Abstract

Thermally induced phase mismatch and thermally induced lensing will limit the average power available from a parametric oscillator or amplifier. Expressions are derived that describe both of these average power effects for the commonly used radial heat extraction as well as for longitudinal heat extraction. It is shown that the effects of thermally induced phase mismatch can be mitigated by a judicious selection of the phase-matching conditions.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. A. Williams-Byrd and N. P. Barnes, “Evaluation of stable and unstable resonator configurations for efficient second-harmonic laser systems,” in Solid State Lasers III, G. J. Quarles, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1627, 281–285 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Okada and S. Ieiri, “Influences of self-induced thermal effects on phase matching in nonlinear optical crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-7, 560–563 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. P. Barnes, R. C. Eckhardt, D. J. Gettemy, and L. B. Edgett, “Heating effects in second harmonic generation,” presented at the Laser Isotope Separation Information Exchange Meeting, Albuquerque, N.M., May 1977.
  4. D. T. Hon and H. Brusselback, “Beam shaping to suppress phase mismatch in high power second harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1356–1364 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Eimerl, “The potential for efficient frequency conversion at high average power using solid state nonlinear optical materials,” UCID-20565 (National Technical Information Service, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Springfield, Va., October1985).
  6. P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, E. P. Chicklis, and K. L. Schepler, “High repetition rate AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 95.
  7. C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, and G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing and power scaling of an AgGaSe2OPO,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 95.
  8. N. P. Barnes, D. J. Gettemy, J. R. Hietanen, and R. A. Iannini, “Parametric amplification in AgGaSe2,” Appl. Opt. 28, 5162–5168 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. U. O. Farrukh, C. E. Hardesty, and N. P. Barnes, “Time-dependent birefringence in end-pumped cubic crystal,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 54.
  10. K. A. McCarthy and S. S. Ballard, “New data on the thermal conductivity of optical crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 1062–1063 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. P. Barnes, D. J. Gettemy, and R. S. Adhav, “Variation of the refractive indices with temperature and the tuning rate for KDP isomorphs,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 895–898 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. S. Hoefer, “Thermal variation of the refractive index in optical materials,” in Laser and Nonlinear Optical Materials, L. G. DeShazer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.681, 135–142 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. S. Liu and A. R. Shultz, “Specific heat of cesium dideuterium arsenate (CsD2AsO4) from 0 to 170°C,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 585–587 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. G. DeShazer and K. E. Wilson, “Refractive index and thermo-optic coefficients of CD*A,” presented at the Basic Properties of Optical Materials Symposium, Gaithersburg, Md., 1980.
  15. V. V. Zhdanova, V. P. Klyuev, V. V. Lemanose, I. A. Smirnov, and V. V. Tikhonov, “Thermal properties of lithium niobate crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 10, 1360–1362 (1968).
  16. J. D. Beasley, “Thermal conductivities of some novel nonlinear optical materials,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1000–1003 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. G. D. Boyd, W. L. Bond, and H. L. Carter, “Refractive index as a function of temperature in LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1941–1943 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zolkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. D. Bierlein and H. Vanherzeele, “Potassium titanyl phosphate: properties and new applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 622–632 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. J. Gettemy, W. C. Harker, G. Lindholm, and N. P. Barnes, “Some optical properties of KTP, LiIO3, and LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 223–2237 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. P. Velsko, M. Webb, L. Davis, and C. Huang, “Phase-matched harmonic generation in lithium triborate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2182–2192 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. D. Boyd, H. Kasper, and J. H. McFee, “Linear and nonlinear properties of AgGaS2, CuGaS2and CuInS2, and theory of the wedge technique for the measurements of nonlinear coefficients,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-7, 563–573 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  24. L. I. Berger and A. E. Balanevskaya, “Some physiocochemical, thermal, and elastic properties of ternary semiconductor compounds of the type AIBBIIIC2VI,” Inorg. Mater. 2, 1294–1295 (1966).
  25. G. C. Battle, T. F. Connolly, and A. M. Keesee, Laser Window and Mirror Materials, Vol. 9 of Solid State Physics Literature Guides (IFI/Plenum, New York, 1977).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. L. Herbst, “Cadmium selenide infrared parametric oscillator,” Microwave Laboratory Rep. 2125 (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1972).
  27. G. D. Boyd, E. Buehler, and F. G. Storz, “Linear and nonlinear properties of ZnGeP2and CdSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 301–304 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. D. Foster and L. M. Osterink, “Thermal effects in a Nd:YAG laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 3656–3663 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  29. W. Koechner, “Thermal lensing in a Nd:YAG laser rod,” Appl. Opt. 9, 2548–2553 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. P. G. Schunemann, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, “Recent advances in ZnGeP2mid-IR optical parametric oscillators,” presented at the Advanced Solid State Laser Conference, New Orleans, La., 1993.
  31. C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Scheppler, and R. DeDomenico, “Thermal lensing in AgGaSe2OPO crystals,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3192–3197 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

