Abstract

Photorefractive AlGaAs–GaAs multiple-quantum-well structures perform as ultrafast field autocorrelators during steady-state four-wave mixing by use of femtosecond pulses. The photorefractive thin films operate in the Raman–Nath diffraction regime with thin transmission gratings. The thin gratings permit degenerate and nondegenerate four-wave mixing without the need to satisfy phase-matching conditions. Nondegenerate mixing has several advantages over degenerate four-wave mixing. The autocorrelation is broadband and is viable for photon energies larger than the band gap of the photorefractive sample, and the diffraction efficiency is unaffected by the bandwidth of the femtosecond pulses. In addition, the readout laser can be a low-power low-cost cw diode laser.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. P. Weber, "Generation and measurement of ultrashort light pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 6041 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. A. Giordmaine, P. M. Rentzepis, S. L. Shapiro, and K. W. Wecht, "Two-photon excitation of fluorescence by picosecond light pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 216 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. P. Ippen and C. V. Shank, "Picosecond response of a high-repetition-rate CS2 optical Kerr gate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 92 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, I. C. McMichael, and F. Simoni, "Control and measurement of ultrashort pulse shapes (in amplitude and phase) with femtosecond accuracy," Appl. Opt. 24, 1270 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. J. Eichler, U. Klein, and D. Langhans, "Coherence time measurement of picosecond pulses by a light-induced grating method," Appl. Phys. 21, 215 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Maier, W. Kaiser, and J. A. Giordmaine, "Intense light bursts in the stimulated Raman effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1275 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Szabo, Z. Bor, and A. Müller, "Phase-sensitive single-pulse autocorrelator for ultrashort laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 13, 746 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Schulz, H. Schuler, T. Engers, and D. von der Linde,"Measurement of intense ultraviolet subpicosecond pulses using degenerate four-wave mixing," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2580 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Janszky, G. Corradi, and D. S. Hamilton, "Temporal analysis of short laser pulses using degenerate four-wave mixing," Appl. Opt. 23, 8 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Buchert, R. Dorsinville, P. Delfyett, S. Krimchansky, and R. R. Alfano, "Determination of temporal correlation of ul-trafast laser pulses using phase conjugation," Opt. Commun. 52, 433 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Veletskas, K. Yarashyunas, R. Baltrameyunas, and Y. Vaitkus, "Use of dynamic holograms to measure the length of ultrashort light pulses," Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 1, 311 (1975).
  12. A. S. L. Gomes, L. H. Acioli, C. B. D. De Araujo, and J. R. Rios Leite, "Dispersion of coherence spikes of incoherent broadband dye lasers," Opt. Commun. 73, 475 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. M. Johnson, A. M. Glass, W. M. Simpson, R. B Bylsma, and D. H. Olson, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 11 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper ThC4.
  14. X. Zhu, K. G. Spears, and J. Serafin, "Ultrashort pulsed laser coherence measurements by single-pulse holography and four-wave mixing," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1356 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Trebino, C. Hayden, A. M. Johnson, W. M. Simpson, and A. M. Levine, "Chirp and self-phase modulation in induced-grating autocorrelation measurements of ultrashort pulses," Opt. Lett. 15, 1079 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. V. Dominic, X. S. Yao, R. M. Pierce, and J. Feinberg, "Measuring the coherence length of mode-locked laser pulses in real time," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 521 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. H. Acioli, M. Ulman, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, H. Kong,B. S. Chen, and M. Cronin-Golomb, "Femtosecond temporal encoding in barium titanate," Opt. Lett. 16, 1984 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Q. N. Wang, R. M. Brubaker, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, "Photorefractive quantum wells: transverse Franz-Keldysh geometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1626 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. D. Nolte, Q. Wang, and M. R. Melloch, "Robust infrared gratings in photorefractive quantum wells generated by an above-bandgap laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2067 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Q. N. Wang, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, "Two-wave mixing in photorefractive AlGaAs-GaAs quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 256 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. Juang, K. J. Kuhn, and R. B. Darling, "Selective etching of GaAs and AlGaAs with citric acid/hydrogen peroxide solutions," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 5, 1122 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, and R. Bhat, "Extreme selectivity in the lift-off of epitaxial GaAs films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2222 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  23. E. Yablonovitch, D. M. Hwang, T. J. Gmitter, L. T. Florez, and J. P. Harbison, "Van der Waals bonding of GaAs epitaxial liftoff films onto arbitrary substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2419 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1992

