Abstract

We investigate the behavior of a cloud of atoms in a magneto-optical trap, which—after collection—is compressed when the field gradients of the trap magnetic field are increased. We measure sizes and shapes of the atom cloud as a function of laser detuning, magnetic field gradient, and number of trapped atoms. A transient density increase of more than an order of magnitude has been achieved. Moreover, reproducible Gaussian density distributions are observed at large detunings and intermediate magnetic-field gradients, permitting an accurate determination of density.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. C. Monroe, W. Swan, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. C. Wieman, C. Monroe, and E. Cornell, in Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobini, and G. Camy, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1992), p. 77.
  4. D. E. Pritchard, K. Helmerson, and A. G. Martin, in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Atomic Physics (ICAP XI), S. Haroche and J. C. Gay, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1989), p. 179.
  5. See also L. Marcassa, V. Bagnato, Y. Wang, C. Tsao, J. Weiner, O. Dulieu, Y. B. Band, and P. S. Julienne, Phys. Rev. A 47, R4563 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  6. K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. A 46, 4082 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. M. Steane, M. Chodhurry, and C. J. Foot, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2142 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  8. See also W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. A. M. Steane and C. J. Foot, Europhys. Lett. 14, 231 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. D. Wallace, T. P. Dinneen, K. Y. N. Tan, A. Kumarakrishnan, P. L. Gould, and J. Javanainen, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Mansfield, Conn. 06269 (personal communication).
  11. J. Werner, H. Wallis, and W. Ertmer, Opt. Commun. 94, 525 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. W. Sesko, T. G. Walker, and C. E. Wieman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 946 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  13. A. Höpe, D. Haubrich, G. Müller, W. G. Kaenders, and D. Meschede, Europhys. Lett. 22, 669 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  14. It has been brought to our attention that an increase in density for larger detunings was also observed by C. Salomon and co-workers, Hertzienne de l’École Nationale Supérieure, Laboratoire de Spectroscopie, 75231 Paris Cedex, France (personal communication); M. Drewsen, Ph. Laurent, A. Nadir, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, Y. Castin, D. Grison, and C. Salomon, “Investigation of sub-Doppler cooling effects in a cesium magneto-optical trap,” submitted to Appl. Phys. B.
  15. The calculations in Ref. 7 are valid only for small saturation parameters and for a J= 0 → J′ = 1 transition. Hence we cannot infer any quantitative statement by comparing our results directly with these calculations.
  16. D. Sesko, T. Walker, C. Monroe, A. Gallagher, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 961 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. N. Masuhara, J. M. Doyle, J. C. Sandberg, D. Kleppner, T. J. Greytak, H. F. Hess, and G. P. Kochanski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 935 (1988), and references therein.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (3)

See also L. Marcassa, V. Bagnato, Y. Wang, C. Tsao, J. Weiner, O. Dulieu, Y. B. Band, and P. S. Julienne, Phys. Rev. A 47, R4563 (1993).
[Crossref]

See also W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Höpe, D. Haubrich, G. Müller, W. G. Kaenders, and D. Meschede, Europhys. Lett. 22, 669 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (3)

J. Werner, H. Wallis, and W. Ertmer, Opt. Commun. 94, 525 (1992).
[Crossref]

K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. A 46, 4082 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Steane, M. Chodhurry, and C. J. Foot, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2142 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

1990 (1)

C. Monroe, W. Swan, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

D. Sesko, T. Walker, C. Monroe, A. Gallagher, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 961 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

N. Masuhara, J. M. Doyle, J. C. Sandberg, D. Kleppner, T. J. Greytak, H. F. Hess, and G. P. Kochanski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 935 (1988), and references therein.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bagnato, V.

See also L. Marcassa, V. Bagnato, Y. Wang, C. Tsao, J. Weiner, O. Dulieu, Y. B. Band, and P. S. Julienne, Phys. Rev. A 47, R4563 (1993).
[Crossref]

Band, Y. B.