1991 (1)

S. P. Velsko, M. Webb, L. Davis, and C. Huang, “Phase-matched harmonic generation in lithium triborate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2182–2192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

1988 (1)

D. J. Gettemy, W. C. Harker, G. Lindholm, and N. P. Barnes, “Some optical properties of KTP, LiIO3, and LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 223–2237 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zolkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1980 (1)

D. T. Hon and H. Brusselback, “Beam shaping to suppress phase mismatch in high power second harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1356–1364 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

Y. S. Liu and A. R. Shultz, “Specific heat of cesium dideuterium arsenate (CsD2AsO4) from 0 to 170°C,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 585–587 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1971 (3)

G. D. Boyd, E. Buehler, and F. G. Storz, “Linear and nonlinear properties of ZnGeP2and CdSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 301–304 (1971).
[CrossRef]

M. Okada and S. Ieiri, “Influences of self-induced thermal effects on phase matching in nonlinear optical crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-7, 560–563 (1971).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Boyd, H. Kasper, and J. H. McFee, “Linear and nonlinear properties of AgGaS2, CuGaS2and CuInS2, and theory of the wedge technique for the measurements of nonlinear coefficients,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-7, 563–573 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (2)

J. D. Foster and L. M. Osterink, “Thermal effects in a Nd:YAG laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 3656–3663 (1970).
[CrossRef]

W. Koechner, “Thermal lensing in a Nd:YAG laser rod,” Appl. Opt. 9, 2548–2553 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

V. V. Zhdanova, V. P. Klyuev, V. V. Lemanose, I. A. Smirnov, and V. V. Tikhonov, “Thermal properties of lithium niobate crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 10, 1360–1362 (1968).

1967 (1)

G. D. Boyd, W. L. Bond, and H. L. Carter, “Refractive index as a function of temperature in LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1941–1943 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

L. I. Berger and A. E. Balanevskaya, “Some physiocochemical, thermal, and elastic properties of ternary semiconductor compounds of the type AIBBIIIC2VI,” Inorg. Mater. 2, 1294–1295 (1966).

1951 (1)

Adhav, R. S.

Balanevskaya, A. E.

L. I. Berger and A. E. Balanevskaya, “Some physiocochemical, thermal, and elastic properties of ternary semiconductor compounds of the type AIBBIIIC2VI,” Inorg. Mater. 2, 1294–1295 (1966).

Ballard, S. S.

Barnes, N. P.

N. P. Barnes, D. J. Gettemy, J. R. Hietanen, and R. A. Iannini, “Parametric amplification in AgGaSe2,” Appl. Opt. 28, 5162–5168 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Gettemy, W. C. Harker, G. Lindholm, and N. P. Barnes, “Some optical properties of KTP, LiIO3, and LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 223–2237 (1988).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Barnes, D. J. Gettemy, and R. S. Adhav, “Variation of the refractive indices with temperature and the tuning rate for KDP isomorphs,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 895–898 (1982).
[CrossRef]

U. O. Farrukh, C. E. Hardesty, and N. P. Barnes, “Time-dependent birefringence in end-pumped cubic crystal,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 54.