1991

D. D. Nolte, Q. Wang, and M. R. Melloch, "Robust infrared gratings in photorefractive quantum wells generated by an above-bandgap laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2067 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Q. N. Wang, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, "Two-wave mixing in photorefractive AlGaAs-GaAs quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 256 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Acioli, M. Ulman, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, H. Kong,B. S. Chen, and M. Cronin-Golomb, "Femtosecond temporal encoding in barium titanate," Opt. Lett. 16, 1984 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

E. Yablonovitch, D. M. Hwang, T. J. Gmitter, L. T. Florez, and J. P. Harbison, "Van der Waals bonding of GaAs epitaxial liftoff films onto arbitrary substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2419 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino, C. Hayden, A. M. Johnson, W. M. Simpson, and A. M. Levine, "Chirp and self-phase modulation in induced-grating autocorrelation measurements of ultrashort pulses," Opt. Lett. 15, 1079 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Dominic, X. S. Yao, R. M. Pierce, and J. Feinberg, "Measuring the coherence length of mode-locked laser pulses in real time," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 521 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Juang, K. J. Kuhn, and R. B. Darling, "Selective etching of GaAs and AlGaAs with citric acid/hydrogen peroxide solutions," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 5, 1122 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

A. S. L. Gomes, L. H. Acioli, C. B. D. De Araujo, and J. R. Rios Leite, "Dispersion of coherence spikes of incoherent broadband dye lasers," Opt. Commun. 73, 475 (1989).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu, K. G. Spears, and J. Serafin, "Ultrashort pulsed laser coherence measurements by single-pulse holography and four-wave mixing," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1356 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Schulz, H. Schuler, T. Engers, and D. von der Linde,"Measurement of intense ultraviolet subpicosecond pulses using degenerate four-wave mixing," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2580 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

1987

E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, and R. Bhat, "Extreme selectivity in the lift-off of epitaxial GaAs films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2222 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985

J. Buchert, R. Dorsinville, P. Delfyett, S. Krimchansky, and R. R. Alfano, "Determination of temporal correlation of ul-trafast laser pulses using phase conjugation," Opt. Commun. 52, 433 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, I. C. McMichael, and F. Simoni, "Control and measurement of ultrashort pulse shapes (in amplitude and phase) with femtosecond accuracy," Appl. Opt. 24, 1270 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

1980

H. J. Eichler, U. Klein, and D. Langhans, "Coherence time measurement of picosecond pulses by a light-induced grating method," Appl. Phys. 21, 215 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1975

E. P. Ippen and C. V. Shank, "Picosecond response of a high-repetition-rate CS2 optical Kerr gate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 92 (1975).
[CrossRef]

D. Veletskas, K. Yarashyunas, R. Baltrameyunas, and Y. Vaitkus, "Use of dynamic holograms to measure the length of ultrashort light pulses," Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 1, 311 (1975).

1968

H. P. Weber, "Generation and measurement of ultrashort light pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 6041 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967

J. A. Giordmaine, P. M. Rentzepis, S. L. Shapiro, and K. W. Wecht, "Two-photon excitation of fluorescence by picosecond light pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 216 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966

M. Maier, W. Kaiser, and J. A. Giordmaine, "Intense light bursts in the stimulated Raman effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1275 (1966).
[CrossRef]

De Araujo, C. B. D.

A. S. L. Gomes, L. H. Acioli, C. B. D. De Araujo, and J. R. Rios Leite, "Dispersion of coherence spikes of incoherent broadband dye lasers," Opt. Commun. 73, 475 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Acioli, L. H.

L. H. Acioli, M. Ulman, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, H. Kong,B. S. Chen, and M. Cronin-Golomb, "Femtosecond temporal encoding in barium titanate," Opt. Lett. 16, 1984 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. L. Gomes, L. H. Acioli, C. B. D. De Araujo, and J. R. Rios Leite, "Dispersion of coherence spikes of incoherent broadband dye lasers," Opt. Commun. 73, 475 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

J. Buchert, R. Dorsinville, P. Delfyett, S. Krimchansky, and R. R. Alfano, "Determination of temporal correlation of ul-trafast laser pulses using phase conjugation," Opt. Commun. 52, 433 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Baltrameyunas, R.

