Abstract

The optical properties of an ultraviolet (266-nm) -induced transient absorption in normal and deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals are discussed. Our main contribution has been to analyze this effect quantitatively, assess its effect on ultraviolet (UV) frequency-conversion applications, and examine sample variability. As observed previously [ Chem. Phys. Lett. 207, 540 ( 1993)], the transient absorption is broad (~200–700 nm) and is suggested to arise from an induced defect state resulting from the promotion of an electron into the conduction band by two-photon absorption. At room temperature we find that the defect absorption decays over a wide variety of time scales, ranging from fractions of a second to several days, depending on the particular sample under study. The decay time does not appear to be correlated with deuteration or chemical impurities. The temperature-dependent decay rate has an Arrhenius behavior with a single activation energy of 0.51 ± 0.04 eV for all samples studied, and the decay rate appears to be mediated by a diffusional process as previously postulated. We determined the defect absorption cross section at its spectral peak to be 6 ± 3 × 10−18 cm2. Based on these and other measurements, we have numerically modeled previously published experimental data on fourth-harmonic frequency conversion of a Nd:YLF laser and found good agreement when the effects of transient absorption are included.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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K. R. Manes, O. C. Barr, E. S. Bliss, R. P. Drake, R. O. Godwin, D. G. Gritton, J. S. Hildum, F. W. Holloway, C. A. Hurloy, B. C. Johson, D. J. Kuizonga, B. Merritt, R. G. Ozarski, F. R. Reinecker, Jr., J. R. Severyn, D. R. Speck, M. A. Summers, G. J. Suski, and E. P. Wallerstein, Laser Part. Beams 3, 173 (1985).
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E. Dieguez, A. Cintas, P. Hernandez, and J. M. Cabrera, J. Cryst. Growth 73, 193 (1985).
[CrossRef]

E. Dieguez and J. M. Cabrera, J. Chem. Phys. 81, 3369 (1984).
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E. Dieguez and J. M. Cabrera, J. Phys. D 14, 19 (1981).
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K. R. Manes, O. C. Barr, E. S. Bliss, R. P. Drake, R. O. Godwin, D. G. Gritton, J. S. Hildum, F. W. Holloway, C. A. Hurloy, B. C. Johson, D. J. Kuizonga, B. Merritt, R. G. Ozarski, F. R. Reinecker, Jr., J. R. Severyn, D. R. Speck, M. A. Summers, G. J. Suski, and E. P. Wallerstein, Laser Part. Beams 3, 173 (1985).
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J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
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Eimerl, D.

G. J. Linford, B. C. Johnson, J. S. Hildum, W. E. Martin, K. Snyder, R. D. Boyd, W. L. Smith, C. L. Vercimak, D. Eimerl, and J. T. Hunt, Appl. Opt. 21, 3633 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. I. Farag, M. S. Elmanharawy, and A. Abdel-Kader, Acta Phys. Hung. 60, 19 (1986).

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D. Bruneau, A. M. Tournade, and E. Fabre, +Appl. Opt. 24, 3740 (1985).
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H. I. Farag, M. S. Elmanharawy, and A. Abdel-Kader, Acta Phys. Hung. 60, 19 (1986).

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I. Fujita, T. Suzuki, and Y. Miwa, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 51, 3998 (1982).
[CrossRef]

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K. R. Manes, O. C. Barr, E. S. Bliss, R. P. Drake, R. O. Godwin, D. G. Gritton, J. S. Hildum, F. W. Holloway, C. A. Hurloy, B. C. Johson, D. J. Kuizonga, B. Merritt, R. G. Ozarski, F. R. Reinecker, Jr., J. R. Severyn, D. R. Speck, M. A. Summers, G. J. Suski, and E. P. Wallerstein, Laser Part. Beams 3, 173 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gritsenko, B. P.

V. V. Azarov, B. P. Gritsenko, V. M. Lisitsyn and V. I. Salo, Sb. Nauchn. Tr. Vses. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Monokris. Stsintill. Mater. Osobo Chist. Khim. Veshchestv. 12, 34 (1984).

Gritton, D. G.

K. R. Manes, O. C. Barr, E. S. Bliss, R. P. Drake, R. O. Godwin, D. G. Gritton, J. S. Hildum, F. W. Holloway, C. A. Hurloy, B. C. Johson, D. J. Kuizonga, B. Merritt, R. G. Ozarski, F. R. Reinecker, Jr., J. R. Severyn, D. R. Speck, M. A. Summers, G. J. Suski, and E. P. Wallerstein, Laser Part. Beams 3, 173 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gromov, V. V.

B. V. Andreev, Y. N. Kostrubov, L. G. Karaseva and V. V. Gromov, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 1, 3359 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Harris, L. B.