J. A. Williams-Byrd and N. P. Barnes, “Evaluation of stable and unstable resonator configurations for efficient second-harmonic laser systems,” in Solid State Lasers III, G. J. Quarles, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1627, 281–285 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Barnes, R. C. Eckhardt, D. J. Gettemy, and L. B. Edgett, “Heating effects in second harmonic generation,” presented at the Laser Isotope Separation Information Exchange Meeting, Albuquerque, N.M., May 1977.

Battle, G. C.

G. C. Battle, T. F. Connolly, and A. M. Keesee, Laser Window and Mirror Materials, Vol. 9 of Solid State Physics Literature Guides (IFI/Plenum, New York, 1977).
[CrossRef]

Beasley, J. D.

Berger, L. I.

L. I. Berger and A. E. Balanevskaya, “Some physiocochemical, thermal, and elastic properties of ternary semiconductor compounds of the type AIBBIIIC2VI,” Inorg. Mater. 2, 1294–1295 (1966).

Bierlein, J. D.

Bond, W. L.

G. D. Boyd, W. L. Bond, and H. L. Carter, “Refractive index as a function of temperature in LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1941–1943 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd, E. Buehler, and F. G. Storz, “Linear and nonlinear properties of ZnGeP2and CdSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 301–304 (1971).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Boyd, H. Kasper, and J. H. McFee, “Linear and nonlinear properties of AgGaS2, CuGaS2and CuInS2, and theory of the wedge technique for the measurements of nonlinear coefficients,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-7, 563–573 (1971).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Boyd, W. L. Bond, and H. L. Carter, “Refractive index as a function of temperature in LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1941–1943 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Brusselback, H.

D. T. Hon and H. Brusselback, “Beam shaping to suppress phase mismatch in high power second harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1356–1364 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Budni, P. A.

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Scheppler, and R. DeDomenico, “Thermal lensing in AgGaSe2OPO crystals,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3192–3197 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, E. P. Chicklis, and K. L. Schepler, “High repetition rate AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 95.

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, and G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing and power scaling of an AgGaSe2OPO,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 95.

P. G. Schunemann, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, “Recent advances in ZnGeP2mid-IR optical parametric oscillators,” presented at the Advanced Solid State Laser Conference, New Orleans, La., 1993.

Buehler, E.

G. D. Boyd, E. Buehler, and F. G. Storz, “Linear and nonlinear properties of ZnGeP2and CdSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 301–304 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Carter, H. L.

G. D. Boyd, W. L. Bond, and H. L. Carter, “Refractive index as a function of temperature in LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1941–1943 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Catella, G. C.

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, and G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing and power scaling of an AgGaSe2OPO,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 95.

Chicklis, E. P.

P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, E. P. Chicklis, and K. L. Schepler, “High repetition rate AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 95.

P. G. Schunemann, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, “Recent advances in ZnGeP2mid-IR optical parametric oscillators,” presented at the Advanced Solid State Laser Conference, New Orleans, La., 1993.

Connolly, T. F.

G. C. Battle, T. F. Connolly, and A. M. Keesee, Laser Window and Mirror Materials, Vol. 9 of Solid State Physics Literature Guides (IFI/Plenum, New York, 1977).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, D. G.

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Scheppler, and R. DeDomenico, “Thermal lensing in AgGaSe2OPO crystals,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3192–3197 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, and G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing and power scaling of an AgGaSe2OPO,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 95.

Davis, L.

S. P. Velsko, M. Webb, L. Davis, and C. Huang, “Phase-matched harmonic generation in lithium triborate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2182–2192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zolkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

DeDomenico, R.

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Scheppler, and R. DeDomenico, “Thermal lensing in AgGaSe2OPO crystals,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3192–3197 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, and G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing and power scaling of an AgGaSe2OPO,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 95.

DeShazer, L. G.

L. G. DeShazer and K. E. Wilson, “Refractive index and thermo-optic coefficients of CD*A,” presented at the Basic Properties of Optical Materials Symposium, Gaithersburg, Md., 1980.

Eckhardt, R. C.

