Abstract

We review progress in quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3. Using the electric-field poling process, we can reliably fabricate 0.5-mm-thick crystals with uniform domain structures over a 15-mm length. Periodically poled material retains the low-loss and bulk power handling properties of single-domain LiNbO3, and quasi phase matching permits noncritical phase matching with d33, the highest-valued nonlinear coefficient. Optical parametric oscillators pumped by 1.064-μm pulsed Nd:YAG lasers have been operated over the wavelength range 1.4–4 μm with tuning by temperature or by quasi-phase-matched period. We have shown an oscillation threshold as low as 0.012 mJ with a Q-switched pump laser and pumping at greater than ten times threshold without damage. We have also demonstrated a cw doubly resonant oscillator near 1.96 μm pumped directly with a commercial cw diode laser at 978 nm.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, "First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue secondharmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435–436 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. K. Burns, W. McElhanon, and L. Goldberg, "Second harmonic generation in field poled, quasi-phase-matched, bulk LiNbO3," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 252–254 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. L. Byer, "Optical parametric oscillators," in Quantum Electronics: A Treatise, H. Rabin and C. L. Tang, eds. (Academic, New York, 1975), pp. 587–702.
  5. G. J. Edwards and M. Lawrence, "A temperature-dependent dispersion equation for congruently grown lithium niobate," Opt. Quantum Electron. 16, 373–374 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. S. Kim and R. T. Smith, "Thermal expansion of lithium tantalate and lithium niobate single crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4637–4641 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. A. Roberts, "Simplified characterization of uniaxial and biaxial nonlinear optical crystals: a plea for standardization of nomenclature and conventions," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2057–2074 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. L. Bortz, D. Serkland, and M. M. Fejer, "Near degenerate difference frequency generation at 1.3 μm in LiNbO3 waveguides for application as an all-optical channel shifter," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 288–289.
  9. M. L. Bortz, M. Fujimura, and M. M. Fejer, "Increased acceptance bandwidth for quasi-phasematched second harmonic generation in LiNbO3 waveguides," Electron. Lett. 30, 34–35 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. J. Lim, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Second harmonic generation of green light in periodically poled planar lithium niobate waveguide," Electron. Lett. 25, 174–175 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. L. Bortz, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, "Quasi-phasematched optical parametric amplification and oscillation in periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Lett. 20, 49–51 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation of blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 108–110 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Lu, L. Mao, and N. Ming, "Blue-light generation by frequency doubling of an 810-nm cw GaAlAs diode laser in a quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 crystal," Opt. Lett. 19, 1037 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. Ito, C. Takyu, and H. Inaba, "Fabrication of periodic domain grating in LiNbO3 by electron beam writing for application of nonlinear optical processes," Electron. Lett. 27, 1221–1222 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Webjörn, V. Pruneri, P. St. J. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, "Quasi-phase-matched blue light generation in bulk lithium niobate, electrically poled via periodic liquid electrodes," Electron. Lett. 30, 894–895 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, "LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5481–5483 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Q. Chen and W. P. Risk, "Periodic poling of KTiOPO4 using an applied electric field," Electron. Lett. 30, 1516–1517 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. E. Myers, G. D. Miller, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and W. R. Bosenberg, "Quasi-phase-matched 1.064-μm-pumped optical parametric oscillator in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," Opt. Lett. 20, 52–54 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phasematched optical parametric oscillators using bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," in Solid State Lasers and Nonlinear Crystals, G. J. Quarles, L. Esterowitz, and L. K. Cheng, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2379, 154–162 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Räuber, "Chemistry and physics of lithium niobate," in Current Topics in Materials Science, E. Kaldis, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978), p. 503.
  22. I. Camlibel, "Spontaneous polarization measurements in several ferroelectric oxides using a pulsed-field method," J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1690–1693 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. K. Serkland, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, "Continuouswave total-internal-reflection optical parametric oscillator pumped at 1.064 nm," Opt. Lett. 19, 1046–1048 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. S. J. Brosnan and R. L. Byer, "Optical parametric oscillator threshold and linewidth studies," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 415–431 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. M. Choy and R. L. Byer, "Accurate second-order susceptibility measurements of visible and infrared nonlinear crystals," Phys. Rev. B 14, 1693–1706 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. H. Jundt, G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Periodically poled LiNbO3 for high-efficiency second-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2657–2659 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levenstein, and K. Nassau, "Optically induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72–74 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  28. W. R. Bosenberg, A. Drobshoff, D. C. Gerstenberger, L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Long pulse optical parametric oscillator based on bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Addendum to 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), postdeadline paper PD8.
  29. See previous features on OPO's: J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1656–1790, 2148–2243 (1993).
  30. H. Plaessmann, S. A. Re, J. J. Alonis, D. L. Vecht, and W. M. Grossman, "Multipass diode-pumped solid-state optical amplifier," Opt. Lett. 18, 1420–1422 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. S. T. Yang, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, "Power and spectral characteristics of continuous-wave parametric oscillators: the doubly to singly resonant transition," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1684–1695 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  32. W. J. Kozlovsky, E. K. Gustafson, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, "Efficient monolithic MgO:LiNbO3 singly resonant optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 13, 1102–1104 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. W. R. Bosenberg and D. R. Guyer, "Single frequency optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 387–389 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. E. Bjorkholm and H. G. Danielmeyer, "Frequency control of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator by radiation injection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 171–173 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  35. See M. Scheidt, B. Beier, R. Knappe, K. J. Boller, and R. Wallenstein, "Diode-laser-pumped continuous-wave KTP optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2087–2094 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  36. L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, J. W. Pierce, and R. G. Beausoleil, "CW diode-pumped optical parametric oscillator in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Addendum to 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), postdeadline paper PD9.
  37. G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, "Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3596–3639 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  38. J. A. Giordmaine and R. C. Miller, "Optical parametric oscillation in the visible spectrum," Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 298–300 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  39. S. T. Yang, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, "Continuouswave singly resonant optical parametric oscillator pumped by a single-frequency resonantly doubled Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Lett. 18, 971–973 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. R. J. Shine, A. J. Alfrey, and R. L. Byer, "40-W cw, TEM00-mode, diode-laser-pumped, Nd:YAG miniature-slab laser," Opt. Lett. 20, 459–461 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. M. A. Arbore, M. L. Bortz, and M. M. Fejer, "Quasiphasematched optical parametric oscillators in lithium niobate waveguides as sources of widely tunable infrared coherent radiation," in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 6 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 162–164.
  42. Y. Ishigame, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, "LiNbO3 waveguide second-harmonic-generation device phase matched with a fan-out domain-inverted grating," Opt. Lett. 16, 375–377 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. S. Schiller and R. L. Byer, "Quadruply resonant optical parametric oscillation in a monolithic total-internal-reflection resonator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1696–1707 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (9)