L. B. Harris and G. J. Vella, J. Chem. Phys. 58, 4550 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, P.

E. Dieguez, A. Cintas, P. Hernandez, and J. M. Cabrera, J. Cryst. Growth 73, 193 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hildum, J. S.

G. J. Linford, B. C. Johnson, J. S. Hildum, W. E. Martin, K. Snyder, R. D. Boyd, W. L. Smith, C. L. Vercimak, D. Eimerl, and J. T. Hunt, Appl. Opt. 21, 3633 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Manes, O. C. Barr, E. S. Bliss, R. P. Drake, R. O. Godwin, D. G. Gritton, J. S. Hildum, F. W. Holloway, C. A. Hurloy, B. C. Johson, D. J. Kuizonga, B. Merritt, R. G. Ozarski, F. R. Reinecker, Jr., J. R. Severyn, D. R. Speck, M. A. Summers, G. J. Suski, and E. P. Wallerstein, Laser Part. Beams 3, 173 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Holloway, F. W.

K. R. Manes, O. C. Barr, E. S. Bliss, R. P. Drake, R. O. Godwin, D. G. Gritton, J. S. Hildum, F. W. Holloway, C. A. Hurloy, B. C. Johson, D. J. Kuizonga, B. Merritt, R. G. Ozarski, F. R. Reinecker, Jr., J. R. Severyn, D. R. Speck, M. A. Summers, G. J. Suski, and E. P. Wallerstein, Laser Part. Beams 3, 173 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, R. S.

H. W. H. Lee and R. S. Hughes, "Antiresonant ring in measuring nonlinear absorption," presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Anaheim, Calif., 1992.

H. W. Lee, J. E. Davis, and R. S. Hughes, "Physics of optically generated transient electronic defect in KH2PO4 and KD2PO4," presented at Nonlinear Optics: Materials Fundamentals and Applications Conference, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1992.

J. E. Davis, R. S. Hughes, and H. W. H. Lee, Chem. Phys. Lett. 207, 540 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, J. T.

G. J. Linford, B. C. Johnson, J. S. Hildum, W. E. Martin, K. Snyder, R. D. Boyd, W. L. Smith, C. L. Vercimak, D. Eimerl, and J. T. Hunt, Appl. Opt. 21, 3633 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurloy, C. A.

K. R. Manes, O. C. Barr, E. S. Bliss, R. P. Drake, R. O. Godwin, D. G. Gritton, J. S. Hildum, F. W. Holloway, C. A. Hurloy, B. C. Johson, D. J. Kuizonga, B. Merritt, R. G. Ozarski, F. R. Reinecker, Jr., J. R. Severyn, D. R. Speck, M. A. Summers, G. J. Suski, and E. P. Wallerstein, Laser Part. Beams 3, 173 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. D.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1975).

Johnson, B. C.

G. J. Linford, B. C. Johnson, J. S. Hildum, W. E. Martin, K. Snyder, R. D. Boyd, W. L. Smith, C. L. Vercimak, D. Eimerl, and J. T. Hunt, Appl. Opt. 21, 3633 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johson, B. C.

K. R. Manes, O. C. Barr, E. S. Bliss, R. P. Drake, R. O. Godwin, D. G. Gritton, J. S. Hildum, F. W. Holloway, C. A. Hurloy, B. C. Johson, D. J. Kuizonga, B. Merritt, R. G. Ozarski, F. R. Reinecker, Jr., J. R. Severyn, D. R. Speck, M. A. Summers, G. J. Suski, and E. P. Wallerstein, Laser Part. Beams 3, 173 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Karaseva, L. G.

B. V. Andreev, Y. N. Kostrubov, L. G. Karaseva and V. V. Gromov, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 1, 3359 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kostrubov, Y. N.

B. V. Andreev, Y. N. Kostrubov, L. G. Karaseva and V. V. Gromov, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 1, 3359 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kritskaya, V. E.

G. N. Pirogova, Y. V. Voronin, V. E. Kritskaya, A. I. Ryabov, and N. A. Malov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 22, 97 (1986).

Kuizonga, D. J.

K. R. Manes, O. C. Barr, E. S. Bliss, R. P. Drake, R. O. Godwin, D. G. Gritton, J. S. Hildum, F. W. Holloway, C. A. Hurloy, B. C. Johson, D. J. Kuizonga, B. Merritt, R. G. Ozarski, F. R. Reinecker, Jr., J. R. Severyn, D. R. Speck, M. A. Summers, G. J. Suski, and E. P. Wallerstein, Laser Part. Beams 3, 173 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. W.

H. W. Lee, J. E. Davis, and R. S. Hughes, "Physics of optically generated transient electronic defect in KH2PO4 and KD2PO4," presented at Nonlinear Optics: Materials Fundamentals and Applications Conference, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1992.

Lee, H. W. H.

