Rakestraw, "Detection of trace molecular species using degenerate four-wave mixing," Science 257, 1894–1899 (1992); G. Hall and B. J. Whitaker, "Laser-induced grating spectroscopy," J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 90, 1–16 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Marshall, A. Kaz, O. Aytur, and R. L. Burnham, "New-generation diode-pumped tunable lasers," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 13 of 1992 OSA Proceedings Series, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 338–342.

C. E. Hamilton and W. R. Bosenberg, "Single-frequency injection-seeded KTP ring cavity optical parametric oscillator," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 370–371.

A. Fix, R. Feldbausch, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, and R. Wallenstein, "Injection-seeded single longitudinal mode optical parametric oscillator of beta-barium-borate," in International Conference on Quantum Electronics, Vol. 9 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 528–529.

1991

D. C. Hovde, J. H. Timmermans, G. Scoles, and K. K. Lehmann, "High power injection seeded optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Commun. 86, 294–300 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, B. J. Orr, and R. Wallenstein, "Continuously tunable, injection-seeded β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator: spectroscopic applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1718–1720 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Fix, T. Schröder, and R. Wallenstein, "The optical parametric oscillators of beta-bariumborate and lithiumborate: new sources of powerful tunable laser radiation in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared," Laser Optoelektronik 23, 106–110 (1991).

1990

M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. J. Henderson, and M. H. Dunn, "An excimer-pumped β-BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator tunable from 354 nm to 2.370 μm," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1241–1252 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Bosenberg and C. L. Tang, "Type II phase matching in a β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1819–1821 (1990); C. L. Tang, W. R. Bosenberg, T. Ukachi, R. J. Lane, and L. K. Cheng, "Optical parametric oscillators," Proc. IEEE 80, 365–374 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989

W. R. Bosenberg, W. S. Pelouch, and C. L. Tang, "High-efficiency and narrow-linewidth operation of a two-crystal β-BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1952–1954 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Minton, S. A. Reid, H. L. Kim, and J. D. McDonald, "A scanning, single-mode, LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Commun. 69, 289–293 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985

D. S. Elliott, M. W. Hamiton, K. Arnett, and S. J. Smith, "Correlation effects of a phase diffusing field on two-photon absorption," Phys. Rev. A 32, 887–895 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980

C. Wieman and T. Hänsch, "Precision measurement of the 1S Lamb shift and of the 1S–2S isotope shift of hydrogen and deuterium," Phys. Rev. A 22, 192–205 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Remo, "Diffraction losses for symmetrically tilted plane reflectors in open resonators," Appl. Opt. 19, 774–777 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979

S. J. Brosnan and R. L. Byer, "Optical parametric oscillator threshold and linewidth studies," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 415–431 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976

W. Brunner and H. Paul, "The optical parametric oscillator as a means for intracavity absorption spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 19, 253–256 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Byer, "Parametric oscillators," in Tunable Lasers and Applications: Proceedings of the Loen Conference, A. Mooradian, T. Jaeger, and R. Stoksteth, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 70–80; S. J. Brosnan, R. N. Fleming, R. L. Herbst, and R. L. Byer, "Tunable infrared generation by coherent Raman mixing in H2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 330–332 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974

R. G. Bray, R. M. Hochstrasser, and J. E. Wessel, "Continuously tunable two-photon excitation of individual rotational levels of the A 2+ state of nitric oxide," Chem. Phys. Lett. 27, 167–171 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1969

J. E. Bjorkholm and H. G. Danielmeyer, "Frequency control of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator by radiation injection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 171–173 (1969).
[CrossRef]

There are numerous pre-1980 reviews of the operating characteristics and applications of OPO's, of which the following sample is a representative: S. E. Harris, "Tunable optical parametric oscillators," Proc. IEEE 57, 2096–2113 (1969); R. L. Byer, "Parametric oscillators," in Laser Spectroscopy, R. G. Brewer and A. Mooradian, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1973), pp. 77–101; R. L. Byer, "Optical parametric oscillators," in Quantum Electronics: A Treatise, H. Rabin and C. L. Tang, eds. (Academic, New York, 1975), Vol. 1, part B, pp. 587–702; R. L. Byer and R. L. Herbst, "Parametric oscillation and mixing," in Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Y.-R. Shen, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), pp. 81–137; R. L. Byer, "Parametric oscillators and nonlinear materials," in Nonlinear Optics: Proceedings of the Sixteenth Scottish Universities Summer School in Physics, 1975, P. G. Harper and B. S. Wherrett, eds. (Academic, New York, 1977), pp. 47–160.
[CrossRef]

Alford, W. J.

Arnett, K.

D. S. Elliott, M. W. Hamiton, K. Arnett, and S. J. Smith, "Correlation effects of a phase diffusing field on two-photon absorption," Phys. Rev. A 32, 887–895 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aytur, O.

L. R. Marshall, A. Kaz, O. Aytur, and R. L. Burnham, "New-generation diode-pumped tunable lasers," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 13 of 1992 OSA Proceedings Series, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 338–342.

Barth, H.-D.

Bjorkholm, J. E.

J. E. Bjorkholm and H. G. Danielmeyer, "Frequency control of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator by radiation injection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 171–173 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Boller, K.-J.

T. Schröder, K.-J. Boller, A. Fix, and R. Wallenstein, "Spectral properties and numerical modeling of a critically phase-matched nanosecond LiB3O5 optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B 58, 425–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Boller and T. Schröder, "Demonstration of broadband intracavity spectroscopy in a pulsed optical parametric oscillator made of β-barium borate," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1778–1784 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boogaarts, M. G. H.

G. Meijer, M. G. H. Boogaarts, R. T. Jongma, D. H. Parker, and A. M. Wodtke, "Coherent cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 217, 112–116 (1994); see also A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), pp. 761–769.
[CrossRef]

Boon-Engering, J. M.