D. Veletskas, K. Yarashyunas, R. Baltrameyunas, and Y. Vaitkus, "Use of dynamic holograms to measure the length of ultrashort light pulses," Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 1, 311 (1975).

Bhat, R.

E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, and R. Bhat, "Extreme selectivity in the lift-off of epitaxial GaAs films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2222 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bor, Z.

Brubaker, R. M.

Buchert, J.

J. Buchert, R. Dorsinville, P. Delfyett, S. Krimchansky, and R. R. Alfano, "Determination of temporal correlation of ul-trafast laser pulses using phase conjugation," Opt. Commun. 52, 433 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bylsma, R. B

A. M. Johnson, A. M. Glass, W. M. Simpson, R. B Bylsma, and D. H. Olson, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 11 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper ThC4.

Chen, B. S.

Corradi, G.

Cronin-Golomb, M.

Darling, R. B.

C. Juang, K. J. Kuhn, and R. B. Darling, "Selective etching of GaAs and AlGaAs with citric acid/hydrogen peroxide solutions," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 5, 1122 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Delfyett, P.

J. Buchert, R. Dorsinville, P. Delfyett, S. Krimchansky, and R. R. Alfano, "Determination of temporal correlation of ul-trafast laser pulses using phase conjugation," Opt. Commun. 52, 433 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Diels, J.

Dominic, V.

V. Dominic, X. S. Yao, R. M. Pierce, and J. Feinberg, "Measuring the coherence length of mode-locked laser pulses in real time," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 521 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dorsinville, R.

J. Buchert, R. Dorsinville, P. Delfyett, S. Krimchansky, and R. R. Alfano, "Determination of temporal correlation of ul-trafast laser pulses using phase conjugation," Opt. Commun. 52, 433 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, H. J.

H. J. Eichler, U. Klein, and D. Langhans, "Coherence time measurement of picosecond pulses by a light-induced grating method," Appl. Phys. 21, 215 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Engers, T.

H. Schulz, H. Schuler, T. Engers, and D. von der Linde,"Measurement of intense ultraviolet subpicosecond pulses using degenerate four-wave mixing," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2580 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

V. Dominic, X. S. Yao, R. M. Pierce, and J. Feinberg, "Measuring the coherence length of mode-locked laser pulses in real time," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 521 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Florez, L. T.

E. Yablonovitch, D. M. Hwang, T. J. Gmitter, L. T. Florez, and J. P. Harbison, "Van der Waals bonding of GaAs epitaxial liftoff films onto arbitrary substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2419 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fontaine, J. J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Giordmaine, J. A.

J. A. Giordmaine, P. M. Rentzepis, S. L. Shapiro, and K. W. Wecht, "Two-photon excitation of fluorescence by picosecond light pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 216 (1967).
[CrossRef]

M. Maier, W. Kaiser, and J. A. Giordmaine, "Intense light bursts in the stimulated Raman effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1275 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Glass, A. M.

A. M. Johnson, A. M. Glass, W. M. Simpson, R. B Bylsma, and D. H. Olson, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 11 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper ThC4.

Gmitter, T.

E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, and R. Bhat, "Extreme selectivity in the lift-off of epitaxial GaAs films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2222 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gmitter, T. J.

E. Yablonovitch, D. M. Hwang, T. J. Gmitter, L. T. Florez, and J. P. Harbison, "Van der Waals bonding of GaAs epitaxial liftoff films onto arbitrary substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2419 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

A. S. L. Gomes, L. H. Acioli, C. B. D. De Araujo, and J. R. Rios Leite, "Dispersion of coherence spikes of incoherent broadband dye lasers," Opt. Commun. 73, 475 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, D. S.

Harbison, J. P.

E. Yablonovitch, D. M. Hwang, T. J. Gmitter, L. T. Florez, and J. P. Harbison, "Van der Waals bonding of GaAs epitaxial liftoff films onto arbitrary substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2419 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, and R. Bhat, "Extreme selectivity in the lift-off of epitaxial GaAs films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2222 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, C.

Hwang, D. M.

