Abstract

We consider induced-grating autocorrelation (IGA) in a slowly responding medium and study three possible geometries (two-beam coupling, three-beam induced grating, and self-diffraction) in two different limiting cases (single-pulse experiments and many-pulse accumulated-grating experiments). We find that in five of these six cases the IGA trace is given by the squared amplitude of the electric-field correlation function, thus yielding information about the spectrum of the pulse. Theoretical expressions for the IGA trace are derived for both linearly chirped and self-phase-modulated pulses. Experiments performed with self-phase-modulated pulses are in excellent agreement with the theory. In this case we show how the measured IGA trace can be used to determine both pulse duration and pulse bandwidth.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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1994 (1)

1993 (4)

1992 (3)

H. S. Albrecht, P. Heist, J. Kleinschmidt, D. van Lap, and T. Schroder, “Measurement of ultraviolet femtosecond pulses using the optical Kerr effect,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 362–364 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. L. A. Chilla and O. E. Martinez, “Frequency domain phase measurement of ultrashort light pulses. Effects of noise,” Opt. Commun. 89, 434–440 (1992).
[Crossref]

K. W. DeLong and J. Yumoto, “Chirped light and its characterization using the cross-correlation technique,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1593–1604 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (6)

1990 (4)

1989 (6)

X. Zhu, K. Spears, and J. Serafin, “Ultrashort pulsed laser coherence measurements by single-pulse holography and four-wave mixing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1356–1362 (1989).
[Crossref]

F. Reynaud, F. Salin, and A. Barthelemy, “Measurement of phase shifts introduced by nonlinear optical phenomena on subpicosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 14, 275–277 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. J. Nighan, T. Gong, L. Liou, and P. M. Fauchet, “Self-diffraction: a new method for characterization of ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 69, 339–344 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, “Time direction determination of asymmetric ultrashort optical pulses from second-harmonic generation autocorrelation signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1201–1202 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, “General method for ultrashort light pulse chirp measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225–1233 (1989).
[Crossref]

H. Schulz, H. Schuler, T. Engers, and D. von der Linde, “Measurement of intense ultraviolet subpicosecond pulses using degenerate four-wave mixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2580–2585 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (3)

1987 (1)

1986 (4)

J. Janszky and G. Corradi, “Full intensity profile analysis of ultrashort laser pulses using four-wave mixing or third harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 60, 251–256 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. E. Rothenberg and D. Grischkowski, “Subpicosecond transient excitation of atomic vapor and the measurement of optical phase,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1235–1238 (1986).
[Crossref]

R. Trebino, E. K. Gustafson, and A. E. Siegman, “Fourth-order partial-coherence effects in the formation of integrated-intensity gratings with pulsed light sources,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1295–1304 (1986).
[Crossref]

O. L. Bourne and A. J. Alcock, “Ultraviolet and visible single-shot autocorrelator based on multiphoton ionization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2979–2982 (1986).
[Crossref]

1985 (4)

N. G. Basov, V. E. Pozhar, and V. I. Pustovoit, “Measurement of the duration of high-power ultrashort optical pulses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 1429–1431 (1985).
[Crossref]

J. C. Diels and J. J. Fontaine, “Coherence properties of ultrashort optical pulses,” J. Opt. (Paris) 16, 115–119 (1985).
[Crossref]

J. Buchert, R. Dorsinville, P. Delfyett, S. Krimchansky, and R. R. Alfano, “Determination of thermal correlation of ultrafast laser pulses using phase conjugation,” Opt. Commun. 52, 433–437 (1985).
[Crossref]

J. C. M. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, I. C. McMichael, and F. Simoni, “Control and measurement of ultrashort pulse shapes (in amplitude and phase) with femtosecond accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1270–1282 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

J. Janszky, G. Corradi, and D. S. Hamilton, “Temporal analysis of short laser pulses using degenerate four-wave mixing,” Appl. Opt. 23, 8–9 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Vampouille, A. Barthélémy, B. Colombeau, and C. Froely, “Observation et applications des modulations de fréquence dans les fibres unimodales,” J. Opt. (Paris) 15, 385–390 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (3)

B. S. Wherrett, A. L. Smirl, and T. F. Boggess, “Theory of degenerate four-wave mixing in picosecond excitation-probe experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 680–690 (1983).
[Crossref]

V. Dominic, X. S. Yao, R. M. Pierce, and J. Feinberg, “Measuring the coherence length of mode-locked laser pulses in real time,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 521–523 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Etchepare, G. Grillon, and A. Orszag, “Third order autocorrelation study of amplified subpicosecond laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 775–778 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (4)

W. Leupacher and A. Penzkofer, “Temporal analysis of a mode-locked Nd-glass laser by four-wave mixing (in a medium with instantaneous response),” Appl. Phys. B 29, 263–267 (1982).
[Crossref]

D. M. Rayner, P. A. Hackett, and C. Willis, “Ultraviolet laser, short pulse-width measurement by multiphoton ionization autocorrelation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 53, 537–538 (1982).
[Crossref]