J. M. Boon-Engering, W. E. van der Veer, and W. Hogervorst, "Scanning of an injection seeded BBO optical parametric oscillator," in 1994 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Europe (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1994), pp. 185–186; J. M. Boon-Engering, W. E. van der Veer, J. W. Gerritsen, and W. Hogervorst, "Bandwidth studies of an injection-seeded β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 20, 380–382 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borsutzky, A.

A. Fix, R. Urschel, G. Goeritz, A. Borsutzky, and R. Wallenstein, "Single-mode BBO/KNB optical parametric oscillator–amplifier system, broadly tunable from the visible (0.4 μm) to the infrared (4 μm)," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 199–200.

Bosenberg, W. R.

C. E. Hamilton and W. R. Bosenberg, "Single-frequency injection-seeded KTP ring cavity optical parametric oscillator," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 370–371.

W. R. Bosenberg and D. R. Guyer, "Single-frequency optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 387–389 (1992); W. R. Bosenberg and D. R. Guyer, "Broadly tunable, single-frequency optical parametric frequency-conversion system," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1716–1722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Bosenberg and C. L. Tang, "Type II phase matching in a β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1819–1821 (1990); C. L. Tang, W. R. Bosenberg, T. Ukachi, R. J. Lane, and L. K. Cheng, "Optical parametric oscillators," Proc. IEEE 80, 365–374 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Bosenberg, W. S. Pelouch, and C. L. Tang, "High-efficiency and narrow-linewidth operation of a two-crystal β-BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1952–1954 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bourdon, P.

Bowers, M. S.

Bray, R. G.

R. G. Bray, R. M. Hochstrasser, and J. E. Wessel, "Continuously tunable two-photon excitation of individual rotational levels of the A 2+ state of nitric oxide," Chem. Phys. Lett. 27, 167–171 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Brosnan, S. J.

S. J. Brosnan and R. L. Byer, "Optical parametric oscillator threshold and linewidth studies," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 415–431 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Brüggemann, D.

D. Brüggemann, J. Hertzberg, B. Wies, Y. Waschke, R. Noll, K.-F. Knoche, and G. Herziger, "Test of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a compact and fast tunable Stokes source in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS)," Appl. Phys. B 55, 378–380 (1992); J. Hertzberg, D. Brüggemann, and B. Wies, "Optical parametric oscillator (OPO)—compact and fast tunable Stokes source in CARS spectroscopy," in Coherent Raman Spectroscopy: Applications and New Developments, E. M. Castellucci, R. Righini, and P. Foggi, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993), pp. 15–20.
[CrossRef]

Brunner, W.

W. Brunner and H. Paul, "The optical parametric oscillator as a means for intracavity absorption spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 19, 253–256 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Burnham, R. L.

L. R. Marshall, A. Kaz, O. Aytur, and R. L. Burnham, "New-generation diode-pumped tunable lasers," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 13 of 1992 OSA Proceedings Series, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 338–342.

Byer, R. L.

S. J. Brosnan and R. L. Byer, "Optical parametric oscillator threshold and linewidth studies," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 415–431 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Byer, "Parametric oscillators," in Tunable Lasers and Applications: Proceedings of the Loen Conference, A. Mooradian, T. Jaeger, and R. Stoksteth, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 70–80; S. J. Brosnan, R. N. Fleming, R. L. Herbst, and R. L. Byer, "Tunable infrared generation by coherent Raman mixing in H2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 330–332 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Danielmeyer, H. G.

J. E. Bjorkholm and H. G. Danielmeyer, "Frequency control of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator by radiation injection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 171–173 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Diskin, G.

Dunn, M. H.

M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. J. Henderson, and M. H. Dunn, "An excimer-pumped β-BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator tunable from 354 nm to 2.370 μm," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1241–1252 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ebrahimzadeh, M.

M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. J. Henderson, and M. H. Dunn, "An excimer-pumped β-BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator tunable from 354 nm to 2.370 μm," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1241–1252 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Abacus, Cambridge, Mass., 1988).

Elliott, D. S.

D. S. Elliott, M. W. Hamiton, K. Arnett, and S. J. Smith, "Correlation effects of a phase diffusing field on two-photon absorption," Phys. Rev. A 32, 887–895 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fabelinsky, V. I.

Farrow, R. L.

R. L. Farrow and D. J. Rakestraw, "Detection of trace molecular species using degenerate four-wave mixing," Science 257, 1894–1899 (1992); G. Hall and B. J. Whitaker, "Laser-induced grating spectroscopy," J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 90, 1–16 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldbausch, R.

A. Fix, R. Feldbausch, and R. Wallenstein, "Tuning, output, and spectral characteristics of seeded and unseeded Nd:YAG laser-pumped optical parametric oscillators of beta-bariumborate," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 244–246.

A. Fix, R. Feldbausch, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, and R. Wallenstein, "Injection-seeded single longitudinal mode optical parametric oscillator of beta-barium-borate," in International Conference on Quantum Electronics, Vol. 9 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 528–529.

Fix, A.

A. Fix, R. Urschel, G. Goeritz, A. Borsutzky, and R. Wallenstein, "Single-mode BBO/KNB optical parametric oscillator–amplifier system, broadly tunable from the visible (0.4 μm) to the infrared (4 μm)," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 199–200.

T. Schröder, K.-J. Boller, A. Fix, and R. Wallenstein, "Spectral properties and numerical modeling of a critically phase-matched nanosecond LiB3O5 optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B 58, 425–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Fix, T. Schröder, R. Wallenstein, J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, and B. J. Orr, "A tunable β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator: operating characteristics with and without injection seeding," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1744–1750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Fix, R. Feldbausch, and R. Wallenstein, "Tuning, output, and spectral characteristics of seeded and unseeded Nd:YAG laser-pumped optical parametric oscillators of beta-bariumborate," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 244–246.

A. Fix, R. Feldbausch, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, and R. Wallenstein, "Injection-seeded single longitudinal mode optical parametric oscillator of beta-barium-borate," in International Conference on Quantum Electronics, Vol. 9 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 528–529.

