Abstract

Room-temperature upconversion laser operation has been demonstrated at 456, 482, 512, 649, and 799 nm in the ytterbium-sensitized thulium system in BaY2F8. With 960-nm titanium–sapphire laser pumping, cw operation of the 649- and the 799-nm upconversion laser transitions is observed. We believe that this is the first observation of laser emission on the 799-nm transition from 1G4 and the 512-nm transition from 1D2 in a bulk-crystal sample. At reduced temperatures cw or quasi-cw laser operation is obtained on the 456-, the 482-, and the 512-nm transitions. Room-temperature diode-laser pumping has been demonstrated for the 456-, the 512-, and the 649-nm transitions.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. F. Johnson and H. J. Guggenheim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. J. Thrash and L. F. Johnson, in OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of OSA 1992 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 8, and in Compact Blue-Green Lasers, Vol. 6 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 17.
  3. J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 261 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, and W. F. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1307 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. M. Antipenko, S. P. Voronin, and T. A. Privalova, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 68, 164 (1990).
  7. D. C. Nguyen, G. E. Faulkner, and M. Dulick, Appl. Opt. 28, 3553 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. P. Scott, F. Zhao, R. S. F. Chang, and N. Djeu, Opt. Lett. 18, 113 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Hebert, R. Wannemacher, R. M. Macfarlane, and W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2592 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 166 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Auzel, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 263B, 819 (1966).
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    [CrossRef]
  13. The difference in ytterbium concentration is not a dominant factor causing the change in 1D2intensity in Fig. 2. The spectrum for a sample of BaY1.5Yb0.492Tm0.008F8, a sample with an ytterbium concentration nearly identical to the sample represented by the solid curve in Fig. 2, revealed a 1D2peak intensity approximately half that of 1G4. Clearly, a higher thulium concentration combined with a higher ytterbium concentration yields significantly greater 1D2emission.
  14. B. M. Antipenko, R. V. Dumbravyanu, Yu. E. Perlin, O. B. Raba, and L. K. Sukhareva, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 59, 377 (1985).
  15. S. Huang, S. T. Lai, L. Lou, W. Jai, and W. M. Yen, Phys. Rev. B 24, 59 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. W. Benson, The Foundations of Chemical Kinetics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1960), pp. 45–46.
  17. G. H. Rosenblatt, R. C. Stoneman, and L. Esterowitz, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, H. P. Jenssen and G. Dubé, eds., Vol. 6 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), postdeadline paper TuPD4.
  18. R. C. Stoneman and L. Esterowitz, Opt. Lett. 16, 232 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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1993 (1)

1992 (2)

T. Hebert, R. Wannemacher, R. M. Macfarlane, and W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2592 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, and W. F. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Stoneman and L. Esterowitz, Opt. Lett. 16, 232 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (4)

A. A. Kaminskii, S. E. Sarkisov, F. Below, and H.-J. Eichler, Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 95 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 261 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Antipenko, S. P. Voronin, and T. A. Privalova, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 68, 164 (1990).

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1985 (1)

B. M. Antipenko, R. V. Dumbravyanu, Yu. E. Perlin, O. B. Raba, and L. K. Sukhareva, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 59, 377 (1985).

1981 (1)

S. Huang, S. T. Lai, L. Lou, W. Jai, and W. M. Yen, Phys. Rev. B 24, 59 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, T. C. Rich, and F. W. Ostermayer, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1125 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

L. F. Johnson and H. J. Guggenheim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

F. Auzel, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 263B, 819 (1966).

Allain, J. Y.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 261 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Antipenko, B. M.

B. M. Antipenko, S. P. Voronin, and T. A. Privalova, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 68, 164 (1990).

B. M. Antipenko, R. V. Dumbravyanu, Yu. E. Perlin, O. B. Raba, and L. K. Sukhareva, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 59, 377 (1985).

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 263B, 819 (1966).

Below, F.

A. A. Kaminskii, S. E. Sarkisov, F. Below, and H.-J. Eichler, Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 95 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, K. W.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, and W. F. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Benson, S. W.

S. W. Benson, The Foundations of Chemical Kinetics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1960), pp. 45–46.

Cannon, R. S.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, and W. F. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Carter, S. F.

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. S. F.

Davey, S. T.

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dinndorf, K. M.