N. Morita and T. Yajima, “A nonlinear correlation method using multiphoton ionization for the measurement of UV ultrashort pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 28, 25–29 (1982).
[Crossref]

R. Baltrameyunas, Y. Zaitkus, R. Dannelyus, M. Pyatrauskas, and A. Piskarskus, “Applications of dynamic holography in determination of coherence times of single picosecond light pulses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1252–1254 (1982).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

H. J. Eichler, U. Klein, and D. Langhans, “Coherence time measurement of picosecond pulses by a light-induced-grating method,” Appl. Phys. 21, 215–291 (1980).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

E. B. Treacy, “Measurement and interpretation of dynamic spectrograms of picosecond light pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 3848–3858 (1971).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

J. A. Giordmaine, P. M. Rentzepis, S. L. Shapieo, and K. W. Wecht, “Two-photon excitation of fluorescence by picosecond light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 216–218 (1967).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, H. S.

H. S. Albrecht, P. Heist, J. Kleinschmidt, D. van Lap, and T. Schroder, “Measurement of ultraviolet femtosecond pulses using the optical Kerr effect,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 362–364 (1992).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, T. F.

T. F. Albrecht, K. Seibert, and H. Kurz, “Chirp measurement of large-bandwidth femtosecond optical pulses using two-photon absorption,” Opt. Commun. 84, 223–227 (1991).
[Crossref]

Alcock, A. J.

O. L. Bourne and A. J. Alcock, “Ultraviolet and visible single-shot autocorrelator based on multiphoton ionization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2979–2982 (1986).
[Crossref]

Alfano, R. R.

J. Buchert, R. Dorsinville, P. Delfyett, S. Krimchansky, and R. R. Alfano, “Determination of thermal correlation of ultrafast laser pulses using phase conjugation,” Opt. Commun. 52, 433–437 (1985).
[Crossref]

Baltrameyunas, R.

R. Baltrameyunas, Y. Zaitkus, R. Dannelyus, M. Pyatrauskas, and A. Piskarskus, “Applications of dynamic holography in determination of coherence times of single picosecond light pulses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1252–1254 (1982).
[Crossref]

Barthelemy, A.

Barthélémy, A.

M. Vampouille, A. Barthélémy, B. Colombeau, and C. Froely, “Observation et applications des modulations de fréquence dans les fibres unimodales,” J. Opt. (Paris) 15, 385–390 (1984).
[Crossref]

Basov, N. G.

N. G. Basov, V. E. Pozhar, and V. I. Pustovoit, “Measurement of the duration of high-power ultrashort optical pulses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 1429–1431 (1985).
[Crossref]

Bernardin, J. P.

J. P. Bernardin and N. M. Lawandy, “Picosecond pulse measurements using the active laser medium,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 399–402 (1990).
[Crossref]

Boggess, T. F.

B. S. Wherrett, A. L. Smirl, and T. F. Boggess, “Theory of degenerate four-wave mixing in picosecond excitation-probe experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 680–690 (1983).
[Crossref]

Bor, Z.

Bourne, O. L.

O. L. Bourne and A. J. Alcock, “Ultraviolet and visible single-shot autocorrelator based on multiphoton ionization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2979–2982 (1986).
[Crossref]

Brun, A.

F. Salin, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Complex pulse evolution in a femtosecond laser with spectral windowing,” Opt. Commun. 79, 443–447 (1990).
[Crossref]

Buchert, J.

J. Buchert, R. Dorsinville, P. Delfyett, S. Krimchansky, and R. R. Alfano, “Determination of thermal correlation of ultrafast laser pulses using phase conjugation,” Opt. Commun. 52, 433–437 (1985).
[Crossref]

Bylsma, B.

A. M. Johnson, A. M. Glass, W. M. Simpson, B. Bylsma, and D. H. Olson, “Microwatt picosecond pulse autocorrelator using photorefractive GaAs:Cr,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 11 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper ThC4.

Chilla, J. L. A.

J. L. A. Chilla and O. E. Martinez, “Frequency domain phase measurement of ultrashort light pulses. Effects of noise,” Opt. Commun. 89, 434–440 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. L. A. Chilla and O. E. Martinez, “Analysis of a method of phase measurement of ultrashort pulses in the frequency domain,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1228–1235 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. L. A. Chilla and O. E. Martinez, “Direct determination of the amplitude and the phase of femtosecond light pulses,” Opt. Lett. 16, 39–41 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colombeau, B.

M. Vampouille, A. Barthélémy, B. Colombeau, and C. Froely, “Observation et applications des modulations de fréquence dans les fibres unimodales,” J. Opt. (Paris) 15, 385–390 (1984).
[Crossref]

Corradi, G.