E. Yablonovitch, D. M. Hwang, T. J. Gmitter, L. T. Florez, and J. P. Harbison, "Van der Waals bonding of GaAs epitaxial liftoff films onto arbitrary substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2419 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Janszky, J.

Johnson, A. M.

R. Trebino, C. Hayden, A. M. Johnson, W. M. Simpson, and A. M. Levine, "Chirp and self-phase modulation in induced-grating autocorrelation measurements of ultrashort pulses," Opt. Lett. 15, 1079 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Johnson, A. M. Glass, W. M. Simpson, R. B Bylsma, and D. H. Olson, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 11 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper ThC4.

Juang, C.

C. Juang, K. J. Kuhn, and R. B. Darling, "Selective etching of GaAs and AlGaAs with citric acid/hydrogen peroxide solutions," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 5, 1122 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, W.

M. Maier, W. Kaiser, and J. A. Giordmaine, "Intense light bursts in the stimulated Raman effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1275 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Klein, U.

H. J. Eichler, U. Klein, and D. Langhans, "Coherence time measurement of picosecond pulses by a light-induced grating method," Appl. Phys. 21, 215 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kong, H.

Krimchansky, S.

J. Buchert, R. Dorsinville, P. Delfyett, S. Krimchansky, and R. R. Alfano, "Determination of temporal correlation of ul-trafast laser pulses using phase conjugation," Opt. Commun. 52, 433 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kuhn, K. J.

C. Juang, K. J. Kuhn, and R. B. Darling, "Selective etching of GaAs and AlGaAs with citric acid/hydrogen peroxide solutions," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 5, 1122 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Langhans, D.

H. J. Eichler, U. Klein, and D. Langhans, "Coherence time measurement of picosecond pulses by a light-induced grating method," Appl. Phys. 21, 215 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Leite, J. R. Rios

A. S. L. Gomes, L. H. Acioli, C. B. D. De Araujo, and J. R. Rios Leite, "Dispersion of coherence spikes of incoherent broadband dye lasers," Opt. Commun. 73, 475 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Levine, A. M.

Linde, D. von der

H. Schulz, H. Schuler, T. Engers, and D. von der Linde,"Measurement of intense ultraviolet subpicosecond pulses using degenerate four-wave mixing," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2580 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Maier, M.

M. Maier, W. Kaiser, and J. A. Giordmaine, "Intense light bursts in the stimulated Raman effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1275 (1966).
[CrossRef]

McMichael, I. C.

Melloch, M. R.

Q. N. Wang, R. M. Brubaker, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, "Photorefractive quantum wells: transverse Franz-Keldysh geometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1626 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Nolte, Q. Wang, and M. R. Melloch, "Robust infrared gratings in photorefractive quantum wells generated by an above-bandgap laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2067 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Q. N. Wang, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, "Two-wave mixing in photorefractive AlGaAs-GaAs quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 256 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Müller, A.

Nolte, D. D.

Q. N. Wang, R. M. Brubaker, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, "Photorefractive quantum wells: transverse Franz-Keldysh geometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1626 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Nolte, Q. Wang, and M. R. Melloch, "Robust infrared gratings in photorefractive quantum wells generated by an above-bandgap laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2067 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Q. N. Wang, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, "Two-wave mixing in photorefractive AlGaAs-GaAs quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 256 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Olson, D. H.

A. M. Johnson, A. M. Glass, W. M. Simpson, R. B Bylsma, and D. H. Olson, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 11 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper ThC4.

Pierce, R. M.

V. Dominic, X. S. Yao, R. M. Pierce, and J. Feinberg, "Measuring the coherence length of mode-locked laser pulses in real time," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 521 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rentzepis, P. M.

J. A. Giordmaine, P. M. Rentzepis, S. L. Shapiro, and K. W. Wecht, "Two-photon excitation of fluorescence by picosecond light pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 216 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Schuler, H.

H. Schulz, H. Schuler, T. Engers, and D. von der Linde,"Measurement of intense ultraviolet subpicosecond pulses using degenerate four-wave mixing," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2580 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, H.

H. Schulz, H. Schuler, T. Engers, and D. von der Linde,"Measurement of intense ultraviolet subpicosecond pulses using degenerate four-wave mixing," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2580 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Serafin, J.