K. M. Dinndorf, D. S. Knowles, M. Gojer, C. J. Taylor, and H. P. Jensen, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.), p. 270.

Djeu, N.

Dulick, M.

Dumbravyanu, R. V.

B. M. Antipenko, R. V. Dumbravyanu, Yu. E. Perlin, O. B. Raba, and L. K. Sukhareva, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 59, 377 (1985).

Eichler, H.-J.

A. A. Kaminskii, S. E. Sarkisov, F. Below, and H.-J. Eichler, Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 95 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Esterowitz, L.

R. C. Stoneman and L. Esterowitz, Opt. Lett. 16, 232 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Rosenblatt, R. C. Stoneman, and L. Esterowitz, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, H. P. Jenssen and G. Dubé, eds., Vol. 6 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), postdeadline paper TuPD4.

Faulkner, G. E.

Gojer, M.

K. M. Dinndorf, D. S. Knowles, M. Gojer, C. J. Taylor, and H. P. Jensen, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.), p. 270.

Grubb, S. G.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, and W. F. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Guggenheim, H. J.

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, T. C. Rich, and F. W. Ostermayer, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1125 (1972).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson and H. J. Guggenheim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hebert, T.

T. Hebert, R. Wannemacher, R. M. Macfarlane, and W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2592 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

S. Huang, S. T. Lai, L. Lou, W. Jai, and W. M. Yen, Phys. Rev. B 24, 59 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Humer, W. F.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, and W. F. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jai, W.

S. Huang, S. T. Lai, L. Lou, W. Jai, and W. M. Yen, Phys. Rev. B 24, 59 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, H. P.

K. M. Dinndorf, D. S. Knowles, M. Gojer, C. J. Taylor, and H. P. Jensen, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.), p. 270.

Johnson, L. F.

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, T. C. Rich, and F. W. Ostermayer, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1125 (1972).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson and H. J. Guggenheim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44 (1971).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Thrash and L. F. Johnson, in OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of OSA 1992 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 8, and in Compact Blue-Green Lasers, Vol. 6 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 17.

Kaminskii, A. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, S. E. Sarkisov, F. Below, and H.-J. Eichler, Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 95 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Knowles, D. S.

K. M. Dinndorf, D. S. Knowles, M. Gojer, C. J. Taylor, and H. P. Jensen, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.), p. 270.

Lai, S. T.

S. Huang, S. T. Lai, L. Lou, W. Jai, and W. M. Yen, Phys. Rev. B 24, 59 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lenth, W.

T. Hebert, R. Wannemacher, R. M. Macfarlane, and W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2592 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lou, L.

S. Huang, S. T. Lai, L. Lou, W. Jai, and W. M. Yen, Phys. Rev. B 24, 59 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Macfarlane, R. M.

T. Hebert, R. Wannemacher, R. M. Macfarlane, and W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2592 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Monerie, M.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 261 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, D. C.

Ostermayer, F. W.

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, T. C. Rich, and F. W. Ostermayer, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1125 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Perlin, Yu. E.

B. M. Antipenko, R. V. Dumbravyanu, Yu. E. Perlin, O. B. Raba, and L. K. Sukhareva, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 59, 377 (1985).

Poignant, H.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 261 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Privalova, T. A.

B. M. Antipenko, S. P. Voronin, and T. A. Privalova, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 68, 164 (1990).

Raba, O. B.

B. M. Antipenko, R. V. Dumbravyanu, Yu. E. Perlin, O. B. Raba, and L. K. Sukhareva, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 59, 377 (1985).

Rich, T. C.

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, T. C. Rich, and F. W. Ostermayer, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1125 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Rosenblatt, G. H.

G. H. Rosenblatt, R. C. Stoneman, and L. Esterowitz, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, H. P. Jenssen and G. Dubé, eds., Vol. 6 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), postdeadline paper TuPD4.

Sarkisov, S. E.

A. A. Kaminskii, S. E. Sarkisov, F. Below, and H.-J. Eichler, Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 95 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Scott, B. P.

Smart, R. G.

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stoneman, R. C.

R. C. Stoneman and L. Esterowitz, Opt. Lett. 16, 232 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Rosenblatt, R. C. Stoneman, and L. Esterowitz, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, H. P. Jenssen and G. Dubé, eds., Vol. 6 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), postdeadline paper TuPD4.