J. Janszky and G. Corradi, “Full intensity profile analysis of ultrashort laser pulses using four-wave mixing or third harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 60, 251–256 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. Janszky, G. Corradi, and D. S. Hamilton, “Temporal analysis of short laser pulses using degenerate four-wave mixing,” Appl. Opt. 23, 8–9 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

da Silva, V. L.

Dadap, J. I.

Dannelyus, R.

R. Baltrameyunas, Y. Zaitkus, R. Dannelyus, M. Pyatrauskas, and A. Piskarskus, “Applications of dynamic holography in determination of coherence times of single picosecond light pulses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1252–1254 (1982).
[Crossref]

Delfyett, P.

J. Buchert, R. Dorsinville, P. Delfyett, S. Krimchansky, and R. R. Alfano, “Determination of thermal correlation of ultrafast laser pulses using phase conjugation,” Opt. Commun. 52, 433–437 (1985).
[Crossref]

DeLong, K. W.

Diels, J. C.

C. Yan and J. C. Diels, “Amplitude and phase recording of ultrashort pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1259–1263 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. C. Diels and J. J. Fontaine, “Coherence properties of ultrashort optical pulses,” J. Opt. (Paris) 16, 115–119 (1985).
[Crossref]

J. C. Diels, “Measurement techniques with mode-locked dye laser,” in Ultrashort Pulse Spectroscopy and Applications, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.533, 63–70 (1985).
[Crossref]

J. C. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, and F. Simoni, “Phase sensitive measurements of femtosecond laser pulses from a ring cavity,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers (STS, McLean, Va., 1983), pp. 348–355.

Diels, J. C. M.

Dominic, V.

X. S. Yao, V. Dominic, and J. Fainberg, “Theory of beam coupling and pulse shaping of mode-locked laser pulses in a photorefractive crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2347–2355 (1990).
[Crossref]

V. Dominic, X. S. Yao, R. M. Pierce, and J. Feinberg, “Measuring the coherence length of mode-locked laser pulses in real time,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 521–523 (1983).
[Crossref]

Dorsinville, R.

J. Buchert, R. Dorsinville, P. Delfyett, S. Krimchansky, and R. R. Alfano, “Determination of thermal correlation of ultrafast laser pulses using phase conjugation,” Opt. Commun. 52, 433–437 (1985).
[Crossref]

Downer, M. C.

Eichler, H. J.

H. J. Eichler, U. Klein, and D. Langhans, “Coherence time measurement of picosecond pulses by a light-induced-grating method,” Appl. Phys. 21, 215–291 (1980).
[Crossref]

Endoh, A.

Engers, T.

H. Schulz, H. Schuler, T. Engers, and D. von der Linde, “Measurement of intense ultraviolet subpicosecond pulses using degenerate four-wave mixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2580–2585 (1989).
[Crossref]

Etchepare, J.

J. Etchepare, G. Grillon, and A. Orszag, “Third order autocorrelation study of amplified subpicosecond laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 775–778 (1983).
[Crossref]

Fainberg, J.

Fauchet, P. M.

W. L. J. Nighan, T. Gong, L. Liou, and P. M. Fauchet, “Self-diffraction: a new method for characterization of ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 69, 339–344 (1989).
[Crossref]

P. M. Fauchet, W. L. Nighan, and R. Trebino, “Characterization of ultrashort laser pulses by the method of self-diffraction,” in Advances in Laser Science—I, Proceedings of the First International Laser Science Conference, W. C. Stwalley and M. Lapp, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1986), pp. 588.

Feinberg, J.

X. S. Yao and J. Feinberg, “Photorefractive pulse coupling in the frequency domain,” Opt. Lett. 18, pp. 104–106 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Dominic, X. S. Yao, R. M. Pierce, and J. Feinberg, “Measuring the coherence length of mode-locked laser pulses in real time,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 521–523 (1983).
[Crossref]

Focht, G. B.

Fontaine, J. J.

J. C. M. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, I. C. McMichael, and F. Simoni, “Control and measurement of ultrashort pulse shapes (in amplitude and phase) with femtosecond accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1270–1282 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Diels and J. J. Fontaine, “Coherence properties of ultrashort optical pulses,” J. Opt. (Paris) 16, 115–119 (1985).
[Crossref]

J. C. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, and F. Simoni, “Phase sensitive measurements of femtosecond laser pulses from a ring cavity,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers (STS, McLean, Va., 1983), pp. 348–355.

Froely, C.

M. Vampouille, A. Barthélémy, B. Colombeau, and C. Froely, “Observation et applications des modulations de fréquence dans les fibres unimodales,” J. Opt. (Paris) 15, 385–390 (1984).
[Crossref]

Georges, P.

F. Salin, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Complex pulse evolution in a femtosecond laser with spectral windowing,” Opt. Commun. 79, 443–447 (1990).
[Crossref]

Giordmaine, J. A.

J. A. Giordmaine, P. M. Rentzepis, S. L. Shapieo, and K. W. Wecht, “Two-photon excitation of fluorescence by picosecond light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 216–218 (1967).
[Crossref]

Glass, A. M.

