Abstract

The dynamic processes of reverse saturable absorption (RSA) in a solution of C60 are studied in detail by use of rate equations and the light-propagation equation for a five-energy-level model. The RSA experimental results for C60 in toluene solution with a nanosecond–picosecond Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm are consistent with the theoretical simulations. Effects of sample concentration and thickness on RSA and contributions of the singlet and triplet excited states to RSA for various laser-pulse widths and wavelengths are also analyzed. Finally, an all-optical switch based on excited-state nonlinear absorption and the pump-probe technique is implemented.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light (Academic, New York, 1985).
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    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Li, L. Zhang, M. Yang, H. Wang, and Y. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 49, 1149 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  6. A. Kost, L. Tutt, M. B. Klein, T. K. Dougherty, and W. E. Elias, Opt. Lett. 18, 334 (1993).
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  7. F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, and D. J. Cardin, Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. G. McLean, R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, D. M. Brandelik, P. A. Fleitz, and T. Potteger, Opt. Lett. 18, 858 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
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  10. S. Speiser and F. L. Chisena, Appl. Phys. B 45, 137 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. Li, L. Zhang, M. Yang, H. Wang, and Y. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 49, 1149 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (3)

1992 (3)

L. W. Tutt and A. Kost, Nature (London) 356, 225 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Sibley, S. M. Argentine, and A. H. Francis, Chem. Phys. Lett. 188, 187 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, and D. J. Cardin, Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, K. Tanigaki, and S. Kuroshima, Chem. Phys. Lett. 181, 501 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

H. Ajie, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, R. D. Beck, F. Diederich, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, W. R. Krastchmer, W. Rubin, K. E. Schriver, D. Sensharma, and R. L. Whetten, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 8630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Tutt and S. W. McCahon, Opt. Lett. 15, 700 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

Z. Z. Ho and N. Peyghambarian, Chem. Phys. Lett. 148, 107 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Speiser and F. L. Chisena, Appl. Phys. B 45, 137 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

W. Blau, H. Byrne, and W. M. Dennis, Opt. Commun. 56, 25 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

M. Hercher, W. Chu, and D. L. Stockman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 954 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ajie, H.

H. Ajie, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, R. D. Beck, F. Diederich, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, W. R. Krastchmer, W. Rubin, K. E. Schriver, D. Sensharma, and R. L. Whetten, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 8630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez, M. M.

H. Ajie, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, R. D. Beck, F. Diederich, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, W. R. Krastchmer, W. Rubin, K. E. Schriver, D. Sensharma, and R. L. Whetten, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 8630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Anz, S. J.

H. Ajie, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, R. D. Beck, F. Diederich, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, W. R. Krastchmer, W. Rubin, K. E. Schriver, D. Sensharma, and R. L. Whetten, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 8630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Argentine, S. M.

S. P. Sibley, S. M. Argentine, and A. H. Francis, Chem. Phys. Lett. 188, 187 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Beck, R. D.

H. Ajie, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, R. D. Beck, F. Diederich, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, W. R. Krastchmer, W. Rubin, K. E. Schriver, D. Sensharma, and R. L. Whetten, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 8630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Blau, W.

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, and D. J. Cardin, Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. Blau, H. Byrne, and W. M. Dennis, Opt. Commun. 56, 25 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Brandelik, D. M.

Brant, M. C.

Byrne, H.

W. Blau, H. Byrne, and W. M. Dennis, Opt. Commun. 56, 25 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Callaghan, J.

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, and D. J. Cardin, Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cardin, D. J.

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, and D. J. Cardin, Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chisena, F. L.

S. Speiser and F. L. Chisena, Appl. Phys. B 45, 137 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chu, W.

M. Hercher, W. Chu, and D. L. Stockman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 954 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, W. M.

W. Blau, H. Byrne, and W. M. Dennis, Opt. Commun. 56, 25 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Diederich, F.

H. Ajie, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, R. D. Beck, F. Diederich, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, W. R. Krastchmer, W. Rubin, K. E. Schriver, D. Sensharma, and R. L. Whetten, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 8630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dougherty, T. K.