Shank, C. V.

E. P. Ippen and C. V. Shank, "Picosecond response of a high-repetition-rate CS2 optical Kerr gate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 92 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, S. L.

J. A. Giordmaine, P. M. Rentzepis, S. L. Shapiro, and K. W. Wecht, "Two-photon excitation of fluorescence by picosecond light pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 216 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Simoni, F.

Simpson, W. M.

R. Trebino, C. Hayden, A. M. Johnson, W. M. Simpson, and A. M. Levine, "Chirp and self-phase modulation in induced-grating autocorrelation measurements of ultrashort pulses," Opt. Lett. 15, 1079 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Johnson, A. M. Glass, W. M. Simpson, R. B Bylsma, and D. H. Olson, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 11 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper ThC4.

Spears, K. G.

Szabo, G.

Trebino, R.

Ulman, M.

Vaitkus, Y.

D. Veletskas, K. Yarashyunas, R. Baltrameyunas, and Y. Vaitkus, "Use of dynamic holograms to measure the length of ultrashort light pulses," Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 1, 311 (1975).

Veletskas, D.

D. Veletskas, K. Yarashyunas, R. Baltrameyunas, and Y. Vaitkus, "Use of dynamic holograms to measure the length of ultrashort light pulses," Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 1, 311 (1975).

Wang, Q.

D. D. Nolte, Q. Wang, and M. R. Melloch, "Robust infrared gratings in photorefractive quantum wells generated by an above-bandgap laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2067 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. N.

Q. N. Wang, R. M. Brubaker, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, "Photorefractive quantum wells: transverse Franz-Keldysh geometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1626 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Q. N. Wang, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, "Two-wave mixing in photorefractive AlGaAs-GaAs quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 256 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

H. P. Weber, "Generation and measurement of ultrashort light pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 6041 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Wecht, K. W.

J. A. Giordmaine, P. M. Rentzepis, S. L. Shapiro, and K. W. Wecht, "Two-photon excitation of fluorescence by picosecond light pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 216 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, D. M. Hwang, T. J. Gmitter, L. T. Florez, and J. P. Harbison, "Van der Waals bonding of GaAs epitaxial liftoff films onto arbitrary substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2419 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, and R. Bhat, "Extreme selectivity in the lift-off of epitaxial GaAs films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2222 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yao, X. S.

V. Dominic, X. S. Yao, R. M. Pierce, and J. Feinberg, "Measuring the coherence length of mode-locked laser pulses in real time," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 521 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yarashyunas, K.

D. Veletskas, K. Yarashyunas, R. Baltrameyunas, and Y. Vaitkus, "Use of dynamic holograms to measure the length of ultrashort light pulses," Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 1, 311 (1975).

Zhu, X.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys.

H. J. Eichler, U. Klein, and D. Langhans, "Coherence time measurement of picosecond pulses by a light-induced grating method," Appl. Phys. 21, 215 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. A. Giordmaine, P. M. Rentzepis, S. L. Shapiro, and K. W. Wecht, "Two-photon excitation of fluorescence by picosecond light pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 216 (1967).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Ippen and C. V. Shank, "Picosecond response of a high-repetition-rate CS2 optical Kerr gate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 92 (1975).
[CrossRef]