A. M. Johnson, A. M. Glass, W. M. Simpson, B. Bylsma, and D. H. Olson, “Microwatt picosecond pulse autocorrelator using photorefractive GaAs:Cr,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 11 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper ThC4.

A. M. Johnson, W. M. Simpson, A. M. Glass, M. B. Klein, D. Rytz, and R. Trebino, “Infrared picosecond pulse correlation measurements using photorefractive beam coupling and harmonic generation in KNbO3and BaTiO3,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 18 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 53.

A. M. Johnson, A. M. Glass, W. M. Simpson, and D. H. Olson, “Infrared picosecond pulse diagnostics using photorefractive beam coupling,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 226.

Gomes, A. S. L.

Gong, T.

W. L. J. Nighan, T. Gong, L. Liou, and P. M. Fauchet, “Self-diffraction: a new method for characterization of ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 69, 339–344 (1989).
[Crossref]

Grillon, G.

J. Etchepare, G. Grillon, and A. Orszag, “Third order autocorrelation study of amplified subpicosecond laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 775–778 (1983).
[Crossref]

Grischkowski, D.

Gustafson, E. K.

Hackett, P. A.

D. M. Rayner, P. A. Hackett, and C. Willis, “Ultraviolet laser, short pulse-width measurement by multiphoton ionization autocorrelation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 53, 537–538 (1982).
[Crossref]

Hamilton, D. S.

Hayden, C. C.

R. Trebino, C. C. Hayden, A. M. Johnson, W. M. Simpson, and A. M. Levine, “Chirp and self-phase modulation in induced-grating autocorrelation measurements of ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1079–1081 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Levine, E. Ozizmir, R. Trebino, and C. C. Hayden, “New developments in autocorrelation measurements of ultrashort pulses,” in Laser Spectroscopy X, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobino, and G. Camy, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1992), pp. 384–385.

Heist, P.

H. S. Albrecht, P. Heist, J. Kleinschmidt, D. van Lap, and T. Schroder, “Measurement of ultraviolet femtosecond pulses using the optical Kerr effect,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 362–364 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ippen, E. P.

E. P. Ippen and C. V. Shank, in Ultrashort Light Pulses—Picosecond Techniques and Applications, S. L. Shapiro, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), pp. 83–122.
[Crossref]

Janszky, J.

J. Janszky and G. Corradi, “Full intensity profile analysis of ultrashort laser pulses using four-wave mixing or third harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 60, 251–256 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. Janszky, G. Corradi, and D. S. Hamilton, “Temporal analysis of short laser pulses using degenerate four-wave mixing,” Appl. Opt. 23, 8–9 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, A. M.

R. Trebino, C. C. Hayden, A. M. Johnson, W. M. Simpson, and A. M. Levine, “Chirp and self-phase modulation in induced-grating autocorrelation measurements of ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1079–1081 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Johnson, A. M. Glass, W. M. Simpson, and D. H. Olson, “Infrared picosecond pulse diagnostics using photorefractive beam coupling,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 226.

A. M. Johnson, W. M. Simpson, A. M. Glass, M. B. Klein, D. Rytz, and R. Trebino, “Infrared picosecond pulse correlation measurements using photorefractive beam coupling and harmonic generation in KNbO3and BaTiO3,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 18 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 53.

A. M. Johnson, A. M. Glass, W. M. Simpson, B. Bylsma, and D. H. Olson, “Microwatt picosecond pulse autocorrelator using photorefractive GaAs:Cr,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 11 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper ThC4.

Kane, D. J.

Klein, M. B.

A. M. Johnson, W. M. Simpson, A. M. Glass, M. B. Klein, D. Rytz, and R. Trebino, “Infrared picosecond pulse correlation measurements using photorefractive beam coupling and harmonic generation in KNbO3and BaTiO3,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 18 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 53.

Klein, U.

H. J. Eichler, U. Klein, and D. Langhans, “Coherence time measurement of picosecond pulses by a light-induced-grating method,” Appl. Phys. 21, 215–291 (1980).
[Crossref]

Kleinschmidt, J.

H. S. Albrecht, P. Heist, J. Kleinschmidt, D. van Lap, and T. Schroder, “Measurement of ultraviolet femtosecond pulses using the optical Kerr effect,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 362–364 (1992).
[Crossref]

Krimchansky, S.

J. Buchert, R. Dorsinville, P. Delfyett, S. Krimchansky, and R. R. Alfano, “Determination of thermal correlation of ultrafast laser pulses using phase conjugation,” Opt. Commun. 52, 433–437 (1985).
[Crossref]

Kurz, H.

T. F. Albrecht, K. Seibert, and H. Kurz, “Chirp measurement of large-bandwidth femtosecond optical pulses using two-photon absorption,” Opt. Commun. 84, 223–227 (1991).
[Crossref]

Langhans, D.