S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, "LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5481–5483 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phasematched optical parametric oscillators using bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," in Solid State Lasers and Nonlinear Crystals, G. J. Quarles, L. Esterowitz, and L. K. Cheng, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2379, 154–162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Bosenberg, A. Drobshoff, D. C. Gerstenberger, L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Long pulse optical parametric oscillator based on bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Addendum to 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), postdeadline paper PD8.

See M. Scheidt, B. Beier, R. Knappe, K. J. Boller, and R. Wallenstein, "Diode-laser-pumped continuous-wave KTP optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2087–2094 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, J. W. Pierce, and R. G. Beausoleil, "CW diode-pumped optical parametric oscillator in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Addendum to 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), postdeadline paper PD9.

M. A. Arbore, M. L. Bortz, and M. M. Fejer, "Quasiphasematched optical parametric oscillators in lithium niobate waveguides as sources of widely tunable infrared coherent radiation," in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 6 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 162–164.

M. L. Bortz, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, "Quasi-phasematched optical parametric amplification and oscillation in periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Lett. 20, 49–51 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Myers, G. D. Miller, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and W. R. Bosenberg, "Quasi-phase-matched 1.064-μm-pumped optical parametric oscillator in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," Opt. Lett. 20, 52–54 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Shine, A. J. Alfrey, and R. L. Byer, "40-W cw, TEM00-mode, diode-laser-pumped, Nd:YAG miniature-slab laser," Opt. Lett. 20, 459–461 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (7)

Y. Lu, L. Mao, and N. Ming, "Blue-light generation by frequency doubling of an 810-nm cw GaAlAs diode laser in a quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 crystal," Opt. Lett. 19, 1037 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Serkland, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, "Continuouswave total-internal-reflection optical parametric oscillator pumped at 1.064 nm," Opt. Lett. 19, 1046–1048 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Chen and W. P. Risk, "Periodic poling of KTiOPO4 using an applied electric field," Electron. Lett. 30, 1516–1517 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Webjörn, V. Pruneri, P. St. J. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, "Quasi-phase-matched blue light generation in bulk lithium niobate, electrically poled via periodic liquid electrodes," Electron. Lett. 30, 894–895 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Burns, W. McElhanon, and L. Goldberg, "Second harmonic generation in field poled, quasi-phase-matched, bulk LiNbO3," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 252–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Bortz, D. Serkland, and M. M. Fejer, "Near degenerate difference frequency generation at 1.3 μm in LiNbO3 waveguides for application as an all-optical channel shifter," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 288–289.

M. L. Bortz, M. Fujimura, and M. M. Fejer, "Increased acceptance bandwidth for quasi-phasematched second harmonic generation in LiNbO3 waveguides," Electron. Lett. 30, 34–35 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (6)

1992 (3)

W. R. Bosenberg and D. R. Guyer, "Single frequency optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 387–389 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Roberts, "Simplified characterization of uniaxial and biaxial nonlinear optical crystals: a plea for standardization of nomenclature and conventions," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2057–2074 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

H. Ito, C. Takyu, and H. Inaba, "Fabrication of periodic domain grating in LiNbO3 by electron beam writing for application of nonlinear optical processes," Electron. Lett. 27, 1221–1222 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Jundt, G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Periodically poled LiNbO3 for high-efficiency second-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2657–2659 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishigame, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, "LiNbO3 waveguide second-harmonic-generation device phase matched with a fan-out domain-inverted grating," Opt. Lett. 16, 375–377 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation of blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 108–110 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