N. P. Barnes, R. C. Eckhardt, D. J. Gettemy, and L. B. Edgett, “Heating effects in second harmonic generation,” presented at the Laser Isotope Separation Information Exchange Meeting, Albuquerque, N.M., May 1977.

Edgett, L. B.

N. P. Barnes, R. C. Eckhardt, D. J. Gettemy, and L. B. Edgett, “Heating effects in second harmonic generation,” presented at the Laser Isotope Separation Information Exchange Meeting, Albuquerque, N.M., May 1977.

Eimerl, D.

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zolkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Eimerl, “The potential for efficient frequency conversion at high average power using solid state nonlinear optical materials,” UCID-20565 (National Technical Information Service, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Springfield, Va., October1985).

Farrukh, U. O.

U. O. Farrukh, C. E. Hardesty, and N. P. Barnes, “Time-dependent birefringence in end-pumped cubic crystal,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 54.

Foster, J. D.

J. D. Foster and L. M. Osterink, “Thermal effects in a Nd:YAG laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 3656–3663 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Gettemy, D. J.

N. P. Barnes, D. J. Gettemy, J. R. Hietanen, and R. A. Iannini, “Parametric amplification in AgGaSe2,” Appl. Opt. 28, 5162–5168 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Gettemy, W. C. Harker, G. Lindholm, and N. P. Barnes, “Some optical properties of KTP, LiIO3, and LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 223–2237 (1988).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Barnes, D. J. Gettemy, and R. S. Adhav, “Variation of the refractive indices with temperature and the tuning rate for KDP isomorphs,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 895–898 (1982).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Barnes, R. C. Eckhardt, D. J. Gettemy, and L. B. Edgett, “Heating effects in second harmonic generation,” presented at the Laser Isotope Separation Information Exchange Meeting, Albuquerque, N.M., May 1977.

Graham, E. K.

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zolkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hardesty, C. E.

U. O. Farrukh, C. E. Hardesty, and N. P. Barnes, “Time-dependent birefringence in end-pumped cubic crystal,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 54.

Harker, W. C.

D. J. Gettemy, W. C. Harker, G. Lindholm, and N. P. Barnes, “Some optical properties of KTP, LiIO3, and LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 223–2237 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Herbst, R. L.

R. L. Herbst, “Cadmium selenide infrared parametric oscillator,” Microwave Laboratory Rep. 2125 (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1972).

Hietanen, J. R.

Hoefer, C. S.

C. S. Hoefer, “Thermal variation of the refractive index in optical materials,” in Laser and Nonlinear Optical Materials, L. G. DeShazer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.681, 135–142 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hon, D. T.

D. T. Hon and H. Brusselback, “Beam shaping to suppress phase mismatch in high power second harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1356–1364 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.

S. P. Velsko, M. Webb, L. Davis, and C. Huang, “Phase-matched harmonic generation in lithium triborate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2182–2192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Iannini, R. A.

Ieiri, S.

M. Okada and S. Ieiri, “Influences of self-induced thermal effects on phase matching in nonlinear optical crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-7, 560–563 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kasper, H.

G. D. Boyd, H. Kasper, and J. H. McFee, “Linear and nonlinear properties of AgGaS2, CuGaS2and CuInS2, and theory of the wedge technique for the measurements of nonlinear coefficients,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-7, 563–573 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Keesee, A. M.

G. C. Battle, T. F. Connolly, and A. M. Keesee, Laser Window and Mirror Materials, Vol. 9 of Solid State Physics Literature Guides (IFI/Plenum, New York, 1977).
[CrossRef]

Klyuev, V. P.

V. V. Zhdanova, V. P. Klyuev, V. V. Lemanose, I. A. Smirnov, and V. V. Tikhonov, “Thermal properties of lithium niobate crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 10, 1360–1362 (1968).

Knights, M. G.

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Scheppler, and R. DeDomenico, “Thermal lensing in AgGaSe2OPO crystals,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3192–3197 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, and G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing and power scaling of an AgGaSe2OPO,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 95.

P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, E. P. Chicklis, and K. L. Schepler, “High repetition rate AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 95.