H. J. Eichler, U. Klein, and D. Langhans, “Coherence time measurement of picosecond pulses by a light-induced-grating method,” Appl. Phys. 21, 215–291 (1980).
[Crossref]

Lawandy, N. M.

J. P. Bernardin and N. M. Lawandy, “Picosecond pulse measurements using the active laser medium,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 399–402 (1990).
[Crossref]

Le Blanc, S. P.

Leupacher, W.

W. Leupacher and A. Penzkofer, “Temporal analysis of a mode-locked Nd-glass laser by four-wave mixing (in a medium with instantaneous response),” Appl. Phys. B 29, 263–267 (1982).
[Crossref]

Levine, A. M.

R. Trebino, C. C. Hayden, A. M. Johnson, W. M. Simpson, and A. M. Levine, “Chirp and self-phase modulation in induced-grating autocorrelation measurements of ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1079–1081 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Levine, E. Ozizmir, R. Trebino, and C. C. Hayden, “New developments in autocorrelation measurements of ultrashort pulses,” in Laser Spectroscopy X, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobino, and G. Camy, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1992), pp. 384–385.

Liou, L.

W. L. J. Nighan, T. Gong, L. Liou, and P. M. Fauchet, “Self-diffraction: a new method for characterization of ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 69, 339–344 (1989).
[Crossref]

Martinez, O. E.

J. L. A. Chilla and O. E. Martinez, “Frequency domain phase measurement of ultrashort light pulses. Effects of noise,” Opt. Commun. 89, 434–440 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. L. A. Chilla and O. E. Martinez, “Analysis of a method of phase measurement of ultrashort pulses in the frequency domain,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1228–1235 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. L. A. Chilla and O. E. Martinez, “Direct determination of the amplitude and the phase of femtosecond light pulses,” Opt. Lett. 16, 39–41 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McMichael, I. C.

Mogi, K.

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, “Time direction determination of asymmetric ultrashort optical pulses from second-harmonic generation autocorrelation signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1201–1202 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, “General method for ultrashort light pulse chirp measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225–1233 (1989).
[Crossref]

Morita, N.

N. Morita and T. Yajima, “A nonlinear correlation method using multiphoton ionization for the measurement of UV ultrashort pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 28, 25–29 (1982).
[Crossref]

Muller, A.

Naganuma, K.

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, “General method for ultrashort light pulse chirp measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225–1233 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, “Time direction determination of asymmetric ultrashort optical pulses from second-harmonic generation autocorrelation signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1201–1202 (1989).
[Crossref]

Nighan, W. L.

P. M. Fauchet, W. L. Nighan, and R. Trebino, “Characterization of ultrashort laser pulses by the method of self-diffraction,” in Advances in Laser Science—I, Proceedings of the First International Laser Science Conference, W. C. Stwalley and M. Lapp, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1986), pp. 588.

Nighan, W. L. J.

W. L. J. Nighan, T. Gong, L. Liou, and P. M. Fauchet, “Self-diffraction: a new method for characterization of ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 69, 339–344 (1989).
[Crossref]

Olson, D. H.

A. M. Johnson, A. M. Glass, W. M. Simpson, and D. H. Olson, “Infrared picosecond pulse diagnostics using photorefractive beam coupling,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 226.

A. M. Johnson, A. M. Glass, W. M. Simpson, B. Bylsma, and D. H. Olson, “Microwatt picosecond pulse autocorrelator using photorefractive GaAs:Cr,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 11 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper ThC4.

Orszag, A.

J. Etchepare, G. Grillon, and A. Orszag, “Third order autocorrelation study of amplified subpicosecond laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 775–778 (1983).
[Crossref]

Ozizmir, E.

A. M. Levine, E. Ozizmir, R. Trebino, and C. C. Hayden, “New developments in autocorrelation measurements of ultrashort pulses,” in Laser Spectroscopy X, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobino, and G. Camy, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1992), pp. 384–385.

Penzkofer, A.

W. Leupacher and A. Penzkofer, “Temporal analysis of a mode-locked Nd-glass laser by four-wave mixing (in a medium with instantaneous response),” Appl. Phys. B 29, 263–267 (1982).
[Crossref]

Pierce, R. M.

V. Dominic, X. S. Yao, R. M. Pierce, and J. Feinberg, “Measuring the coherence length of mode-locked laser pulses in real time,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 521–523 (1983).
[Crossref]

Piskarskus, A.

R. Baltrameyunas, Y. Zaitkus, R. Dannelyus, M. Pyatrauskas, and A. Piskarskus, “Applications of dynamic holography in determination of coherence times of single picosecond light pulses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1252–1254 (1982).
[Crossref]

Pozhar, V. E.

N. G. Basov, V. E. Pozhar, and V. I. Pustovoit, “Measurement of the duration of high-power ultrashort optical pulses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 1429–1431 (1985).
[Crossref]

Pustovoit, V. I.

N. G. Basov, V. E. Pozhar, and V. I. Pustovoit, “Measurement of the duration of high-power ultrashort optical pulses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 1429–1431 (1985).
[Crossref]

Pyatrauskas, M.