E. J. Lim, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Second harmonic generation of green light in periodically poled planar lithium niobate waveguide," Electron. Lett. 25, 174–175 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1984 (1)

G. J. Edwards and M. Lawrence, "A temperature-dependent dispersion equation for congruently grown lithium niobate," Opt. Quantum Electron. 16, 373–374 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

S. J. Brosnan and R. L. Byer, "Optical parametric oscillator threshold and linewidth studies," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 415–431 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

A. Räuber, "Chemistry and physics of lithium niobate," in Current Topics in Materials Science, E. Kaldis, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978), p. 503.

1976 (1)

M. M. Choy and R. L. Byer, "Accurate second-order susceptibility measurements of visible and infrared nonlinear crystals," Phys. Rev. B 14, 1693–1706 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

R. L. Byer, "Optical parametric oscillators," in Quantum Electronics: A Treatise, H. Rabin and C. L. Tang, eds. (Academic, New York, 1975), pp. 587–702.

1969 (3)

Y. S. Kim and R. T. Smith, "Thermal expansion of lithium tantalate and lithium niobate single crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4637–4641 (1969).
[CrossRef]

I. Camlibel, "Spontaneous polarization measurements in several ferroelectric oxides using a pulsed-field method," J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1690–1693 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bjorkholm and H. G. Danielmeyer, "Frequency control of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator by radiation injection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 171–173 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, "Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3596–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966 (2)

J. A. Giordmaine and R. C. Miller, "Optical parametric oscillation in the visible spectrum," Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 298–300 (1966).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levenstein, and K. Nassau, "Optically induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72–74 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Alfrey, A. J.

Alonis, J. J.

Arbore, M. A.

M. A. Arbore, M. L. Bortz, and M. M. Fejer, "Quasiphasematched optical parametric oscillators in lithium niobate waveguides as sources of widely tunable infrared coherent radiation," in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 6 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 162–164.

M. L. Bortz, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, "Quasi-phasematched optical parametric amplification and oscillation in periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Lett. 20, 49–51 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levenstein, and K. Nassau, "Optically induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72–74 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ballman, A. A.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levenstein, and K. Nassau, "Optically induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72–74 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Barr, J. R. M.

J. Webjörn, V. Pruneri, P. St. J. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, "Quasi-phase-matched blue light generation in bulk lithium niobate, electrically poled via periodic liquid electrodes," Electron. Lett. 30, 894–895 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Beausoleil, R. G.

L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, J. W. Pierce, and R. G. Beausoleil, "CW diode-pumped optical parametric oscillator in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Addendum to 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), postdeadline paper PD9.

Beier, B.

See M. Scheidt, B. Beier, R. Knappe, K. J. Boller, and R. Wallenstein, "Diode-laser-pumped continuous-wave KTP optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2087–2094 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

J. E. Bjorkholm and H. G. Danielmeyer, "Frequency control of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator by radiation injection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 171–173 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Boller, K. J.

See M. Scheidt, B. Beier, R. Knappe, K. J. Boller, and R. Wallenstein, "Diode-laser-pumped continuous-wave KTP optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2087–2094 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bortz, M. L.

M. L. Bortz, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, "Quasi-phasematched optical parametric amplification and oscillation in periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Lett. 20, 49–51 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Arbore, M. L. Bortz, and M. M. Fejer, "Quasiphasematched optical parametric oscillators in lithium niobate waveguides as sources of widely tunable infrared coherent radiation," in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 6 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 162–164.

M. L. Bortz, M. Fujimura, and M. M. Fejer, "Increased acceptance bandwidth for quasi-phasematched second harmonic generation in LiNbO3 waveguides," Electron. Lett. 30, 34–35 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Bortz, D. Serkland, and M. M. Fejer, "Near degenerate difference frequency generation at 1.3 μm in LiNbO3 waveguides for application as an all-optical channel shifter," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 288–289.

Bosenberg, W. R.

W. R. Bosenberg, A. Drobshoff, D. C. Gerstenberger, L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Long pulse optical parametric oscillator based on bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Addendum to 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), postdeadline paper PD8.

L. E. Myers, G. D. Miller, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and W. R. Bosenberg, "Quasi-phase-matched 1.064-μm-pumped optical parametric oscillator in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," Opt. Lett. 20, 52–54 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Bosenberg and D. R. Guyer, "Single frequency optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 387–389 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, "Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3596–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levenstein, and K. Nassau, "Optically induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72–74 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Brosnan, S. J.

S. J. Brosnan and R. L. Byer, "Optical parametric oscillator threshold and linewidth studies," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 415–431 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Burns, W. K.

W. K. Burns, W. McElhanon, and L. Goldberg, "Second harmonic generation in field poled, quasi-phase-matched, bulk LiNbO3," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 252–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

R. J. Shine, A. J. Alfrey, and R. L. Byer, "40-W cw, TEM00-mode, diode-laser-pumped, Nd:YAG miniature-slab laser," Opt. Lett. 20, 459–461 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, J. W. Pierce, and R. G. Beausoleil, "CW diode-pumped optical parametric oscillator in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Addendum to 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), postdeadline paper PD9.