See also L. Marcassa, V. Bagnato, Y. Wang, C. Tsao, J. Weiner, O. Dulieu, Y. B. Band, and P. S. Julienne, Phys. Rev. A 47, R4563 (1993).
[Crossref]

Cable, A.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chodhurry, M.

Chu, S.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cornell, E.

C. Wieman, C. Monroe, and E. Cornell, in Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobini, and G. Camy, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1992), p. 77.

Davis, K. B.

See also W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dinneen, T. P.

C. D. Wallace, T. P. Dinneen, K. Y. N. Tan, A. Kumarakrishnan, P. L. Gould, and J. Javanainen, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Mansfield, Conn. 06269 (personal communication).

Doyle, J. M.

N. Masuhara, J. M. Doyle, J. C. Sandberg, D. Kleppner, T. J. Greytak, H. F. Hess, and G. P. Kochanski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 935 (1988), and references therein.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dulieu, O.

See also L. Marcassa, V. Bagnato, Y. Wang, C. Tsao, J. Weiner, O. Dulieu, Y. B. Band, and P. S. Julienne, Phys. Rev. A 47, R4563 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ertmer, W.

J. Werner, H. Wallis, and W. Ertmer, Opt. Commun. 94, 525 (1992).
[Crossref]

Foot, C. J.

Gallagher, A.

D. Sesko, T. Walker, C. Monroe, A. Gallagher, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 961 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gould, P. L.

C. D. Wallace, T. P. Dinneen, K. Y. N. Tan, A. Kumarakrishnan, P. L. Gould, and J. Javanainen, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Mansfield, Conn. 06269 (personal communication).

Greytak, T. J.

N. Masuhara, J. M. Doyle, J. C. Sandberg, D. Kleppner, T. J. Greytak, H. F. Hess, and G. P. Kochanski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 935 (1988), and references therein.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haubrich, D.

A. Höpe, D. Haubrich, G. Müller, W. G. Kaenders, and D. Meschede, Europhys. Lett. 22, 669 (1993).
[Crossref]

Helmerson, K.

D. E. Pritchard, K. Helmerson, and A. G. Martin, in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Atomic Physics (ICAP XI), S. Haroche and J. C. Gay, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1989), p. 179.

Hess, H. F.

N. Masuhara, J. M. Doyle, J. C. Sandberg, D. Kleppner, T. J. Greytak, H. F. Hess, and G. P. Kochanski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 935 (1988), and references therein.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Höpe, A.

A. Höpe, D. Haubrich, G. Müller, W. G. Kaenders, and D. Meschede, Europhys. Lett. 22, 669 (1993).
[Crossref]

Javanainen, J.

C. D. Wallace, T. P. Dinneen, K. Y. N. Tan, A. Kumarakrishnan, P. L. Gould, and J. Javanainen, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Mansfield, Conn. 06269 (personal communication).

Joffe, M. A.

See also W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Julienne, P. S.

See also L. Marcassa, V. Bagnato, Y. Wang, C. Tsao, J. Weiner, O. Dulieu, Y. B. Band, and P. S. Julienne, Phys. Rev. A 47, R4563 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kaenders, W. G.

A. Höpe, D. Haubrich, G. Müller, W. G. Kaenders, and D. Meschede, Europhys. Lett. 22, 669 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ketterle, W.

See also W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kleppner, D.

N. Masuhara, J. M. Doyle, J. C. Sandberg, D. Kleppner, T. J. Greytak, H. F. Hess, and G. P. Kochanski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 935 (1988), and references therein.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kochanski, G. P.

N. Masuhara, J. M. Doyle, J. C. Sandberg, D. Kleppner, T. J. Greytak, H. F. Hess, and G. P. Kochanski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 935 (1988), and references therein.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumarakrishnan, A.

C. D. Wallace, T. P. Dinneen, K. Y. N. Tan, A. Kumarakrishnan, P. L. Gould, and J. Javanainen, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Mansfield, Conn. 06269 (personal communication).