R. Baltrameyunas, Y. Zaitkus, R. Dannelyus, M. Pyatrauskas, and A. Piskarskus, “Applications of dynamic holography in determination of coherence times of single picosecond light pulses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1252–1254 (1982).
[Crossref]

Rayner, D. M.

D. M. Rayner, P. A. Hackett, and C. Willis, “Ultraviolet laser, short pulse-width measurement by multiphoton ionization autocorrelation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 53, 537–538 (1982).
[Crossref]

Reitze, D. H.

Rentzepis, P. M.

J. A. Giordmaine, P. M. Rentzepis, S. L. Shapieo, and K. W. Wecht, “Two-photon excitation of fluorescence by picosecond light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 216–218 (1967).
[Crossref]

Reynaud, F.

Rothenberg, J. E.

Rytz, D.

A. M. Johnson, W. M. Simpson, A. M. Glass, M. B. Klein, D. Rytz, and R. Trebino, “Infrared picosecond pulse correlation measurements using photorefractive beam coupling and harmonic generation in KNbO3and BaTiO3,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 18 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 53.

Salin, F.

F. Salin, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Complex pulse evolution in a femtosecond laser with spectral windowing,” Opt. Commun. 79, 443–447 (1990).
[Crossref]

F. Reynaud, F. Salin, and A. Barthelemy, “Measurement of phase shifts introduced by nonlinear optical phenomena on subpicosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 14, 275–277 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarukura, N.

Sauerbrey, R.

Schroder, T.

H. S. Albrecht, P. Heist, J. Kleinschmidt, D. van Lap, and T. Schroder, “Measurement of ultraviolet femtosecond pulses using the optical Kerr effect,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 362–364 (1992).
[Crossref]

Schuler, H.

H. Schulz, H. Schuler, T. Engers, and D. von der Linde, “Measurement of intense ultraviolet subpicosecond pulses using degenerate four-wave mixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2580–2585 (1989).
[Crossref]

Schulz, H.

H. Schulz, H. Schuler, T. Engers, and D. von der Linde, “Measurement of intense ultraviolet subpicosecond pulses using degenerate four-wave mixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2580–2585 (1989).
[Crossref]

Seibert, K.

T. F. Albrecht, K. Seibert, and H. Kurz, “Chirp measurement of large-bandwidth femtosecond optical pulses using two-photon absorption,” Opt. Commun. 84, 223–227 (1991).
[Crossref]

Serafin, J.

Shank, C. V.

E. P. Ippen and C. V. Shank, in Ultrashort Light Pulses—Picosecond Techniques and Applications, S. L. Shapiro, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), pp. 83–122.
[Crossref]

Shapieo, S. L.

J. A. Giordmaine, P. M. Rentzepis, S. L. Shapieo, and K. W. Wecht, “Two-photon excitation of fluorescence by picosecond light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 216–218 (1967).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen and G.-Z. Yang, “Theory of self-phase modulation and spectral broadening,” in The Supercontinuum Laser Source, R. R. Alfano, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 1–32.
[Crossref]

Siegman, A. E.

Simoni, F.

J. C. M. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, I. C. McMichael, and F. Simoni, “Control and measurement of ultrashort pulse shapes (in amplitude and phase) with femtosecond accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1270–1282 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, and F. Simoni, “Phase sensitive measurements of femtosecond laser pulses from a ring cavity,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers (STS, McLean, Va., 1983), pp. 348–355.

Simpson, W. M.

R. Trebino, C. C. Hayden, A. M. Johnson, W. M. Simpson, and A. M. Levine, “Chirp and self-phase modulation in induced-grating autocorrelation measurements of ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1079–1081 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Johnson, A. M. Glass, W. M. Simpson, B. Bylsma, and D. H. Olson, “Microwatt picosecond pulse autocorrelator using photorefractive GaAs:Cr,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 11 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper ThC4.

A. M. Johnson, W. M. Simpson, A. M. Glass, M. B. Klein, D. Rytz, and R. Trebino, “Infrared picosecond pulse correlation measurements using photorefractive beam coupling and harmonic generation in KNbO3and BaTiO3,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 18 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 53.

A. M. Johnson, A. M. Glass, W. M. Simpson, and D. H. Olson, “Infrared picosecond pulse diagnostics using photorefractive beam coupling,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 226.

Smirl, A. L.

B. S. Wherrett, A. L. Smirl, and T. F. Boggess, “Theory of degenerate four-wave mixing in picosecond excitation-probe experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 680–690 (1983).
[Crossref]

Spears, K.

Szabo, G.

Taylor, J. R.

Treacy, E. B.

E. B. Treacy, “Measurement and interpretation of dynamic spectrograms of picosecond light pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 3848–3858 (1971).
[Crossref]

Trebino, R.