L. E. Myers, G. D. Miller, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and W. R. Bosenberg, "Quasi-phase-matched 1.064-μm-pumped optical parametric oscillator in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," Opt. Lett. 20, 52–54 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Bosenberg, A. Drobshoff, D. C. Gerstenberger, L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Long pulse optical parametric oscillator based on bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Addendum to 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), postdeadline paper PD8.

L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phasematched optical parametric oscillators using bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," in Solid State Lasers and Nonlinear Crystals, G. J. Quarles, L. Esterowitz, and L. K. Cheng, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2379, 154–162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Serkland, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, "Continuouswave total-internal-reflection optical parametric oscillator pumped at 1.064 nm," Opt. Lett. 19, 1046–1048 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Yang, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, "Power and spectral characteristics of continuous-wave parametric oscillators: the doubly to singly resonant transition," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1684–1695 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Schiller and R. L. Byer, "Quadruply resonant optical parametric oscillation in a monolithic total-internal-reflection resonator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1696–1707 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Yang, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, "Continuouswave singly resonant optical parametric oscillator pumped by a single-frequency resonantly doubled Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Lett. 18, 971–973 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Jundt, G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Periodically poled LiNbO3 for high-efficiency second-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2657–2659 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation of blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 108–110 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Lim, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Second harmonic generation of green light in periodically poled planar lithium niobate waveguide," Electron. Lett. 25, 174–175 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Kozlovsky, E. K. Gustafson, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, "Efficient monolithic MgO:LiNbO3 singly resonant optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 13, 1102–1104 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Brosnan and R. L. Byer, "Optical parametric oscillator threshold and linewidth studies," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 415–431 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Choy and R. L. Byer, "Accurate second-order susceptibility measurements of visible and infrared nonlinear crystals," Phys. Rev. B 14, 1693–1706 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Byer, "Optical parametric oscillators," in Quantum Electronics: A Treatise, H. Rabin and C. L. Tang, eds. (Academic, New York, 1975), pp. 587–702.

Camlibel, I.

I. Camlibel, "Spontaneous polarization measurements in several ferroelectric oxides using a pulsed-field method," J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1690–1693 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen and W. P. Risk, "Periodic poling of KTiOPO4 using an applied electric field," Electron. Lett. 30, 1516–1517 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Choy, M. M.

M. M. Choy and R. L. Byer, "Accurate second-order susceptibility measurements of visible and infrared nonlinear crystals," Phys. Rev. B 14, 1693–1706 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Danielmeyer, H. G.

J. E. Bjorkholm and H. G. Danielmeyer, "Frequency control of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator by radiation injection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 171–173 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Drobshoff, A.

W. R. Bosenberg, A. Drobshoff, D. C. Gerstenberger, L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Long pulse optical parametric oscillator based on bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Addendum to 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), postdeadline paper PD8.

Ducuing, J.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levenstein, and K. Nassau, "Optically induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72–74 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Eckardt, R. C.

L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phasematched optical parametric oscillators using bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," in Solid State Lasers and Nonlinear Crystals, G. J. Quarles, L. Esterowitz, and L. K. Cheng, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2379, 154–162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Bosenberg, A. Drobshoff, D. C. Gerstenberger, L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Long pulse optical parametric oscillator based on bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Addendum to 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), postdeadline paper PD8.

L. E. Myers, G. D. Miller, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and W. R. Bosenberg, "Quasi-phase-matched 1.064-μm-pumped optical parametric oscillator in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," Opt. Lett. 20, 52–54 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, J. W. Pierce, and R. G. Beausoleil, "CW diode-pumped optical parametric oscillator in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Addendum to 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), postdeadline paper PD9.

D. K. Serkland, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, "Continuouswave total-internal-reflection optical parametric oscillator pumped at 1.064 nm," Opt. Lett. 19, 1046–1048 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Yang, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, "Power and spectral characteristics of continuous-wave parametric oscillators: the doubly to singly resonant transition," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1684–1695 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Yang, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, "Continuouswave singly resonant optical parametric oscillator pumped by a single-frequency resonantly doubled Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Lett. 18, 971–973 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Kozlovsky, E. K. Gustafson, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, "Efficient monolithic MgO:LiNbO3 singly resonant optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 13, 1102–1104 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edwards, G. J.

G. J. Edwards and M. Lawrence, "A temperature-dependent dispersion equation for congruently grown lithium niobate," Opt. Quantum Electron. 16, 373–374 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phasematched optical parametric oscillators using bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," in Solid State Lasers and Nonlinear Crystals, G. J. Quarles, L. Esterowitz, and L. K. Cheng, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2379, 154–162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Arbore, M. L. Bortz, and M. M. Fejer, "Quasiphasematched optical parametric oscillators in lithium niobate waveguides as sources of widely tunable infrared coherent radiation," in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 6 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 162–164.