Lindquist, K.

K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. A 46, 4082 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marcassa, L.

See also L. Marcassa, V. Bagnato, Y. Wang, C. Tsao, J. Weiner, O. Dulieu, Y. B. Band, and P. S. Julienne, Phys. Rev. A 47, R4563 (1993).
[Crossref]

Martin, A.

See also W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, A. G.

D. E. Pritchard, K. Helmerson, and A. G. Martin, in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Atomic Physics (ICAP XI), S. Haroche and J. C. Gay, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1989), p. 179.

Masuhara, N.

N. Masuhara, J. M. Doyle, J. C. Sandberg, D. Kleppner, T. J. Greytak, H. F. Hess, and G. P. Kochanski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 935 (1988), and references therein.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meschede, D.

A. Höpe, D. Haubrich, G. Müller, W. G. Kaenders, and D. Meschede, Europhys. Lett. 22, 669 (1993).
[Crossref]

Monroe, C.

C. Monroe, W. Swan, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sesko, T. Walker, C. Monroe, A. Gallagher, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 961 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wieman, C. Monroe, and E. Cornell, in Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobini, and G. Camy, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1992), p. 77.

Müller, G.

A. Höpe, D. Haubrich, G. Müller, W. G. Kaenders, and D. Meschede, Europhys. Lett. 22, 669 (1993).
[Crossref]

Prentiss, M.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pritchard, D. E.

See also W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. E. Pritchard, K. Helmerson, and A. G. Martin, in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Atomic Physics (ICAP XI), S. Haroche and J. C. Gay, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1989), p. 179.

Raab, E. L.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robinson, H.

C. Monroe, W. Swan, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salomon, C.

It has been brought to our attention that an increase in density for larger detunings was also observed by C. Salomon and co-workers, Hertzienne de l’École Nationale Supérieure, Laboratoire de Spectroscopie, 75231 Paris Cedex, France (personal communication); M. Drewsen, Ph. Laurent, A. Nadir, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, Y. Castin, D. Grison, and C. Salomon, “Investigation of sub-Doppler cooling effects in a cesium magneto-optical trap,” submitted to Appl. Phys. B.

Sandberg, J. C.

N. Masuhara, J. M. Doyle, J. C. Sandberg, D. Kleppner, T. J. Greytak, H. F. Hess, and G. P. Kochanski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 935 (1988), and references therein.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sesko, D.

D. Sesko, T. Walker, C. Monroe, A. Gallagher, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 961 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sesko, D. W.

Steane, A. M.

Stephens, M.

K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. A 46, 4082 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swan, W.

C. Monroe, W. Swan, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, K. Y. N.

C. D. Wallace, T. P. Dinneen, K. Y. N. Tan, A. Kumarakrishnan, P. L. Gould, and J. Javanainen, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Mansfield, Conn. 06269 (personal communication).

Tsao, C.

See also L. Marcassa, V. Bagnato, Y. Wang, C. Tsao, J. Weiner, O. Dulieu, Y. B. Band, and P. S. Julienne, Phys. Rev. A 47, R4563 (1993).
[Crossref]

Walker, T.

D. Sesko, T. Walker, C. Monroe, A. Gallagher, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 961 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walker, T. G.

Wallace, C. D.

C. D. Wallace, T. P. Dinneen, K. Y. N. Tan, A. Kumarakrishnan, P. L. Gould, and J. Javanainen, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Mansfield, Conn. 06269 (personal communication).

Wallis, H.

J. Werner, H. Wallis, and W. Ertmer, Opt. Commun. 94, 525 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

See also L. Marcassa, V. Bagnato, Y. Wang, C. Tsao, J. Weiner, O. Dulieu, Y. B. Band, and P. S. Julienne, Phys. Rev. A 47, R4563 (1993).
[Crossref]

Weiner, J.