K. W. DeLong and R. Trebino, “Improved ultrashort-pulse retrieval algorithm for frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2429–2437(1994).
[Crossref]

R. Trebino and D. J. Kane, “Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort pulses: frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1101–1111 (1993).
[Crossref]

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571–579 (1993).
[Crossref]

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Single-shot measurement of the intensity and phase of an arbitrary ultrashort pulse by using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 18, 823–825 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Trebino, C. C. Hayden, A. M. Johnson, W. M. Simpson, and A. M. Levine, “Chirp and self-phase modulation in induced-grating autocorrelation measurements of ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1079–1081 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Trebino, E. K. Gustafson, and A. E. Siegman, “Fourth-order partial-coherence effects in the formation of integrated-intensity gratings with pulsed light sources,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1295–1304 (1986).
[Crossref]

A. M. Johnson, W. M. Simpson, A. M. Glass, M. B. Klein, D. Rytz, and R. Trebino, “Infrared picosecond pulse correlation measurements using photorefractive beam coupling and harmonic generation in KNbO3and BaTiO3,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 18 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 53.

P. M. Fauchet, W. L. Nighan, and R. Trebino, “Characterization of ultrashort laser pulses by the method of self-diffraction,” in Advances in Laser Science—I, Proceedings of the First International Laser Science Conference, W. C. Stwalley and M. Lapp, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1986), pp. 588.

A. M. Levine, E. Ozizmir, R. Trebino, and C. C. Hayden, “New developments in autocorrelation measurements of ultrashort pulses,” in Laser Spectroscopy X, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobino, and G. Camy, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1992), pp. 384–385.

Vampouille, M.

M. Vampouille, A. Barthélémy, B. Colombeau, and C. Froely, “Observation et applications des modulations de fréquence dans les fibres unimodales,” J. Opt. (Paris) 15, 385–390 (1984).
[Crossref]

van Lap, D.

H. S. Albrecht, P. Heist, J. Kleinschmidt, D. van Lap, and T. Schroder, “Measurement of ultraviolet femtosecond pulses using the optical Kerr effect,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 362–364 (1992).
[Crossref]

von der Linde, D.

H. Schulz, H. Schuler, T. Engers, and D. von der Linde, “Measurement of intense ultraviolet subpicosecond pulses using degenerate four-wave mixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2580–2585 (1989).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, M.

Watanabe, S.

Wecht, K. W.

J. A. Giordmaine, P. M. Rentzepis, S. L. Shapieo, and K. W. Wecht, “Two-photon excitation of fluorescence by picosecond light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 216–218 (1967).
[Crossref]

Wherrett, B. S.

B. S. Wherrett, A. L. Smirl, and T. F. Boggess, “Theory of degenerate four-wave mixing in picosecond excitation-probe experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 680–690 (1983).
[Crossref]

Willis, C.

D. M. Rayner, P. A. Hackett, and C. Willis, “Ultraviolet laser, short pulse-width measurement by multiphoton ionization autocorrelation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 53, 537–538 (1982).
[Crossref]

Yajima, T.

N. Morita and T. Yajima, “A nonlinear correlation method using multiphoton ionization for the measurement of UV ultrashort pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 28, 25–29 (1982).
[Crossref]

Yamada, H.

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, “General method for ultrashort light pulse chirp measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225–1233 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, “Time direction determination of asymmetric ultrashort optical pulses from second-harmonic generation autocorrelation signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1201–1202 (1989).
[Crossref]

Yan, C.

Yang, G.-Z.

Y. R. Shen and G.-Z. Yang, “Theory of self-phase modulation and spectral broadening,” in The Supercontinuum Laser Source, R. R. Alfano, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 1–32.
[Crossref]

Yao, X. S.

Yumoto, J.

Zaitkus, Y.

R. Baltrameyunas, Y. Zaitkus, R. Dannelyus, M. Pyatrauskas, and A. Piskarskus, “Applications of dynamic holography in determination of coherence times of single picosecond light pulses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1252–1254 (1982).
[Crossref]

Zhu, X.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. (1)

H. J. Eichler, U. Klein, and D. Langhans, “Coherence time measurement of picosecond pulses by a light-induced-grating method,” Appl. Phys. 21, 215–291 (1980).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

W. Leupacher and A. Penzkofer, “Temporal analysis of a mode-locked Nd-glass laser by four-wave mixing (in a medium with instantaneous response),” Appl. Phys. B 29, 263–267 (1982).
[Crossref]

H. S. Albrecht, P. Heist, J. Kleinschmidt, D. van Lap, and T. Schroder, “Measurement of ultraviolet femtosecond pulses using the optical Kerr effect,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 362–364 (1992).
[Crossref]

N. Morita and T. Yajima, “A nonlinear correlation method using multiphoton ionization for the measurement of UV ultrashort pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 28, 25–29 (1982).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Various beam geometries for performing IGA. Both three-beam geometries are essentially equivalent for this purpose.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Why pulses can overlap in a slowly responding medium and not yield a grating. If a chirped pulse is split and recombined in the medium with nonzero relative delay, then unlike colors overlap at all times. The fringe pattern sweeps through the medium, washing out the grating, which is the time integral of the fringes throughout the pulse. Thus IGASlow yields phase information.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