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. W. Ebbesen, K. Tanigaki, and S. Kuroshima, Chem. Phys. Lett. 181, 501 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Elias, W. E.

Fleitz, P. A.

Fostiropoulos, K.

H. Ajie, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, R. D. Beck, F. Diederich, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, W. R. Krastchmer, W. Rubin, K. E. Schriver, D. Sensharma, and R. L. Whetten, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 8630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Francis, A. H.

S. P. Sibley, S. M. Argentine, and A. H. Francis, Chem. Phys. Lett. 188, 187 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, H. M.

H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light (Academic, New York, 1985).

Guo, F.

C. Li, M. Yang, F. Guo, Y. Wang, and K. Tada, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 2, 551 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Henari, F.

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, and D. J. Cardin, Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hercher, M.

M. Hercher, W. Chu, and D. L. Stockman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 954 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ho, Z. Z.

Z. Z. Ho and N. Peyghambarian, Chem. Phys. Lett. 148, 107 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

H. Ajie, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, R. D. Beck, F. Diederich, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, W. R. Krastchmer, W. Rubin, K. E. Schriver, D. Sensharma, and R. L. Whetten, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 8630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M. B.

Kost, A.

Krastchmer, W. R.

H. Ajie, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, R. D. Beck, F. Diederich, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, W. R. Krastchmer, W. Rubin, K. E. Schriver, D. Sensharma, and R. L. Whetten, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 8630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kuroshima, S.

T. W. Ebbesen, K. Tanigaki, and S. Kuroshima, Chem. Phys. Lett. 181, 501 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

C. Li, L. Zhang, M. Yang, H. Wang, and Y. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 49, 1149 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, M. Yang, F. Guo, Y. Wang, and K. Tada, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 2, 551 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McCahon, S. W.

McLean, D. G.

Peyghambarian, N.

Z. Z. Ho and N. Peyghambarian, Chem. Phys. Lett. 148, 107 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Potteger, T.

Rubin, W.

H. Ajie, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, R. D. Beck, F. Diederich, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, W. R. Krastchmer, W. Rubin, K. E. Schriver, D. Sensharma, and R. L. Whetten, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 8630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schriver, K. E.

H. Ajie, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, R. D. Beck, F. Diederich, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, W. R. Krastchmer, W. Rubin, K. E. Schriver, D. Sensharma, and R. L. Whetten, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 8630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sensharma, D.

H. Ajie, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, R. D. Beck, F. Diederich, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, W. R. Krastchmer, W. Rubin, K. E. Schriver, D. Sensharma, and R. L. Whetten, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 8630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sibley, S. P.

S. P. Sibley, S. M. Argentine, and A. H. Francis, Chem. Phys. Lett. 188, 187 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Speiser, S.

S. Speiser and F. L. Chisena, Appl. Phys. B 45, 137 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stiel, H.

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, and D. J. Cardin, Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, D. L.

M. Hercher, W. Chu, and D. L. Stockman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 954 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

Tada, K.

C. Li, M. Yang, F. Guo, Y. Wang, and K. Tada, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 2, 551 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tanigaki, K.

T. W. Ebbesen, K. Tanigaki, and S. Kuroshima, Chem. Phys. Lett. 181, 501 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tutt, L.

Tutt, L. W.

L. W. Tutt and A. Kost, Nature (London) 356, 225 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Tutt and S. W. McCahon, Opt. Lett. 15, 700 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

C. Li, L. Zhang, M. Yang, H. Wang, and Y. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 49, 1149 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

C. Li, L. Zhang, M. Yang, H. Wang, and Y. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 49, 1149 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, M. Yang, F. Guo, Y. Wang, and K. Tada, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 2, 551 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Whetten, R. L.

H. Ajie, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, R. D. Beck, F. Diederich, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, W. R. Krastchmer, W. Rubin, K. E. Schriver, D. Sensharma, and R. L. Whetten, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 8630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M.