M. L. Bortz, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, "Quasi-phasematched optical parametric amplification and oscillation in periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Lett. 20, 49–51 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Bosenberg, A. Drobshoff, D. C. Gerstenberger, L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Long pulse optical parametric oscillator based on bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Addendum to 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), postdeadline paper PD8.

L. E. Myers, G. D. Miller, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and W. R. Bosenberg, "Quasi-phase-matched 1.064-μm-pumped optical parametric oscillator in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," Opt. Lett. 20, 52–54 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, J. W. Pierce, and R. G. Beausoleil, "CW diode-pumped optical parametric oscillator in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Addendum to 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), postdeadline paper PD9.

M. L. Bortz, D. Serkland, and M. M. Fejer, "Near degenerate difference frequency generation at 1.3 μm in LiNbO3 waveguides for application as an all-optical channel shifter," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 288–289.

M. L. Bortz, M. Fujimura, and M. M. Fejer, "Increased acceptance bandwidth for quasi-phasematched second harmonic generation in LiNbO3 waveguides," Electron. Lett. 30, 34–35 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Jundt, G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Periodically poled LiNbO3 for high-efficiency second-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2657–2659 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation of blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 108–110 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Lim, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Second harmonic generation of green light in periodically poled planar lithium niobate waveguide," Electron. Lett. 25, 174–175 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fujimura, M.

M. L. Bortz, M. Fujimura, and M. M. Fejer, "Increased acceptance bandwidth for quasi-phasematched second harmonic generation in LiNbO3 waveguides," Electron. Lett. 30, 34–35 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ge, C. Z.

S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, "LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5481–5483 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gerstenberger, D. C.

W. R. Bosenberg, A. Drobshoff, D. C. Gerstenberger, L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Long pulse optical parametric oscillator based on bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Addendum to 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), postdeadline paper PD8.

Giordmaine, J. A.

J. A. Giordmaine and R. C. Miller, "Optical parametric oscillation in the visible spectrum," Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 298–300 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, L.

W. K. Burns, W. McElhanon, and L. Goldberg, "Second harmonic generation in field poled, quasi-phase-matched, bulk LiNbO3," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 252–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Grossman, W. M.

Gustafson, E. K.

Guyer, D. R.

W. R. Bosenberg and D. R. Guyer, "Single frequency optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 387–389 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

J. Webjörn, V. Pruneri, P. St. J. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, "Quasi-phase-matched blue light generation in bulk lithium niobate, electrically poled via periodic liquid electrodes," Electron. Lett. 30, 894–895 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hong, J. F.

S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, "LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5481–5483 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Inaba, H.

H. Ito, C. Takyu, and H. Inaba, "Fabrication of periodic domain grating in LiNbO3 by electron beam writing for application of nonlinear optical processes," Electron. Lett. 27, 1221–1222 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ishigame, Y.

Ito, H.

H. Ito, C. Takyu, and H. Inaba, "Fabrication of periodic domain grating in LiNbO3 by electron beam writing for application of nonlinear optical processes," Electron. Lett. 27, 1221–1222 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jundt, D. H.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Jundt, G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Periodically poled LiNbO3 for high-efficiency second-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2657–2659 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. S.

Y. S. Kim and R. T. Smith, "Thermal expansion of lithium tantalate and lithium niobate single crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4637–4641 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kleinman, D. A.

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, "Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3596–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Knappe, R.

See M. Scheidt, B. Beier, R. Knappe, K. J. Boller, and R. Wallenstein, "Diode-laser-pumped continuous-wave KTP optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2087–2094 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kozlovsky, W. J.

Lawrence, M.

G. J. Edwards and M. Lawrence, "A temperature-dependent dispersion equation for congruently grown lithium niobate," Opt. Quantum Electron. 16, 373–374 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Levenstein, J. J.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levenstein, and K. Nassau, "Optically induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72–74 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Lim, E. J.

E. J. Lim, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Second harmonic generation of green light in periodically poled planar lithium niobate waveguide," Electron. Lett. 25, 174–175 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

Magel, G. A.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Jundt, G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Periodically poled LiNbO3 for high-efficiency second-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2657–2659 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation of blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 108–110 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mao, L.

McElhanon, W.

W. K. Burns, W. McElhanon, and L. Goldberg, "Second harmonic generation in field poled, quasi-phase-matched, bulk LiNbO3," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 252–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Miller, G. D.

Miller, R. C.

J. A. Giordmaine and R. C. Miller, "Optical parametric oscillation in the visible spectrum," Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 298–300 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ming, N.

Ming, N. B.

S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, "LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5481–5483 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Myers, L. E.

L. E. Myers, G. D. Miller, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and W. R. Bosenberg, "Quasi-phase-matched 1.064-μm-pumped optical parametric oscillator in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," Opt. Lett. 20, 52–54 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Bosenberg, A. Drobshoff, D. C. Gerstenberger, L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Long pulse optical parametric oscillator based on bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Addendum to 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), postdeadline paper PD8.

L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, J. W. Pierce, and R. G. Beausoleil, "CW diode-pumped optical parametric oscillator in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Addendum to 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), postdeadline paper PD9.