P. G. Schunemann, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, “Recent advances in ZnGeP2mid-IR optical parametric oscillators,” presented at the Advanced Solid State Laser Conference, New Orleans, La., 1993.

Koechner, W.

Lemanose, V. V.

V. V. Zhdanova, V. P. Klyuev, V. V. Lemanose, I. A. Smirnov, and V. V. Tikhonov, “Thermal properties of lithium niobate crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 10, 1360–1362 (1968).

Lindholm, G.

D. J. Gettemy, W. C. Harker, G. Lindholm, and N. P. Barnes, “Some optical properties of KTP, LiIO3, and LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 223–2237 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. S.

Y. S. Liu and A. R. Shultz, “Specific heat of cesium dideuterium arsenate (CsD2AsO4) from 0 to 170°C,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 585–587 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Marquardt, C. L.

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Scheppler, and R. DeDomenico, “Thermal lensing in AgGaSe2OPO crystals,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3192–3197 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, and G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing and power scaling of an AgGaSe2OPO,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 95.

McCarthy, K. A.

McFee, J. H.

G. D. Boyd, H. Kasper, and J. H. McFee, “Linear and nonlinear properties of AgGaS2, CuGaS2and CuInS2, and theory of the wedge technique for the measurements of nonlinear coefficients,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-7, 563–573 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Okada, M.

M. Okada and S. Ieiri, “Influences of self-induced thermal effects on phase matching in nonlinear optical crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-7, 560–563 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Osterink, L. M.

J. D. Foster and L. M. Osterink, “Thermal effects in a Nd:YAG laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 3656–3663 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Pollak, T. M.

P. G. Schunemann, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, “Recent advances in ZnGeP2mid-IR optical parametric oscillators,” presented at the Advanced Solid State Laser Conference, New Orleans, La., 1993.

Schepler, K. L.

P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, E. P. Chicklis, and K. L. Schepler, “High repetition rate AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 95.

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, and G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing and power scaling of an AgGaSe2OPO,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 95.

Scheppler, K. L.

Schunemann, P. G.

P. G. Schunemann, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, “Recent advances in ZnGeP2mid-IR optical parametric oscillators,” presented at the Advanced Solid State Laser Conference, New Orleans, La., 1993.

Shultz, A. R.

Y. S. Liu and A. R. Shultz, “Specific heat of cesium dideuterium arsenate (CsD2AsO4) from 0 to 170°C,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 585–587 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, I. A.

V. V. Zhdanova, V. P. Klyuev, V. V. Lemanose, I. A. Smirnov, and V. V. Tikhonov, “Thermal properties of lithium niobate crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 10, 1360–1362 (1968).

Storz, F. G.

G. D. Boyd, E. Buehler, and F. G. Storz, “Linear and nonlinear properties of ZnGeP2and CdSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 301–304 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonov, V. V.

V. V. Zhdanova, V. P. Klyuev, V. V. Lemanose, I. A. Smirnov, and V. V. Tikhonov, “Thermal properties of lithium niobate crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 10, 1360–1362 (1968).

Vanherzeele, H.

Velsko, S.

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zolkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Velsko, S. P.

S. P. Velsko, M. Webb, L. Davis, and C. Huang, “Phase-matched harmonic generation in lithium triborate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2182–2192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Webb, M.

S. P. Velsko, M. Webb, L. Davis, and C. Huang, “Phase-matched harmonic generation in lithium triborate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2182–2192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Williams-Byrd, J. A.

J. A. Williams-Byrd and N. P. Barnes, “Evaluation of stable and unstable resonator configurations for efficient second-harmonic laser systems,” in Solid State Lasers III, G. J. Quarles, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1627, 281–285 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, K. E.

L. G. DeShazer and K. E. Wilson, “Refractive index and thermo-optic coefficients of CD*A,” presented at the Basic Properties of Optical Materials Symposium, Gaithersburg, Md., 1980.

Zalkin, A.

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Zhdanova, V. V.

V. V. Zhdanova, V. P. Klyuev, V. V. Lemanose, I. A. Smirnov, and V. V. Tikhonov, “Thermal properties of lithium niobate crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 10, 1360–1362 (1968).