A. Fix, T. Schröder, and R. Wallenstein, "The optical parametric oscillators of beta-bariumborate and lithiumborate: new sources of powerful tunable laser radiation in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared," Laser Optoelektronik 23, 106–110 (1991).

Goeritz, G.

A. Fix, R. Urschel, G. Goeritz, A. Borsutzky, and R. Wallenstein, "Single-mode BBO/KNB optical parametric oscillator–amplifier system, broadly tunable from the visible (0.4 μm) to the infrared (4 μm)," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 199–200.

Guyer, D. R.

W. R. Bosenberg and D. R. Guyer, "Single-frequency optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 387–389 (1992); W. R. Bosenberg and D. R. Guyer, "Broadly tunable, single-frequency optical parametric frequency-conversion system," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1716–1722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Halonen, L.

X. Zhan, O. Vaittinen, and L. Halonen, "High-resolution photoacoustic study of acetylene between 11500 and 11900 cm−1 using a titanium:sapphire ring laser," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 160, 172–180 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, C. E.

C. E. Hamilton and W. R. Bosenberg, "Single-frequency injection-seeded KTP ring cavity optical parametric oscillator," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 370–371.

Hamiton, M. W.

D. S. Elliott, M. W. Hamiton, K. Arnett, and S. J. Smith, "Correlation effects of a phase diffusing field on two-photon absorption," Phys. Rev. A 32, 887–895 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T.

C. Wieman and T. Hänsch, "Precision measurement of the 1S Lamb shift and of the 1S–2S isotope shift of hydrogen and deuterium," Phys. Rev. A 22, 192–205 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

There are numerous pre-1980 reviews of the operating characteristics and applications of OPO's, of which the following sample is a representative: S. E. Harris, "Tunable optical parametric oscillators," Proc. IEEE 57, 2096–2113 (1969); R. L. Byer, "Parametric oscillators," in Laser Spectroscopy, R. G. Brewer and A. Mooradian, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1973), pp. 77–101; R. L. Byer, "Optical parametric oscillators," in Quantum Electronics: A Treatise, H. Rabin and C. L. Tang, eds. (Academic, New York, 1975), Vol. 1, part B, pp. 587–702; R. L. Byer and R. L. Herbst, "Parametric oscillation and mixing," in Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Y.-R. Shen, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), pp. 81–137; R. L. Byer, "Parametric oscillators and nonlinear materials," in Nonlinear Optics: Proceedings of the Sixteenth Scottish Universities Summer School in Physics, 1975, P. G. Harper and B. S. Wherrett, eds. (Academic, New York, 1977), pp. 47–160.
[CrossRef]

Haub, J. G.

B. J. Orr, M. J. Johnson, and J. G. Haub, "Spectroscopic applications of tunable optical parametric oscillators," in Tunable Laser Applications, F. J. Duarte, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1995), Chap. 2, pp. 11–83.

M. J. Johnson, J. G. Haub, and B. J. Orr, "Continuously tunable, narrow-band operation of an injection-seeded ringcavity optical parametric oscillator: spectroscopic applications," Opt. Lett. 20, 1277–1279 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, A. J. Powell, and B. J. Orr, "Bandwidth characteristics of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator: application to degenerate four-wave mixing spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 20, 1637–1639 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fix, T. Schröder, R. Wallenstein, J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, and B. J. Orr, "A tunable β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator: operating characteristics with and without injection seeding," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1744–1750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, and B. J. Orr, "Spectroscopic and nonlinear-optical applications of a tunable β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1765–1777 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Johnson, J. G. Haub, H.-D. Barth, and B. J. Orr, "Rotationally resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy using a tunable optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 18, 441–443 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, B. J. Orr, and R. Wallenstein, "Continuously tunable, injection-seeded β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator: spectroscopic applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1718–1720 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, A. J.

M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. J. Henderson, and M. H. Dunn, "An excimer-pumped β-BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator tunable from 354 nm to 2.370 μm," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1241–1252 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hertzberg, J.

D. Brüggemann, J. Hertzberg, B. Wies, Y. Waschke, R. Noll, K.-F. Knoche, and G. Herziger, "Test of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a compact and fast tunable Stokes source in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS)," Appl. Phys. B 55, 378–380 (1992); J. Hertzberg, D. Brüggemann, and B. Wies, "Optical parametric oscillator (OPO)—compact and fast tunable Stokes source in CARS spectroscopy," in Coherent Raman Spectroscopy: Applications and New Developments, E. M. Castellucci, R. Righini, and P. Foggi, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993), pp. 15–20.
[CrossRef]

Herziger, G.

D. Brüggemann, J. Hertzberg, B. Wies, Y. Waschke, R. Noll, K.-F. Knoche, and G. Herziger, "Test of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a compact and fast tunable Stokes source in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS)," Appl. Phys. B 55, 378–380 (1992); J. Hertzberg, D. Brüggemann, and B. Wies, "Optical parametric oscillator (OPO)—compact and fast tunable Stokes source in CARS spectroscopy," in Coherent Raman Spectroscopy: Applications and New Developments, E. M. Castellucci, R. Righini, and P. Foggi, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993), pp. 15–20.
[CrossRef]

Hochstrasser, R. M.

R. G. Bray, R. M. Hochstrasser, and J. E. Wessel, "Continuously tunable two-photon excitation of individual rotational levels of the A 2+ state of nitric oxide," Chem. Phys. Lett. 27, 167–171 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hogervorst, W.

J. M. Boon-Engering, W. E. van der Veer, and W. Hogervorst, "Scanning of an injection seeded BBO optical parametric oscillator," in 1994 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Europe (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1994), pp. 185–186; J. M. Boon-Engering, W. E. van der Veer, J. W. Gerritsen, and W. Hogervorst, "Bandwidth studies of an injection-seeded β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 20, 380–382 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hovde, D. C.

D. C. Hovde, J. H. Timmermans, G. Scoles, and K. K. Lehmann, "High power injection seeded optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Commun. 86, 294–300 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Inguscio, M.