Sukhareva, L. K.

B. M. Antipenko, R. V. Dumbravyanu, Yu. E. Perlin, O. B. Raba, and L. K. Sukhareva, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 59, 377 (1985).

Szebesta, D.

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, C. J.

K. M. Dinndorf, D. S. Knowles, M. Gojer, C. J. Taylor, and H. P. Jensen, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.), p. 270.

Thrash, R. J.

R. J. Thrash and L. F. Johnson, in OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of OSA 1992 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 8, and in Compact Blue-Green Lasers, Vol. 6 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 17.

Tropper, A. C.

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Voronin, S. P.

B. M. Antipenko, S. P. Voronin, and T. A. Privalova, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 68, 164 (1990).

Wannemacher, R.

T. Hebert, R. Wannemacher, R. M. Macfarlane, and W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2592 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yen, W. M.

S. Huang, S. T. Lai, L. Lou, W. Jai, and W. M. Yen, Phys. Rev. B 24, 59 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, F.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

L. F. Johnson and H. J. Guggenheim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44 (1971).
[CrossRef]

T. Hebert, R. Wannemacher, R. M. Macfarlane, and W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2592 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris (1)

F. Auzel, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 263B, 819 (1966).

Electron. Lett. (4)

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 261 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, and W. F. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, T. C. Rich, and F. W. Ostermayer, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1125 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, S. E. Sarkisov, F. Below, and H.-J. Eichler, Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 95 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) (2)

B. M. Antipenko, S. P. Voronin, and T. A. Privalova, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 68, 164 (1990).

B. M. Antipenko, R. V. Dumbravyanu, Yu. E. Perlin, O. B. Raba, and L. K. Sukhareva, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 59, 377 (1985).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. Huang, S. T. Lai, L. Lou, W. Jai, and W. M. Yen, Phys. Rev. B 24, 59 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

S. W. Benson, The Foundations of Chemical Kinetics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1960), pp. 45–46.

G. H. Rosenblatt, R. C. Stoneman, and L. Esterowitz, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, H. P. Jenssen and G. Dubé, eds., Vol. 6 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), postdeadline paper TuPD4.

The difference in ytterbium concentration is not a dominant factor causing the change in 1D2intensity in Fig. 2. The spectrum for a sample of BaY1.5Yb0.492Tm0.008F8, a sample with an ytterbium concentration nearly identical to the sample represented by the solid curve in Fig. 2, revealed a 1D2peak intensity approximately half that of 1G4. Clearly, a higher thulium concentration combined with a higher ytterbium concentration yields significantly greater 1D2emission.

R. J. Thrash and L. F. Johnson, in OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of OSA 1992 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 8, and in Compact Blue-Green Lasers, Vol. 6 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 17.

K. M. Dinndorf, D. S. Knowles, M. Gojer, C. J. Taylor, and H. P. Jensen, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.), p. 270.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy-level diagram for Tm3+ and Yb3+ showing the observed upconversion laser transitions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluorescence emission from BaY1.5Yb0.499Tm0.001F8, solid curve; fluorescence emission from BaY1.0Yb0.99Tm0.01F8, dotted curve.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fluorescence emission from BaY1.0Yb0.99Tm0.01F8. Dotted curve, with laser emission at 1480 nm; solid curve, without laser emission at 1480 nm. The sharp peaks at wavelengths longer than 488 nm result from stray light from the Ar+ laser used to pump the Ti:Al2O3 lasar.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fluorescence emission from BaY1.0Yb0.99Tm0.01F8. Dotted curve, with laser emission at 649 nm; solid curve, without laser emission at 649 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Excited-state absorption in BaY1.0Yb0.99Tm0.01F8 near 649 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Low-temperature fluorescence emission from BaY1.0Yb0.99Tm0.01F8. The two peaks marked by arrows are believed to originate from the 1I6 level.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[ Yb * ] + [ H 3 6 ] k 1 [ H 3 4 ] ,
[ Yb * ] + [ H 3 4 ] k 2 [ F 3 4 ] ,
[ H 3 4 ] = [ H 3 6 ] ( K - 1 ) × [ 1 - ( [ H 3 6 ] [ TM ] ) ( K - 1 ) ] ,

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