See also L. Marcassa, V. Bagnato, Y. Wang, C. Tsao, J. Weiner, O. Dulieu, Y. B. Band, and P. S. Julienne, Phys. Rev. A 47, R4563 (1993).
[Crossref]

Werner, J.

J. Werner, H. Wallis, and W. Ertmer, Opt. Commun. 94, 525 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wieman, C.

K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. A 46, 4082 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Monroe, W. Swan, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sesko, T. Walker, C. Monroe, A. Gallagher, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 961 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wieman, C. Monroe, and E. Cornell, in Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobini, and G. Camy, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1992), p. 77.

Wieman, C. E.

Europhys. Lett. (2)

A. M. Steane and C. J. Foot, Europhys. Lett. 14, 231 (1991).
[Crossref]

A. Höpe, D. Haubrich, G. Müller, W. G. Kaenders, and D. Meschede, Europhys. Lett. 22, 669 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Werner, H. Wallis, and W. Ertmer, Opt. Commun. 94, 525 (1992).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

See also L. Marcassa, V. Bagnato, Y. Wang, C. Tsao, J. Weiner, O. Dulieu, Y. B. Band, and P. S. Julienne, Phys. Rev. A 47, R4563 (1993).
[Crossref]

K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. A 46, 4082 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

See also W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Monroe, W. Swan, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sesko, T. Walker, C. Monroe, A. Gallagher, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 961 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Masuhara, J. M. Doyle, J. C. Sandberg, D. Kleppner, T. J. Greytak, H. F. Hess, and G. P. Kochanski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 935 (1988), and references therein.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (5)

It has been brought to our attention that an increase in density for larger detunings was also observed by C. Salomon and co-workers, Hertzienne de l’École Nationale Supérieure, Laboratoire de Spectroscopie, 75231 Paris Cedex, France (personal communication); M. Drewsen, Ph. Laurent, A. Nadir, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, Y. Castin, D. Grison, and C. Salomon, “Investigation of sub-Doppler cooling effects in a cesium magneto-optical trap,” submitted to Appl. Phys. B.

The calculations in Ref. 7 are valid only for small saturation parameters and for a J= 0 → J′ = 1 transition. Hence we cannot infer any quantitative statement by comparing our results directly with these calculations.

C. Wieman, C. Monroe, and E. Cornell, in Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobini, and G. Camy, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1992), p. 77.

D. E. Pritchard, K. Helmerson, and A. G. Martin, in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Atomic Physics (ICAP XI), S. Haroche and J. C. Gay, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1989), p. 179.

C. D. Wallace, T. P. Dinneen, K. Y. N. Tan, A. Kumarakrishnan, P. L. Gould, and J. Javanainen, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Mansfield, Conn. 06269 (personal communication).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Horizontal and vertical sizes, (b) number of atoms, and (c) peak densities shown as a function of the vertical magnetic field gradient ∂B/∂rz (=2∂B/∂rx,y). The detuning was set to −44 MHz. The filled symbols in (b) and (c) represent the actual parameters of the cloud, and the open symbols are an estimate of the fraction of atoms in the central feature and the peak densities connected to this estimated fraction (see text). The dashed curves in (a) are a fit to an inverse-square-root dependence with a forced ratio of 2 between the radial and the axial sizes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Properties of the central feature shown as a function of the total number of atoms N collected in the trap. (a) The horizontal and vertical sizes, (b) the number of atoms in the central feature Ncf, and (c) the peak densities are displayed. For these measurements the detuning of the CMOT is −32 MHz, and the vertical magnetic field gradient is 85 G/cm. The dashed line in (b) illustrates the behavior if all atoms were in the central feature (NcfN). Note the apparent limit on the sizes and numbers of atoms in the central feature for N ≥ 2 × 107.

Equations (3)

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½ k B T i = ½ κ i r i 2 ,
n p N ( 2 π ) 3 r x r y r z ~ N ( κ k B T ) 3 / 2 .
n r ~ κ I σ L ( σ R - σ L ) ,

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