A. Fix, R. Feldbausch, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, and R. Wallenstein, "Injection-seeded single longitudinal mode optical parametric oscillator of beta-barium-borate," in International Conference on Quantum Electronics, Vol. 9 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 528–529.

Johnson, M. J.

B. J. Orr, M. J. Johnson, and J. G. Haub, "Spectroscopic applications of tunable optical parametric oscillators," in Tunable Laser Applications, F. J. Duarte, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1995), Chap. 2, pp. 11–83.

J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, A. J. Powell, and B. J. Orr, "Bandwidth characteristics of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator: application to degenerate four-wave mixing spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 20, 1637–1639 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Johnson, J. G. Haub, and B. J. Orr, "Continuously tunable, narrow-band operation of an injection-seeded ringcavity optical parametric oscillator: spectroscopic applications," Opt. Lett. 20, 1277–1279 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fix, T. Schröder, R. Wallenstein, J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, and B. J. Orr, "A tunable β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator: operating characteristics with and without injection seeding," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1744–1750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Johnson, J. G. Haub, H.-D. Barth, and B. J. Orr, "Rotationally resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy using a tunable optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 18, 441–443 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, and B. J. Orr, "Spectroscopic and nonlinear-optical applications of a tunable β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1765–1777 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, B. J. Orr, and R. Wallenstein, "Continuously tunable, injection-seeded β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator: spectroscopic applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1718–1720 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jongma, R. T.

G. Meijer, M. G. H. Boogaarts, R. T. Jongma, D. H. Parker, and A. M. Wodtke, "Coherent cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 217, 112–116 (1994); see also A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), pp. 761–769.
[CrossRef]

Kaz, A.

L. R. Marshall, A. Kaz, O. Aytur, and R. L. Burnham, "New-generation diode-pumped tunable lasers," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 13 of 1992 OSA Proceedings Series, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 338–342.

Kim, H. L.

T. K. Minton, S. A. Reid, H. L. Kim, and J. D. McDonald, "A scanning, single-mode, LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Commun. 69, 289–293 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Knoche, K.-F.

D. Brüggemann, J. Hertzberg, B. Wies, Y. Waschke, R. Noll, K.-F. Knoche, and G. Herziger, "Test of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a compact and fast tunable Stokes source in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS)," Appl. Phys. B 55, 378–380 (1992); J. Hertzberg, D. Brüggemann, and B. Wies, "Optical parametric oscillator (OPO)—compact and fast tunable Stokes source in CARS spectroscopy," in Coherent Raman Spectroscopy: Applications and New Developments, E. M. Castellucci, R. Righini, and P. Foggi, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993), pp. 15–20.
[CrossRef]

Komine, H.

Lehmann, K. K.

D. C. Hovde, J. H. Timmermans, G. Scoles, and K. K. Lehmann, "High power injection seeded optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Commun. 86, 294–300 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lempert, W. R.

MacAdam, K. B.

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinback, and C. Wieman, "A narrow-band tunable diode laser system with grating feedback, and a saturated absorption spectrometer for CS and Rb," Am. J. Phys. 60, 1098–1111 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, L. R.

L. R. Marshall, A. Kaz, O. Aytur, and R. L. Burnham, "New-generation diode-pumped tunable lasers," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 13 of 1992 OSA Proceedings Series, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 338–342.

McDonald, J. D.

T. K. Minton, S. A. Reid, H. L. Kim, and J. D. McDonald, "A scanning, single-mode, LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Commun. 69, 289–293 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, G.

G. Meijer, M. G. H. Boogaarts, R. T. Jongma, D. H. Parker, and A. M. Wodtke, "Coherent cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 217, 112–116 (1994); see also A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), pp. 761–769.
[CrossRef]

Metcalf, H. J.

Miles, R. B.

Minton, T. K.

T. K. Minton, S. A. Reid, H. L. Kim, and J. D. McDonald, "A scanning, single-mode, LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Commun. 69, 289–293 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nesbitt, D. J.

D. J. Nesbitt, "Probing potential-energy surfaces via high-resolution IR laser spectroscopy," Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 97, 1–18 (1994).

Noll, R.

D. Brüggemann, J. Hertzberg, B. Wies, Y. Waschke, R. Noll, K.-F. Knoche, and G. Herziger, "Test of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a compact and fast tunable Stokes source in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS)," Appl. Phys. B 55, 378–380 (1992); J. Hertzberg, D. Brüggemann, and B. Wies, "Optical parametric oscillator (OPO)—compact and fast tunable Stokes source in CARS spectroscopy," in Coherent Raman Spectroscopy: Applications and New Developments, E. M. Castellucci, R. Righini, and P. Foggi, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993), pp. 15–20.
[CrossRef]

Orr, B. J.

B. J. Orr, M. J. Johnson, and J. G. Haub, "Spectroscopic applications of tunable optical parametric oscillators," in Tunable Laser Applications, F. J. Duarte, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1995), Chap. 2, pp. 11–83.

M. J. Johnson, J. G. Haub, and B. J. Orr, "Continuously tunable, narrow-band operation of an injection-seeded ringcavity optical parametric oscillator: spectroscopic applications," Opt. Lett. 20, 1277–1279 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, A. J. Powell, and B. J. Orr, "Bandwidth characteristics of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator: application to degenerate four-wave mixing spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 20, 1637–1639 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fix, T. Schröder, R. Wallenstein, J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, and B. J. Orr, "A tunable β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator: operating characteristics with and without injection seeding," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1744–1750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, and B. J. Orr, "Spectroscopic and nonlinear-optical applications of a tunable β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1765–1777 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Johnson, J. G. Haub, H.-D. Barth, and B. J. Orr, "Rotationally resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy using a tunable optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 18, 441–443 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, B. J. Orr, and R. Wallenstein, "Continuously tunable, injection-seeded β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator: spectroscopic applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1718–1720 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Parker, D. H.

G. Meijer, M. G. H. Boogaarts, R. T. Jongma, D. H. Parker, and A. M. Wodtke, "Coherent cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 217, 112–116 (1994); see also A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), pp. 761–769.
[CrossRef]

Paul, H.