V. Dominic, X. S. Yao, R. M. Pierce, and J. Feinberg, "Measuring the coherence length of mode-locked laser pulses in real time," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 521 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Nolte, Q. Wang, and M. R. Melloch, "Robust infrared gratings in photorefractive quantum wells generated by an above-bandgap laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2067 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Q. N. Wang, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, "Two-wave mixing in photorefractive AlGaAs-GaAs quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 256 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, and R. Bhat, "Extreme selectivity in the lift-off of epitaxial GaAs films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2222 (1987).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Intersection volume and interaction area for two colliding pulses intersected by a thin film. The center position of the interaction area within the window defined by the electrodes depends on the relative time delay τ and on the crossing angle θ. (a) Degenerate four-wave mixing; (b) nondegenerate four-wave mixing. Only the intersection volume of the two pulsed beams is shown in (b). SIMQW, semi-insulating multiple quantum wells.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculation of diffraction width as a function of pulse duration for transform-limited Gaussian pulses. The narrower-aperture sample is sensitive to much shorter pulses than is the wider-aperture sample down to less than 50-fs pulse durations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental geometry. Degenerate and nondegenerate mixing are shown together but are performed separately. The monochromator and the autocorrelator used to characterize the pulses are not shown. ND, neutral density; SIMQW, semi-insulating multiple quantum wells; D4WM, degenerate four-wave mixing; ND4WM, nondegenerate four-wave mixing.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Degenerate four-wave mixing for cw and mode-locked operation. The prediction for cw mixing is calculated from the electroabsorption, with the magnitude adjusted to fit the data. The mode-locked prediction is calculated from the cw data with no adjustable parameters.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Degenerate four-wave mixing for mode-locked operation versus time separation τ for an aperture width W = 0.23 mm. The data are averages of three runs, and the predictions are calculated from the Fourier transform of the power spectrum for pulse bandwidths Δλ of 12.6 and 7.5 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Nondegenerate four-wave mixing for mode-locked operation versus time separation τ for W = 1 mm. The cw probe beam is from a diode laser with a wavelength near the exciton absorption features, whereas the pulsed pump beams have a photon energy above the band gap of the material. The data are averages of three runs, and the predictions are calculated from the Fourier transform of the power spectrum with pulse bandwidths Δλ of 10.2 and 5.4 nm.

Equations (16)

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x 0 ( τ ) = c τ 2 sin θ .
I ( x ) = I ¯ [ 1 + m ( x , τ ) cos ( K x + ϕ ) ] ,
Δ n = - 1 2 n 3 s 1 E 2 ,             Δ α = - 2 π λ n 3 s 2 E 2 ,
Δ n = - n 3 s 1 E 0 2 m ( x , τ ) ,             Δ α = - 4 π λ n 3 s 2 E 0 2 m ( x , τ ) ,
E 1 , 2 ( x , t ) = e ^ 1 , 2 E 1 , 2 ( t - τ 1 , 2 - k ^ 1 , 2 · x / c ) × exp { i [ ω ( t - τ 1 , 2 ) - k 1 , 2 k ^ 1 , 2 · x ] } ,
I ( x , τ ) = 1 T - T / 2 T / 2 1 2 Z E 1 ( x , t ) + E 2 ( x , t ) 2 d t = I ¯ [ 1 + m ( x , τ ) cos [ K x - ω τ + ϕ ( x , τ ) ] ] ,
m ( x , τ ) | - T / 2 T / 2 d t E [ t - x sin ( θ ) / c ] × E * [ t - τ + x sin ( θ ) / c ] | | - d t E [ t + τ - 2 x sin ( θ ) / c ] E * ( t ) Γ [ τ - 2 x sin ( θ ) / c ] | ,
I 1 , 2 ( x , t ) = I ¯ 1 , 2 T t p [ 4 ln ( 2 ) π ] 1 / 2 × exp [ - 4 ln ( 2 ) ( t - τ 1 , 2 - k ^ 1 , 2 · x / c t p ) ] ,
E 1 ( x , t ) = [ 2 Z I 1 ( x , t ) ] 1 / 2 exp [ i ( ω t - k 1 k ^ 1 · x ) ] , E 2 ( x , t ) = [ 2 Z I 2 ( x , t ) ] 1 / 2 exp { i [ ω ( t - τ ) - k 2 k ^ 2 · x ] } ,
m ( x , τ ) = exp { - 8 ln ( 2 ) c 2 t p 2 ( sin 2 θ ) [ x - x 0 ( τ ) ] 2 } ,
Δ x = c t p 2 sin θ .
η ( π Δ n L λ ) 2 + ( Δ α L 4 ) 2
η ( τ ) 1 W - W / 2 W / 2 m 2 ( x , τ ) d x ,
η ( τ ) erf { W / 2 + x 0 ( τ ) Δ x [ 8 ln ( 2 ) ] 1 / 2 } + erf { W / 2 - x 0 ( τ ) Δ x [ 8 ln ( 2 ) ] 1 / 2 } ,
g ( λ , λ ) = 1 Δ λ [ 4 ln ( 2 ) π ] 1 / 2 exp [ 4 ln ( 2 ) ( λ - λ Δ λ ) 2 ] ,
η ML ( λ ) = 0 η cw ( λ ) g ( λ , λ ) d λ .

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