Zolkin, A.

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zolkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. D. Boyd, E. Buehler, and F. G. Storz, “Linear and nonlinear properties of ZnGeP2and CdSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 301–304 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Liu and A. R. Shultz, “Specific heat of cesium dideuterium arsenate (CsD2AsO4) from 0 to 170°C,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 585–587 (1975).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

M. Okada and S. Ieiri, “Influences of self-induced thermal effects on phase matching in nonlinear optical crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-7, 560–563 (1971).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Hon and H. Brusselback, “Beam shaping to suppress phase mismatch in high power second harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1356–1364 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Gettemy, W. C. Harker, G. Lindholm, and N. P. Barnes, “Some optical properties of KTP, LiIO3, and LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 223–2237 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Velsko, M. Webb, L. Davis, and C. Huang, “Phase-matched harmonic generation in lithium triborate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2182–2192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Boyd, H. Kasper, and J. H. McFee, “Linear and nonlinear properties of AgGaS2, CuGaS2and CuInS2, and theory of the wedge technique for the measurements of nonlinear coefficients,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-7, 563–573 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Inorg. Mater. (1)

L. I. Berger and A. E. Balanevskaya, “Some physiocochemical, thermal, and elastic properties of ternary semiconductor compounds of the type AIBBIIIC2VI,” Inorg. Mater. 2, 1294–1295 (1966).

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

J. D. Foster and L. M. Osterink, “Thermal effects in a Nd:YAG laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 3656–3663 (1970).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Boyd, W. L. Bond, and H. L. Carter, “Refractive index as a function of temperature in LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1941–1943 (1967).
[CrossRef]

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zolkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Sov. Phys. Solid State (1)

V. V. Zhdanova, V. P. Klyuev, V. V. Lemanose, I. A. Smirnov, and V. V. Tikhonov, “Thermal properties of lithium niobate crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 10, 1360–1362 (1968).

Other (11)

J. A. Williams-Byrd and N. P. Barnes, “Evaluation of stable and unstable resonator configurations for efficient second-harmonic laser systems,” in Solid State Lasers III, G. J. Quarles, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1627, 281–285 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Battle, T. F. Connolly, and A. M. Keesee, Laser Window and Mirror Materials, Vol. 9 of Solid State Physics Literature Guides (IFI/Plenum, New York, 1977).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Herbst, “Cadmium selenide infrared parametric oscillator,” Microwave Laboratory Rep. 2125 (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1972).

P. G. Schunemann, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, “Recent advances in ZnGeP2mid-IR optical parametric oscillators,” presented at the Advanced Solid State Laser Conference, New Orleans, La., 1993.

C. S. Hoefer, “Thermal variation of the refractive index in optical materials,” in Laser and Nonlinear Optical Materials, L. G. DeShazer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.681, 135–142 (1986).
[CrossRef]

L. G. DeShazer and K. E. Wilson, “Refractive index and thermo-optic coefficients of CD*A,” presented at the Basic Properties of Optical Materials Symposium, Gaithersburg, Md., 1980.

D. Eimerl, “The potential for efficient frequency conversion at high average power using solid state nonlinear optical materials,” UCID-20565 (National Technical Information Service, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Springfield, Va., October1985).

P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, E. P. Chicklis, and K. L. Schepler, “High repetition rate AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 95.

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, and G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing and power scaling of an AgGaSe2OPO,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 95.

N. P. Barnes, R. C. Eckhardt, D. J. Gettemy, and L. B. Edgett, “Heating effects in second harmonic generation,” presented at the Laser Isotope Separation Information Exchange Meeting, Albuquerque, N.M., May 1977.