W. Brunner and H. Paul, "The optical parametric oscillator as a means for intracavity absorption spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 19, 253–256 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Péalat, M.

Pelouch, W. S.

W. R. Bosenberg, W. S. Pelouch, and C. L. Tang, "High-efficiency and narrow-linewidth operation of a two-crystal β-BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1952–1954 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Powell, A. J.

Rakestraw, D. J.

R. L. Farrow and D. J. Rakestraw, "Detection of trace molecular species using degenerate four-wave mixing," Science 257, 1894–1899 (1992); G. Hall and B. J. Whitaker, "Laser-induced grating spectroscopy," J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 90, 1–16 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raymond, T. D.

Reid, S. A.

T. K. Minton, S. A. Reid, H. L. Kim, and J. D. McDonald, "A scanning, single-mode, LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Commun. 69, 289–293 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Remo, J. L.

Ryan, R. E.

Schröder, T.

T. Schröder, K.-J. Boller, A. Fix, and R. Wallenstein, "Spectral properties and numerical modeling of a critically phase-matched nanosecond LiB3O5 optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B 58, 425–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Boller and T. Schröder, "Demonstration of broadband intracavity spectroscopy in a pulsed optical parametric oscillator made of β-barium borate," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1778–1784 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Fix, T. Schröder, R. Wallenstein, J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, and B. J. Orr, "A tunable β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator: operating characteristics with and without injection seeding," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1744–1750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Fix, T. Schröder, and R. Wallenstein, "The optical parametric oscillators of beta-bariumborate and lithiumborate: new sources of powerful tunable laser radiation in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared," Laser Optoelektronik 23, 106–110 (1991).

Scoles, G.

D. C. Hovde, J. H. Timmermans, G. Scoles, and K. K. Lehmann, "High power injection seeded optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Commun. 86, 294–300 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. V.

Smith, S. J.

D. S. Elliott, M. W. Hamiton, K. Arnett, and S. J. Smith, "Correlation effects of a phase diffusing field on two-photon absorption," Phys. Rev. A 32, 887–895 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinback, A.

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinback, and C. Wieman, "A narrow-band tunable diode laser system with grating feedback, and a saturated absorption spectrometer for CS and Rb," Am. J. Phys. 60, 1098–1111 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. L.

W. R. Bosenberg and C. L. Tang, "Type II phase matching in a β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1819–1821 (1990); C. L. Tang, W. R. Bosenberg, T. Ukachi, R. J. Lane, and L. K. Cheng, "Optical parametric oscillators," Proc. IEEE 80, 365–374 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Bosenberg, W. S. Pelouch, and C. L. Tang, "High-efficiency and narrow-linewidth operation of a two-crystal β-BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1952–1954 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Timmermans, J. H.

D. C. Hovde, J. H. Timmermans, G. Scoles, and K. K. Lehmann, "High power injection seeded optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Commun. 86, 294–300 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tino, G. M.

A. Fix, R. Feldbausch, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, and R. Wallenstein, "Injection-seeded single longitudinal mode optical parametric oscillator of beta-barium-borate," in International Conference on Quantum Electronics, Vol. 9 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 528–529.

Urschel, R.

A. Fix, R. Urschel, G. Goeritz, A. Borsutzky, and R. Wallenstein, "Single-mode BBO/KNB optical parametric oscillator–amplifier system, broadly tunable from the visible (0.4 μm) to the infrared (4 μm)," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 199–200.

Vaittinen, O.

X. Zhan, O. Vaittinen, and L. Halonen, "High-resolution photoacoustic study of acetylene between 11500 and 11900 cm−1 using a titanium:sapphire ring laser," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 160, 172–180 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Veer, W. E. van der

J. M. Boon-Engering, W. E. van der Veer, and W. Hogervorst, "Scanning of an injection seeded BBO optical parametric oscillator," in 1994 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Europe (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1994), pp. 185–186; J. M. Boon-Engering, W. E. van der Veer, J. W. Gerritsen, and W. Hogervorst, "Bandwidth studies of an injection-seeded β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 20, 380–382 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallenstein, R.

A. Fix, R. Urschel, G. Goeritz, A. Borsutzky, and R. Wallenstein, "Single-mode BBO/KNB optical parametric oscillator–amplifier system, broadly tunable from the visible (0.4 μm) to the infrared (4 μm)," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 199–200.

T. Schröder, K.-J. Boller, A. Fix, and R. Wallenstein, "Spectral properties and numerical modeling of a critically phase-matched nanosecond LiB3O5 optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B 58, 425–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Fix, T. Schröder, R. Wallenstein, J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, and B. J. Orr, "A tunable β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator: operating characteristics with and without injection seeding," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1744–1750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Fix, R. Feldbausch, and R. Wallenstein, "Tuning, output, and spectral characteristics of seeded and unseeded Nd:YAG laser-pumped optical parametric oscillators of beta-bariumborate," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 244–246.

A. Fix, R. Feldbausch, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, and R. Wallenstein, "Injection-seeded single longitudinal mode optical parametric oscillator of beta-barium-borate," in International Conference on Quantum Electronics, Vol. 9 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 528–529.

A. Fix, T. Schröder, and R. Wallenstein, "The optical parametric oscillators of beta-bariumborate and lithiumborate: new sources of powerful tunable laser radiation in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared," Laser Optoelektronik 23, 106–110 (1991).

J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, B. J. Orr, and R. Wallenstein, "Continuously tunable, injection-seeded β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator: spectroscopic applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1718–1720 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Waschke, Y.

D. Brüggemann, J. Hertzberg, B. Wies, Y. Waschke, R. Noll, K.-F. Knoche, and G. Herziger, "Test of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a compact and fast tunable Stokes source in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS)," Appl. Phys. B 55, 378–380 (1992); J. Hertzberg, D. Brüggemann, and B. Wies, "Optical parametric oscillator (OPO)—compact and fast tunable Stokes source in CARS spectroscopy," in Coherent Raman Spectroscopy: Applications and New Developments, E. M. Castellucci, R. Righini, and P. Foggi, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993), pp. 15–20.
[CrossRef]

Wessel, J. E.