L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phasematched optical parametric oscillators using bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," in Solid State Lasers and Nonlinear Crystals, G. J. Quarles, L. Esterowitz, and L. K. Cheng, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2379, 154–162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nada, N.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, "First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue secondharmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435–436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nassau, K.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levenstein, and K. Nassau, "Optically induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72–74 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, H.

Pershan, P. S.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, J. W.

L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, J. W. Pierce, and R. G. Beausoleil, "CW diode-pumped optical parametric oscillator in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Addendum to 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), postdeadline paper PD9.

Plaessmann, H.

Pruneri, V.

J. Webjörn, V. Pruneri, P. St. J. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, "Quasi-phase-matched blue light generation in bulk lithium niobate, electrically poled via periodic liquid electrodes," Electron. Lett. 30, 894–895 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Räuber, A.

A. Räuber, "Chemistry and physics of lithium niobate," in Current Topics in Materials Science, E. Kaldis, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978), p. 503.

Re, S. A.

Risk, W. P.

Q. Chen and W. P. Risk, "Periodic poling of KTiOPO4 using an applied electric field," Electron. Lett. 30, 1516–1517 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, D. A.

D. A. Roberts, "Simplified characterization of uniaxial and biaxial nonlinear optical crystals: a plea for standardization of nomenclature and conventions," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2057–2074 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

J. Webjörn, V. Pruneri, P. St. J. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, "Quasi-phase-matched blue light generation in bulk lithium niobate, electrically poled via periodic liquid electrodes," Electron. Lett. 30, 894–895 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Saitoh, M.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, "First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue secondharmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435–436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Scheidt, M.

See M. Scheidt, B. Beier, R. Knappe, K. J. Boller, and R. Wallenstein, "Diode-laser-pumped continuous-wave KTP optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2087–2094 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, S.

Serkland, D.

M. L. Bortz, D. Serkland, and M. M. Fejer, "Near degenerate difference frequency generation at 1.3 μm in LiNbO3 waveguides for application as an all-optical channel shifter," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 288–289.

Serkland, D. K.

Shine, R. J.

Shu, H.

S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, "LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5481–5483 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. G.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levenstein, and K. Nassau, "Optically induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72–74 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. T.

Y. S. Kim and R. T. Smith, "Thermal expansion of lithium tantalate and lithium niobate single crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4637–4641 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Suhara, T.

Takyu, C.

H. Ito, C. Takyu, and H. Inaba, "Fabrication of periodic domain grating in LiNbO3 by electron beam writing for application of nonlinear optical processes," Electron. Lett. 27, 1221–1222 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vecht, D. L.

Wallenstein, R.

See M. Scheidt, B. Beier, R. Knappe, K. J. Boller, and R. Wallenstein, "Diode-laser-pumped continuous-wave KTP optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2087–2094 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. F.

S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, "LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5481–5483 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, K.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, "First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue secondharmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435–436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Webjörn, J.

J. Webjörn, V. Pruneri, P. St. J. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, "Quasi-phase-matched blue light generation in bulk lithium niobate, electrically poled via periodic liquid electrodes," Electron. Lett. 30, 894–895 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, "First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue secondharmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435–436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. T.

Zhang, Z. Y.

S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, "LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5481–5483 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S. N.

S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, "LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5481–5483 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y. Y.

S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, "LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5481–5483 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, "First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue secondharmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435–436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Jundt, G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Periodically poled LiNbO3 for high-efficiency second-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2657–2659 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levenstein, and K. Nassau, "Optically induced refractive index inhomogeneities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72–74 (1966).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation of blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 108–110 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Bosenberg and D. R. Guyer, "Single frequency optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 387–389 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bjorkholm and H. G. Danielmeyer, "Frequency control of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator by radiation injection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 171–173 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Giordmaine and R. C. Miller, "Optical parametric oscillation in the visible spectrum," Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 298–300 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (5)

M. L. Bortz, M. Fujimura, and M. M. Fejer, "Increased acceptance bandwidth for quasi-phasematched second harmonic generation in LiNbO3 waveguides," Electron. Lett. 30, 34–35 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Lim, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Second harmonic generation of green light in periodically poled planar lithium niobate waveguide," Electron. Lett. 25, 174–175 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Ito, C. Takyu, and H. Inaba, "Fabrication of periodic domain grating in LiNbO3 by electron beam writing for application of nonlinear optical processes," Electron. Lett. 27, 1221–1222 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Webjörn, V. Pruneri, P. St. J. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, "Quasi-phase-matched blue light generation in bulk lithium niobate, electrically poled via periodic liquid electrodes," Electron. Lett. 30, 894–895 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen and W. P. Risk, "Periodic poling of KTiOPO4 using an applied electric field," Electron. Lett. 30, 1516–1517 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

D. A. Roberts, "Simplified characterization of uniaxial and biaxial nonlinear optical crystals: a plea for standardization of nomenclature and conventions," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2057–2074 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Brosnan and R. L. Byer, "Optical parametric oscillator threshold and linewidth studies," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 415–431 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. K. Burns, W. McElhanon, and L. Goldberg, "Second harmonic generation in field poled, quasi-phase-matched, bulk LiNbO3," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 252–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