IGA traces [|k(x)|2] for linearly chirped pulses. The chirp parameters used were ατp2 = (transform limited), ατp2 = 1, ατp2 = 3, and ατp2 = 10. Note that the IGA trace becomes narrower as the chirp parameter increases (for a given pulse width).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Theoretical IGA traces |k(x)|2 for SPM pulses. The SPM strengths ω0τpQ shown are 5, 10, 15, and 20. Note that the IGA trace becomes narrower and develops oscillations in the wings as the amount of SPM increases.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental apparatus, a standard photorefractive-beam-coupling arrangement, but with SHG possible simultaneously.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simultaneous SHGA measurement made with the same apparatus and crystal as in photorefractive-beam-coupling IGA measurements.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Typical experimental IGA traces for powers of (a) 0.25 W, (b) 0.5 W, and (c) 1.0 W. As power into the fiber increases, the magnitude of the SPM increases, and the IGA trace narrows and contains more oscillations in the wings. Also shown is the fit to the data from Eq. (25).

Equations (25)

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A ( t , τ ) - t E ( t ) E * ( t + τ ) d t .
E diff ( t , τ ) A ( t , τ ) E pr ( t ) ,
k ( τ ) = - + E ( t ) E * ( t + τ ) d t .
W det ( τ ) - + E diff ( t , τ ) 2 d t .
W det ( τ ) - + | E pr ( t ) - + E ( t ) E * ( t + τ ) d t | 2 d t ,
W det ( τ ) | - + E ( t ) E * ( t + τ ) d t | 2 - + E pr ( t ) 2 d t .
W det ( τ ) k ( τ ) 2 .
E det ( t , τ ) E ( t ) + E diff ( t , τ ) .
W det ( τ ) - + { E ( t ) 2 + 2 Re [ E * ( t ) E diff ( t , τ ) ] + E diff ( t , τ ) 2 } d t .
W det ( τ ) 2 Re [ - + E * ( t ) E ( t + τ ) × - t E ( t ) E * ( t + τ ) d t d t ] .
- + E * ( t ) E ( t + τ ) - t E ( t ) E * ( t + τ ) d t d t = [ | - t E ( t ) E * ( t + τ ) d t | 2 ] - + - - + E ( t ) E * ( t + τ ) - t E * ( t ) E ( t + τ ) d t d t .
2 Re [ - + E * ( t ) E ( t + τ ) - t E ( t ) E * ( t + τ ) d t d t ] = | - t E ( t ) E * ( t + τ ) d t | 2 ,
W det ( τ ) | - + E ( t ) E * ( t + τ ) d t | 2 ,
W det ( τ ) | - + E ( τ ) - t E ( t ) E * ( t + τ ) d t d t | 2 ,
A ( t , τ ) - t E 0 ( t ) E 0 * ( t + τ ) d t + j = 1 exp ( - j T τ d ) - + E j ( t ) E j * ( t + τ ) d t ,
A ( t , τ ) j = 0 exp ( - j T τ d ) - + E j ( t ) E j * ( t + τ ) d t .
A ( t , τ ) k ( τ ) j = 0 exp ( - j T τ d ) .
A ( t , τ ) k ( τ ) 1 1 - exp ( - 1 N ) N k ( τ ) ,
E ( t ) = A 0 exp [ - i ω 0 t - 2 ( ln 2 ) ( t 2 / τ p 2 + i α t 2 ) ] ,
k ( τ ) = A 0 2 τ p 2 ( π ln 2 ) 1 / 2 exp [ - ( ln 2 ) ( 1 + α 2 τ p 4 ) ( τ 2 / τ p 2 ) ] × exp ( - i ω 0 τ ) .
k ( x ) 2 = exp [ - 2 ( ln 2 ) x 2 ( 1 + α 2 τ p 4 ) ] .
ϕ ( t ) = ω 0 τ p Q exp [ - 4 ( ln 2 ) ( t 2 / τ p 2 ) ] ,
Q = 2 π ω 0 χ ( 3 ) A 0 2 z k 0 c 2 τ p .
E ( t ) = A 0 exp [ - 2 ( ln 2 ) ( t 2 / τ p 2 ) - i { ω 0 t + ω 0 τ p Q exp [ - 4 ( ln 2 ) ( t 2 / τ p 2 ) ] } ] .
k ( x ) = 2 ( ln 2 π ) 1 / 2 - + d u exp { - 2 ( ln 2 ) u 2 - i ω 0 τ p Q × exp [ - 4 ( ln 2 ) u 2 ] } exp { - 2 ( ln 2 ) ( u + x ) 2 - i ω 0 τ p Q × exp [ - 4 ( ln 2 ) ( u + x ) 2 ] } ,

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