R. G. Bray, R. M. Hochstrasser, and J. E. Wessel, "Continuously tunable two-photon excitation of individual rotational levels of the A 2+ state of nitric oxide," Chem. Phys. Lett. 27, 167–171 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Westling, L. A.

Wieman, C.

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinback, and C. Wieman, "A narrow-band tunable diode laser system with grating feedback, and a saturated absorption spectrometer for CS and Rb," Am. J. Phys. 60, 1098–1111 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Wieman and T. Hänsch, "Precision measurement of the 1S Lamb shift and of the 1S–2S isotope shift of hydrogen and deuterium," Phys. Rev. A 22, 192–205 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Wies, B.

D. Brüggemann, J. Hertzberg, B. Wies, Y. Waschke, R. Noll, K.-F. Knoche, and G. Herziger, "Test of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a compact and fast tunable Stokes source in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS)," Appl. Phys. B 55, 378–380 (1992); J. Hertzberg, D. Brüggemann, and B. Wies, "Optical parametric oscillator (OPO)—compact and fast tunable Stokes source in CARS spectroscopy," in Coherent Raman Spectroscopy: Applications and New Developments, E. M. Castellucci, R. Righini, and P. Foggi, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993), pp. 15–20.
[CrossRef]

Wodtke, A. M.

G. Meijer, M. G. H. Boogaarts, R. T. Jongma, D. H. Parker, and A. M. Wodtke, "Coherent cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 217, 112–116 (1994); see also A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), pp. 761–769.
[CrossRef]

Zhan, X.

X. Zhan, O. Vaittinen, and L. Halonen, "High-resolution photoacoustic study of acetylene between 11500 and 11900 cm−1 using a titanium:sapphire ring laser," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 160, 172–180 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

Am. J. Phys.

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinback, and C. Wieman, "A narrow-band tunable diode laser system with grating feedback, and a saturated absorption spectrometer for CS and Rb," Am. J. Phys. 60, 1098–1111 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

D. Brüggemann, J. Hertzberg, B. Wies, Y. Waschke, R. Noll, K.-F. Knoche, and G. Herziger, "Test of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a compact and fast tunable Stokes source in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS)," Appl. Phys. B 55, 378–380 (1992); J. Hertzberg, D. Brüggemann, and B. Wies, "Optical parametric oscillator (OPO)—compact and fast tunable Stokes source in CARS spectroscopy," in Coherent Raman Spectroscopy: Applications and New Developments, E. M. Castellucci, R. Righini, and P. Foggi, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993), pp. 15–20.
[CrossRef]

T. Schröder, K.-J. Boller, A. Fix, and R. Wallenstein, "Spectral properties and numerical modeling of a critically phase-matched nanosecond LiB3O5 optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B 58, 425–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. E. Bjorkholm and H. G. Danielmeyer, "Frequency control of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator by radiation injection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 171–173 (1969).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Bosenberg and C. L. Tang, "Type II phase matching in a β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1819–1821 (1990); C. L. Tang, W. R. Bosenberg, T. Ukachi, R. J. Lane, and L. K. Cheng, "Optical parametric oscillators," Proc. IEEE 80, 365–374 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Bosenberg, W. S. Pelouch, and C. L. Tang, "High-efficiency and narrow-linewidth operation of a two-crystal β-BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1952–1954 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Bosenberg and D. R. Guyer, "Single-frequency optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 387–389 (1992); W. R. Bosenberg and D. R. Guyer, "Broadly tunable, single-frequency optical parametric frequency-conversion system," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1716–1722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, B. J. Orr, and R. Wallenstein, "Continuously tunable, injection-seeded β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator: spectroscopic applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1718–1720 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

G. Meijer, M. G. H. Boogaarts, R. T. Jongma, D. H. Parker, and A. M. Wodtke, "Coherent cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 217, 112–116 (1994); see also A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), pp. 761–769.
[CrossRef]

R. G. Bray, R. M. Hochstrasser, and J. E. Wessel, "Continuously tunable two-photon excitation of individual rotational levels of the A 2+ state of nitric oxide," Chem. Phys. Lett. 27, 167–171 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc.

D. J. Nesbitt, "Probing potential-energy surfaces via high-resolution IR laser spectroscopy," Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 97, 1–18 (1994).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. J. Brosnan and R. L. Byer, "Optical parametric oscillator threshold and linewidth studies," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 415–431 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. J. Henderson, and M. H. Dunn, "An excimer-pumped β-BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator tunable from 354 nm to 2.370 μm," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1241–1252 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc.

X. Zhan, O. Vaittinen, and L. Halonen, "High-resolution photoacoustic study of acetylene between 11500 and 11900 cm−1 using a titanium:sapphire ring laser," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 160, 172–180 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Laser Optoelektronik

A. Fix, T. Schröder, and R. Wallenstein, "The optical parametric oscillators of beta-bariumborate and lithiumborate: new sources of powerful tunable laser radiation in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared," Laser Optoelektronik 23, 106–110 (1991).

Opt. Commun.