Y. S. Kim and R. T. Smith, "Thermal expansion of lithium tantalate and lithium niobate single crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4637–4641 (1969).
[CrossRef]

I. Camlibel, "Spontaneous polarization measurements in several ferroelectric oxides using a pulsed-field method," J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1690–1693 (1969).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, "LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5481–5483 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, "Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3596–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Lett. (9)

W. J. Kozlovsky, E. K. Gustafson, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, "Efficient monolithic MgO:LiNbO3 singly resonant optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 13, 1102–1104 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ishigame, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, "LiNbO3 waveguide second-harmonic-generation device phase matched with a fan-out domain-inverted grating," Opt. Lett. 16, 375–377 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Yang, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, "Continuouswave singly resonant optical parametric oscillator pumped by a single-frequency resonantly doubled Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Lett. 18, 971–973 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, L. Mao, and N. Ming, "Blue-light generation by frequency doubling of an 810-nm cw GaAlAs diode laser in a quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 crystal," Opt. Lett. 19, 1037 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Serkland, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, "Continuouswave total-internal-reflection optical parametric oscillator pumped at 1.064 nm," Opt. Lett. 19, 1046–1048 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Bortz, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, "Quasi-phasematched optical parametric amplification and oscillation in periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Lett. 20, 49–51 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Myers, G. D. Miller, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and W. R. Bosenberg, "Quasi-phase-matched 1.064-μm-pumped optical parametric oscillator in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," Opt. Lett. 20, 52–54 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Shine, A. J. Alfrey, and R. L. Byer, "40-W cw, TEM00-mode, diode-laser-pumped, Nd:YAG miniature-slab laser," Opt. Lett. 20, 459–461 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Plaessmann, S. A. Re, J. J. Alonis, D. L. Vecht, and W. M. Grossman, "Multipass diode-pumped solid-state optical amplifier," Opt. Lett. 18, 1420–1422 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. J. Edwards and M. Lawrence, "A temperature-dependent dispersion equation for congruently grown lithium niobate," Opt. Quantum Electron. 16, 373–374 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. M. Choy and R. L. Byer, "Accurate second-order susceptibility measurements of visible and infrared nonlinear crystals," Phys. Rev. B 14, 1693–1706 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

M. A. Arbore, M. L. Bortz, and M. M. Fejer, "Quasiphasematched optical parametric oscillators in lithium niobate waveguides as sources of widely tunable infrared coherent radiation," in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 6 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 162–164.

M. L. Bortz, D. Serkland, and M. M. Fejer, "Near degenerate difference frequency generation at 1.3 μm in LiNbO3 waveguides for application as an all-optical channel shifter," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 288–289.

R. L. Byer, "Optical parametric oscillators," in Quantum Electronics: A Treatise, H. Rabin and C. L. Tang, eds. (Academic, New York, 1975), pp. 587–702.

L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phasematched optical parametric oscillators using bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," in Solid State Lasers and Nonlinear Crystals, G. J. Quarles, L. Esterowitz, and L. K. Cheng, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2379, 154–162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Räuber, "Chemistry and physics of lithium niobate," in Current Topics in Materials Science, E. Kaldis, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978), p. 503.

See M. Scheidt, B. Beier, R. Knappe, K. J. Boller, and R. Wallenstein, "Diode-laser-pumped continuous-wave KTP optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2087–2094 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, J. W. Pierce, and R. G. Beausoleil, "CW diode-pumped optical parametric oscillator in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Addendum to 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), postdeadline paper PD9.

W. R. Bosenberg, A. Drobshoff, D. C. Gerstenberger, L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Long pulse optical parametric oscillator based on bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Addendum to 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), postdeadline paper PD8.

See previous features on OPO's: J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1656–1790, 2148–2243 (1993).

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Figures (19)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

First-order QPM periods of degenerate collinear OPO’s in PPLN for different cases of pump → signal + idler (e indicates an extraordinary and o an ordinary wave). The solid curves are values at 25°C; the dashed curves are at 200°C.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