U. O. Farrukh, C. E. Hardesty, and N. P. Barnes, “Time-dependent birefringence in end-pumped cubic crystal,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 54.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Radial and longitudinal heat extraction geometries.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temperature profiles calculated from the series solution and the Gaussian approximation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative efficiency as a function of the heating parameter calculated from the series solution.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative efficiency as a function of the heating parameter calculated from the Gaussian approximation.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Thermal Parameters of Selected Nonlinear Crystalsa

Equations (33)

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β a P a = ( 1 / l ) 0 l ( β 1 P 1 + β 2 P 2 + β 3 P 3 ) d z ,
β a P a = β 1 P 1 ( 1 η / 2 ) .
P 2 = P 20 cosh 2 ( Γ z ) ,
β a P a = β 1 P 10 + ( β 2 + β 1 λ 2 / λ 1 β 3 λ 2 / λ 3 ) P 20 / 2 + ( β 2 β 1 λ 2 / λ 1 + β 3 λ 2 / λ 3 ) P 20 sinh ( 2 Γ l ) / 4 Γ l .
β a P a = β 1 P 1 ( 1 η / 2 ) 2 η λ 1 β 2 P 1 / λ 2 ln ( R m 2 R l 2 ) 2 η λ 1 β 3 P 1 / λ 3 ln( R m 3 R l 3 ) .
2 T ρ 2 + 1 ρ T ρ + 2 β a P a π w 0 2 k c exp ( 2 ρ 2 w 0 2 ) = 0 ,
T = T 0 + β a P a π k c n 1 ( 1 ) n 2 n 2 n 2 ( n 1 ) ! ( ρ w 0 ) 2 n .
T = T 0 + ( β a P a 2 π k c ) [ exp ( ρ 2 w 0 2 ) 1 ] ,
2 T z 2 + 2 β a P a π w 0 2 k c exp ( 2 ρ 2 w 0 2 ) = 0 ,
T = T 0 + β a P a ( l z z 2 ) exp ( 2 ρ 2 / w 0 2 ) / π w 0 2 k c ,
D 2 T ρ 2 T t = 0 ,
T = T 0 + Δ T [ w 0 2 / ( w 0 2 + 8 Dt ) ] exp [ 2 ρ 2 / ( w 0 2 + 8 Dt ) ] ,
τ = w 0 2 / 8 D = ρ c p w 0 2 / 8 k c .
Δ Φ = Δ kl / 2 = ( Δ k 0 + Δ k T Δ T ) l 2 ,
Δ k = 2 π ( n 1 / λ 1 n 2 / λ 2 n 3 / λ 3 ) ,
Δ k T = 2 π ( 1 λ 1 n 1 T 1 λ 2 n 2 T 1 λ 3 n 3 T ) ,
Δ k T i 1 λ i ( n e T n o T ) sin 2 θ ,
Δ Φ = [ Δ k 0 + a rg 1 2 n 1 ( 1 ) n n 2 ( n 1 ) ! ( 2 ρ 2 w 0 2 ) n ] l 2
Δ Φ = { Δ k 0 + a rg [ exp ( ρ 2 w 0 2 ) 1 ] } l 2
a rg = ( 1 λ 1 n 1 T 1 λ 2 n 2 T 1 λ 3 n 3 T ) β a P a k c .
η R = sin 2 Δ Φ / Δ Φ 2 ,
η R = ( 2 / π w i 2 ) 0 exp ( 2 ρ 2 / w i 2 ) sin 2 ( Δ Φ ) / ( Δ Φ ) 2 2 π ρ d ρ ,
δ ρ 0 = ρ f ,
δ = 0 l n T Δ T d z ,
δ β a l P a 2 π k c n T ρ 2 w 0 2 .
1 f = β a l P a π w 0 2 k c n T .
1 f a = 0 0 2 π 2 π w 0 2 exp ( 2 ρ 2 w 0 2 ) ( 1 ρ δ ρ ) ρ d θ d ρ .
1 f a = β a l P a π w 0 2 k c n T ln 2 .
δ = β a l P a π w 0 2 k c n T l 2 6 [ exp ( 2 ρ 2 w 0 2 ) 1 ] .
δ β a l P a π w 0 2 k c n T l 2 3 ρ 2 w 0 2 ( 1 ρ 2 w 0 2 ) .
1 f = β a l P a π w 0 2 k c n T 2 l 2 3 w 0 2 .
β a P a = β 1 E 1 PRF ,
1 f = β 1 l E 1 π w 0 2 k c n T PRF .

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