T. K. Minton, S. A. Reid, H. L. Kim, and J. D. McDonald, "A scanning, single-mode, LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Commun. 69, 289–293 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. Brunner and H. Paul, "The optical parametric oscillator as a means for intracavity absorption spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 19, 253–256 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hovde, J. H. Timmermans, G. Scoles, and K. K. Lehmann, "High power injection seeded optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Commun. 86, 294–300 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

P. Bourdon, M. Péalat, and V. I. Fabelinsky, "Continuous-wave diode-laser injection-seeded β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator: a reliable source for spectroscopic studies," Opt. Lett. 20, 474–476 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zhang, W. R. Lempert, R. B. Miles, and G. Diskin, "Efficient vibrational Raman conversion in O2 and N2 cells by use of superfluorescence seeding," Opt. Lett. 18, 1132–1134 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Raymond, W. J. Alford, A. V. Smith, and M. S. Bowers, "Frequency shifts in injection-seeded optical parametric oscillators with phase mismatch," Opt. Lett. 19, 1520–1522 (1994); A. V. Smith, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, and M. S. Bowers, "Comparison of a numerical model with measured performance of a seeded, nanosecond KTP optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2253–2267 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Johnson, J. G. Haub, and B. J. Orr, "Continuously tunable, narrow-band operation of an injection-seeded ringcavity optical parametric oscillator: spectroscopic applications," Opt. Lett. 20, 1277–1279 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, A. J. Powell, and B. J. Orr, "Bandwidth characteristics of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator: application to degenerate four-wave mixing spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 20, 1637–1639 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Johnson, J. G. Haub, H.-D. Barth, and B. J. Orr, "Rotationally resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy using a tunable optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 18, 441–443 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A

C. Wieman and T. Hänsch, "Precision measurement of the 1S Lamb shift and of the 1S–2S isotope shift of hydrogen and deuterium," Phys. Rev. A 22, 192–205 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Elliott, M. W. Hamiton, K. Arnett, and S. J. Smith, "Correlation effects of a phase diffusing field on two-photon absorption," Phys. Rev. A 32, 887–895 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

R. L. Farrow and D. J. Rakestraw, "Detection of trace molecular species using degenerate four-wave mixing," Science 257, 1894–1899 (1992); G. Hall and B. J. Whitaker, "Laser-induced grating spectroscopy," J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 90, 1–16 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. Fix, R. Urschel, G. Goeritz, A. Borsutzky, and R. Wallenstein, "Single-mode BBO/KNB optical parametric oscillator–amplifier system, broadly tunable from the visible (0.4 μm) to the infrared (4 μm)," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 199–200.

R. L. Byer, "Parametric oscillators," in Tunable Lasers and Applications: Proceedings of the Loen Conference, A. Mooradian, T. Jaeger, and R. Stoksteth, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 70–80; S. J. Brosnan, R. N. Fleming, R. L. Herbst, and R. L. Byer, "Tunable infrared generation by coherent Raman mixing in H2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 330–332 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Abacus, Cambridge, Mass., 1988).

J. M. Boon-Engering, W. E. van der Veer, and W. Hogervorst, "Scanning of an injection seeded BBO optical parametric oscillator," in 1994 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Europe (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1994), pp. 185–186; J. M. Boon-Engering, W. E. van der Veer, J. W. Gerritsen, and W. Hogervorst, "Bandwidth studies of an injection-seeded β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 20, 380–382 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Marshall, A. Kaz, O. Aytur, and R. L. Burnham, "New-generation diode-pumped tunable lasers," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 13 of 1992 OSA Proceedings Series, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 338–342.

C. E. Hamilton and W. R. Bosenberg, "Single-frequency injection-seeded KTP ring cavity optical parametric oscillator," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 370–371.

A. Fix, R. Feldbausch, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, and R. Wallenstein, "Injection-seeded single longitudinal mode optical parametric oscillator of beta-barium-borate," in International Conference on Quantum Electronics, Vol. 9 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 528–529.

A. Fix, R. Feldbausch, and R. Wallenstein, "Tuning, output, and spectral characteristics of seeded and unseeded Nd:YAG laser-pumped optical parametric oscillators of beta-bariumborate," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 244–246.

B. J. Orr, M. J. Johnson, and J. G. Haub, "Spectroscopic applications of tunable optical parametric oscillators," in Tunable Laser Applications, F. J. Duarte, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1995), Chap. 2, pp. 11–83.