First-order QPM periods for collinear PPLN OPO’s with common pump lasers. All the waves are polarized parallel to the crystal z axis. The solid curves are at 25 °C; the dashed curves are at 200 °C.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electrode configurations for electric-field poling. The upper figure shows a variant with insulator over conductor; the lower figure shows conductor over insulator. In both cases the covering electrolyte connects the sample to the circuit and forms an isopotential surface that helps to control fringing fields around the pattern.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Qualitative picture of ferroelectricity in LiNbO3. Polarity of the two stable-domain orientations is determined by the direction of offset of the metal ions relative to the oxygen layer. Domain polarity can be reversed by application of a field sufficient to move the ions from the one stable location to the other.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Electric-field poling circuit. Typically Rs = 100 MΩ, Rvm = 1 GΩ, and V2 is set at 12 kV with no sample in the circuit. During poling, V2 clamps at the coercive voltage Vc ≈ 10.5 kV for a 0.5-mm-thick LiNbO3 sample.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Voltage and current waveforms for poling a 3-mm-diameter, 0.5-mm-thick piece of LiNbO3. Section A, poling under the metal or liquid contact. Section B, poling under the photoresist. Section C, after completion of poling. For a patterned device, the voltage would be turned off at point D.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Orthographic view of 0.5-mm-thick PPLN with a 15.5-μm period, after etching in HF acid to reveal the domain structure. The three panels are top, side, and bottom views taken at the same location in the crystal by cutting and polishing into the grating region. The top panel is the +z face upon which the lithographic electrode was applied. The middle panel is a cross-sectional view of the +y face. The bottom panel is the −z face, which had the unpatterned ground electrode.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Difference-frequency generation tuning curve for 15.5-μm period, 2.2-mm-long PPLN, with λs = 1.555 μm and λi ≈ 1.3 μm. The calculated curve (solid curve) is based on the Sellmeier coefficients at 25 °C with the peak shifted +1 nm to match the data. The fringes in the data are due to Fresnel reflections from the uncoated end faces.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Setup for OPO experiments with a Q-switched 1.064-μm Nd:YAG pump laser.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Temperature tuning curves for 1.064-μm-pumped OPO in bulk PPLN with 31- and 28.5-μm periods. The calculated curves are based on the Sellmeier coefficients and include thermal expansion. The offset between the data and theory is within the accuracy of the Sellmeier fit.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Linewidth of PPLN OPO pumped by a 1.064-μm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The theoretical curve is the single-pass gain narrowed by a factor of approximately the square root of the number of passes of the signal pulse in the cavity.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

OPO output for a 1-Wav pump (100 μJ, 10 kHz) at 1.064 μm, showing real-time erasure of photorefractive damage with increasing temperature. For a 0.1-Wav pump, the same OPO operated without degradation at room temperature.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Pump pulse transmitted through the OPO cavity with the OPO off (upper trace) and the OPO on (lower trace). The difference between the traces indicates the pump depletion.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Experimental setup for a long-pulse PPLN OPO. The 700-mW 1.064-μm cw laser is chopped with an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) to produce rectangular pulses, which are amplified to ~300-W peak power with the pulse shape shown in Fig. 15. Pulse duration, pulse shape, and repetition rate can readily be varied with the acousto-optic modulator.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Pump pulse transmitted through the long-pulse OPO cavity with the OPO off (upper trace) and the OPO on (lower trace). The OPO turns on after 30 ns, and the transmitted pump quickly saturates to ~26 W, the oscillation threshold.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Experimental setup for a diode-pumped OPO in bulk PPLN: ROC, radius of curvature; HR, highly reflecting; R, reflecting.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Calculated temperature tuning curve for 977.6-nm-pumped, 28.5-μm-period PPLN OPO. The calculated phase-matching temperature at degeneracy is 88 °C; the experimental measurement is 91 °C. The bandwidth of the mirrors used in the diode-pumped OPO experiment is indicated.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Cavity-mirror piezo scan voltage, pump transmission with depletion, and ~1.96-μm OPO output signals with a 0.7% output coupler. The upper plot shows an operating point near the peak of the pump transmission. The lower plot shows a different operating point near the minimum of the pump transmission.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Centroid of the spectral output of the cw diode-pumped DRO as a function of cavity-mirror separation.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Nonlinear Coefficients of Congruent LiNbO3 for 1.064-μm SHGa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Acceptance Bandwidths for Parametric Gain of Collinear Interactions in Congruent LiNbO3a

Equations (15)

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d ( z ) = d eff m = - G m exp ( - i k m z ) ,
d E s d z = i ω s d Q n s c E p E i * exp ( i Δ k Q z ) , d E i d z = i ω i d Q n i c E p E s * exp ( i Δ k Q z ) , d E p d z = i ω p d Q n p c E s E i exp ( - i Δ k Q z ) .
d Q = d eff G m .
Δ k Q = k p - k s - k i - k m ,
G m = 2 m π sin ( m π D ) ,
d Q = 2 π d eff .
Δ k Q = k p - k s - k i - 2 π Λ ,
Λ = 2 l c = 2 π k p - k c - k i .
G ( L ) = E s ( L ) 2 E s ( 0 ) 2 - 1 2 ω s ω i d Q 2 I p n s n i n p 0 c 3 L 2 sinc 2 ( Δ k Q L 2 ) ,
Δ k Q = k p - k s - k i - 2 π Λ 0 ,
I pol = V 1 - V c R s - V c R vm ,
J T = 1 T p n p n s n i 0 c 3 2 ω s ω i d Q 2 2.25 L 2 w p 2 + w s 2 w p 2 τ ( 1 + γ ) 2 × cosh - 1 ( 30 L cav 2 τ c + a d - ln R s ) ,
P th = n p n s n i 0 c 3 π ( w p 2 + w s 2 ) 4 ω s ω i d Q 2 L 2 a s ,
P th = a s a i n s n i c 4 0 π 4 ω s ω i ω p d Q 2 L h ¯ m ,
P s + P i P p = 2 T oc T oc + a d N - 1 N ,

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