C. Li, L. Zhang, M. Yang, H. Wang, and Y. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 49, 1149 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, M. Yang, F. Guo, Y. Wang, and K. Tada, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 2, 551 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

C. Li, L. Zhang, M. Yang, H. Wang, and Y. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 49, 1149 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

S. Speiser and F. L. Chisena, Appl. Phys. B 45, 137 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (4)

T. W. Ebbesen, K. Tanigaki, and S. Kuroshima, Chem. Phys. Lett. 181, 501 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Sibley, S. M. Argentine, and A. H. Francis, Chem. Phys. Lett. 188, 187 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Z. Z. Ho and N. Peyghambarian, Chem. Phys. Lett. 148, 107 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, and D. J. Cardin, Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Hercher, W. Chu, and D. L. Stockman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 954 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. (1)

C. Li, M. Yang, F. Guo, Y. Wang, and K. Tada, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 2, 551 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

H. Ajie, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, R. D. Beck, F. Diederich, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, W. R. Krastchmer, W. Rubin, K. E. Schriver, D. Sensharma, and R. L. Whetten, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 8630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

L. W. Tutt and A. Kost, Nature (London) 356, 225 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Blau, H. Byrne, and W. M. Dennis, Opt. Commun. 56, 25 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

C. Li, L. Zhang, M. Yang, H. Wang, and Y. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 49, 1149 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light (Academic, New York, 1985).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

RSA Characteristics of C60 in toluene with a concentration of 7.20 × 10−4 M: energy transmittance versus incident fluence for a Nd:YAG pulse laser at 532 nm. Circles and triangles represent experimental data for 8-ns and 21-ps pulse widths, respectively. The solid curves are theoretical simulations for the two cases.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of two RSA curves for pure (C60 = 0.999) and mixed (C60/C70 = 8:1) solutions in toluene. The experimental results are the same under low incident power, with a small difference under high power.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Energy-level diagram for C60.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Linear absorption spectra of C60 in toluene solution: the ground-state (S0) absorption spectrum, the first triplet excited-state (T1) difference absorption spectrum, and the first singlet excited-state (S1) difference absorption spectrum.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

RSA theoretical curves for C60 solution in toluene for a concentration C of (a) 5.17 × 10−4 M, (b) 9.50 × 10−4 M, and (c) 1.45 × 10−3 M at L = 0.5 cm, λ = 532 nm, and Δt = 15 ns.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

RSA theoretical curves for C60 solution in toluene for a thickness L of (a) 0.1 cm, (b) 0.5 cm, and (c) 1 cm at C = 5.17 × 10−4 M, λ = 532 nm, and Δt = 15 ns.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Curves of absorbed light power density by energy level, α0I, αSI, and αTI, versus time during a single pulse. Δt is (a) 15 ns, (b) 1.2 ns, and (c) 80 ps. The figure shows that when Δt > τST the contribution of T1 is dominant; when Δt < τST the contribution of S1 is dominant. When Δt = τST both T1 and S1 contribute to RSA.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

All-optical switching in a C60 solution for a Nd:YAG pulse laser with I0 = 3 × 103 W/cm2 at 532 nm as a control beam and a cw laser diode at 747 nm as a signal beam. (a) Experimental waveform of output probe-beam intensity versus time; (b) corresponding simulation according to Eqs. (1)(7).

Equations (7)

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d n 1 d t = - σ 0 I n 1 h ν + n 2 τ S 0 + n 3 τ T 0 ,
d n 2 d t = σ 0 I n 1 h ν - n 2 τ S 0 - n 2 τ S T ,
d n 3 d t = n 2 n S T - n 3 τ T 0 .
d I d z = - α I ,
α = α 0 + α S + α T = σ 0 n 1 + σ S n 2 + σ T n 3 .
n 1 ( t = - , z ) = N = n 1 + n 2 + n 3 , n 2 ( t = - , z ) = n 3 ( t = - , z ) = 0 , I ( t , z = 0 ) = I 0 f ( t ) ,
d I B d z = - σ B T n 3 I B .

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