There are numerous pre-1980 reviews of the operating characteristics and applications of OPO's, of which the following sample is a representative: S. E. Harris, "Tunable optical parametric oscillators," Proc. IEEE 57, 2096–2113 (1969); R. L. Byer, "Parametric oscillators," in Laser Spectroscopy, R. G. Brewer and A. Mooradian, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1973), pp. 77–101; R. L. Byer, "Optical parametric oscillators," in Quantum Electronics: A Treatise, H. Rabin and C. L. Tang, eds. (Academic, New York, 1975), Vol. 1, part B, pp. 587–702; R. L. Byer and R. L. Herbst, "Parametric oscillation and mixing," in Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Y.-R. Shen, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), pp. 81–137; R. L. Byer, "Parametric oscillators and nonlinear materials," in Nonlinear Optics: Proceedings of the Sixteenth Scottish Universities Summer School in Physics, 1975, P. G. Harper and B. S. Wherrett, eds. (Academic, New York, 1977), pp. 47–160.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical single-shot spectral profiles for the signal output from a free-running BBO OPO at two representative angle-tuned wavelengths: (a) 580 nm, (b) 607 nm. The observed OPO output FWHM bandwidths are (a) 8 cm−1 and (b) 15 cm–1. The full-angle divergence of the 355-nm pump-laser beam is ~0.2 mrad. The profiles are recorded by a monochromator (Spex Model 1704) equipped with a diode-array detector (Princeton Instruments IRY-512 head with ST-120 controller). The effective optical bandwidths of the detection systems employed are (a) ~1 cm−1 and (b) ~3 cm−1, both of which make only marginal contributions (~5%) to the observed profile widths. Note that the free-running gain bandwidth of an OPO increases as the degeneracy point (in this case, 710 nm) is approached.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical bandwidth of the signal wave at ~600 nm from a BBO OPO as a function of pump-beam intensity (expressed as the number of times above threshold). Measurements are made with a scanning monochromator (Spex Model 1704; bandpass, 0.09 nm) and a photomultiplier detector (1P28). The BBO OPO used here contains a 6 mm × 6 mm × 12 mm BBO crystal (Casix; cut at 30° for Type-I phase matching) in a 3.2-cm two-mirror cavity that is singly resonant at the signal wavelength. The pump-laser beam incident upon the OPO is telescoped to a diameter of 5 mm, producing an OPO oscillation threshold of ~28 mJ per 355-nm pulse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Broadband Stokes seeding of SRS in a 2-m Raman cell containing H2 gas at a variety of pressures and pumped by 41.5 mJ/pulse of 532-nm radiation. A pulsed, broadband BBO OPO delivering 0.5 mJ/pulse (optical bandwidth, ~35 cm−1) is used to seed the Raman cell at the first Stokes wavelength (683 nm), with the Raman pump and seed beams copropagating. The upper trace shows a significant increase in the forward-scattering SRS Stokes output relative to the unseeded case (lower trace).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Beam profiles of the 725-nm signal-wave output of a KTP OPO pumped at 532 nm with multimode radiation from a Spectra-Physics GCR-5 laser operating unseeded with a pulse duration of 7 ns and a beam diameter of 6.5 mm. The KTP crystal is 7 mm × 7 mm × 15 mm and is cut for Type-II phase matching (θ = 51°, ϕ = 0°). The results are recorded with a beam analyzer (Spiricon LBA 100A, with Pulnix TM-745 CCD array). Trace (a) shows the beam profile for the entire OPO beam and contains two distinct lobes, whereas traces (b) and (c) show beam profiles of each lobe after simple spatial filtering.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral analysis of the beam profiles recorded in Fig. 4, measured by a scanning monochromator (bandpass, 0.09 nm) and by photomultiplier detection as in Fig. 2. Trace (a) corresponds to the spectral output of the entire OPO beam and contains two spectral components with FWHM widths of 24 cm−1 (1.3 nm) and 3.4 cm−1 (0.18 nm). There is a high correlation between the two spectral components and the two spatial lobes shown in Fig. 4(a). Traces (b) and (c) show that there is little or no spectral cross talk between the individual spatial lobes of the beam profile.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Beam profiles of the 725-nm signal-wave output of a KTP OPO pumped at 532 nm with single-mode radiation from an injection-seeded Spectra-Physics GCR-5 laser. Other conditions correspond to those given in Fig. 4. As in Fig. 4, the beam profile in trace (a) contains two distinct lobes, but these are much more sharply structured. Traces (b) and (c) show the spatially filtered lobes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectral analysis of the beam profiles recorded in Fig. 6, measured by the same method as in Fig. 5. Trace (a) corresponds to the spectral output of the entire OPO beam and contains two sharply structured spectral components with FWHM widths of ~40 cm−1 (~2.1 nm) and ~3 cm−1 (~0.16 nm). As in Fig. 5, the two lobes of the beam profile are separable by spatial filtering and are highly correlated with the two spectral components.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Signal wavelength at ~525 nm of a BBO OPO, as in Fig. 2 (pumped at two times above threshold), as a function of cross-sectional position within the beam. One measures the operating wavelength by scanning a 0.4-mm aperture in 0.5-mm steps across the beam and by monitoring with a Burleigh pulsed wavemeter (Model WA-4500). The two traces correspond to scanning of the aperture horizontally (in the phase-matching plane), depicted by filled circles, and vertically, depicted by open squares.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

DFWM spectrum of the 590-nm D lines of atomic sodium in an air–acetylene flame,18 recorded with the simple free-running BBO OPO characterized in Fig. 8. A conventional phase-conjugate DFWM scheme is employed, with broadband detection by a photomultiplier and a ~10-nm bandpass filter. With the BBO OPO pumped at ~1.5 times above threshold, the FWHM optical bandwidth of the overall OPO signal beam is 20 cm−1 (0.67 nm), as indicated by the dashed curve. However, one obtains a narrower effective bandwidth of 4 cm−1 (0.14 nm) by selecting out a small portion of the beam with an adjustable aperture. One then scans the spectrum with medium bandwidth by rotating the BBO crystal, thereby varying the phase-matching condition.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Fabry–Perot fringe patterns for the idler beam of a ring-cavity BBO OPO injection seeded at 855.4 nm by 2 mW of cw radiation from a single-mode ECDL. The sequence of single-shot traces is generated by the étalon (free spectral range, 1 cm−1) and by the CCD array of a pulsed wavemeter (Burleigh Model WA-4500). Multiple orders of the étalon are displayed (and numbered); the absence of secondary peaks indicates that the OPO output is entirely attributable to ECDL seeding.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Photoacoustic absorption spectra of a portion of the ν2 + 3ν3 rovibrational combination band of C2H2. Trace (a) is a reference spectrum recorded38 with a cw Ti:sapphire ring laser. Trace (b) is recorded with a 1-cm−1 continuous scan of narrow-band 865.5-nm idler radiation from a passive ring-cavity BBO OPO operating at ~1.6 times above threshold and injection seeded by a tunable ECDL.17 Both traces (a) and (b) have comparable linewidths (~0.03 cm−1 FWHM), limited by Doppler broadening.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Doppler-free two-photon absorption spectrum, fluorescence detected and recorded with counterpropagating beams of 778.1-nm idler radiation from a passive ring-cavity BBO OPO operating close to threshold and injection seeded by a tunable ECDL.17 The spectrum is for the 5d2D5/2–5s2S1/2 transition from the F = 3 hyperfine level of 85Rb, as in the inset excitation scheme. The curve of best fit (solid curve) is Gaussian with a 315-MHz FWHM width; a Lorentzian fit (dashed curve, 260 MHz FWHM) is markedly inferior.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) Time profiles of the 778-nm idler output of an ECDL-seeded ring-cavity BBO OPO, recorded under the same conditions as in Fig. 12. The solid curve is the observed time profile, whereas the dashed curve is a smoothed fit through the ringing and long tail of the observed trace. (b) Corresponding OPO power spectra, computed by Fourier transformation as discussed in the text. These traces show transform-limited FWHM bandwidths of 160 MHz (solid curve) and 230 MHz (dashed curve).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Terminology Used in This Paper to Classify the Bandwidth of Different Forms of Nanosecond-Pulsed OPO Devices, with Corresponding Practical Tuning Ranges and Typical Spectroscopic Applications

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