J. E. Davis, R. S. Hughes, and H. W. H. Lee, Chem. Phys. Lett. 207, 540 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. W. H. Lee and R. S. Hughes, "Antiresonant ring in measuring nonlinear absorption," presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Anaheim, Calif., 1992.

Lemmens, L. F.

L. F. Lemmens and J. T. Devreese, Solid State Commun. 12, 1067 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Levchenko, A. N.

A. N. Levchenko, V. M. Shulga, and A. O. Doroshenko, Sov. Phys. Solid State 32, 1432 (1990).

Linford, G. J.

G. J. Linford, in Laser Program Annual Report, E. V. George, J. R. Strack, and G. R. Grow, eds. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1981).

G. J. Linford, B. C. Johnson, J. S. Hildum, W. E. Martin, K. Snyder, R. D. Boyd, W. L. Smith, C. L. Vercimak, D. Eimerl, and J. T. Hunt, Appl. Opt. 21, 3633 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lisitsyn, V. M.

V. V. Azarov, B. P. Gritsenko, V. M. Lisitsyn and V. I. Salo, Sb. Nauchn. Tr. Vses. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Monokris. Stsintill. Mater. Osobo Chist. Khim. Veshchestv. 12, 34 (1984).

Liu, P.

P. Liu, W. L. Smith, H. Lotem, J. H. Bechtel, N. Bloember-gen, and R. S. Adhav, Phys. Rev. B 17, 4620 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Loiacono, D. N.

G. M. Loiacono, D. N. Loiacono, T. McGee, and M. Babb, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 2705 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Loiacono, G. M.

G. M. Loiacono, D. N. Loiacono, T. McGee, and M. Babb, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 2705 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lotem, H.

P. Liu, W. L. Smith, H. Lotem, J. H. Bechtel, N. Bloember-gen, and R. S. Adhav, Phys. Rev. B 17, 4620 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Malov, N. A.

G. N. Pirogova, Y. Voronin, A. I. Ryabov, and N. A. Malov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 23, 477 (1987).

G. N. Pirogova, Y. V. Voronin, V. E. Kritskaya, A. I. Ryabov, and N. A. Malov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 22, 97 (1986).

Manes, K. R.

K. R. Manes, O. C. Barr, E. S. Bliss, R. P. Drake, R. O. Godwin, D. G. Gritton, J. S. Hildum, F. W. Holloway, C. A. Hurloy, B. C. Johson, D. J. Kuizonga, B. Merritt, R. G. Ozarski, F. R. Reinecker, Jr., J. R. Severyn, D. R. Speck, M. A. Summers, G. J. Suski, and E. P. Wallerstein, Laser Part. Beams 3, 173 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Martin, W. E.

G. J. Linford, B. C. Johnson, J. S. Hildum, W. E. Martin, K. Snyder, R. D. Boyd, W. L. Smith, C. L. Vercimak, D. Eimerl, and J. T. Hunt, Appl. Opt. 21, 3633 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGee, T.

G. M. Loiacono, D. N. Loiacono, T. McGee, and M. Babb, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 2705 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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J. A. McMillan and J. M. Clemens, J. Chem. Phys. 68, 3627 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Merritt, B.

K. R. Manes, O. C. Barr, E. S. Bliss, R. P. Drake, R. O. Godwin, D. G. Gritton, J. S. Hildum, F. W. Holloway, C. A. Hurloy, B. C. Johson, D. J. Kuizonga, B. Merritt, R. G. Ozarski, F. R. Reinecker, Jr., J. R. Severyn, D. R. Speck, M. A. Summers, G. J. Suski, and E. P. Wallerstein, Laser Part. Beams 3, 173 (1985).
[CrossRef]

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F. Zernike and J. E. Midwinter, Applied Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1973).

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I. Fujita, T. Suzuki, and Y. Miwa, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 51, 3998 (1982).
[CrossRef]

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S. Saito and R. Onaka, Ferroelectrics 21, 553 (1978).
[CrossRef]

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K. R. Manes, O. C. Barr, E. S. Bliss, R. P. Drake, R. O. Godwin, D. G. Gritton, J. S. Hildum, F. W. Holloway, C. A. Hurloy, B. C. Johson, D. J. Kuizonga, B. Merritt, R. G. Ozarski, F. R. Reinecker, Jr., J. R. Severyn, D. R. Speck, M. A. Summers, G. J. Suski, and E. P. Wallerstein, Laser Part. Beams 3, 173 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Pekar, S. I.

S. I. Pekar, Untersuchungen uber die Elektronentheorie der Kristalle (Academie Verlag, Berlin, 1954).

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J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Pirogova, G. N.

G. N. Pirogova, Y. Voronin, A. I. Ryabov, and N. A. Malov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 23, 477 (1987).

G. N. Pirogova, Y. V. Voronin, V. E. Kritskaya, A. I. Ryabov, and N. A. Malov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 22, 97 (1986).

A. I. Ryabov, N. S. Stelmakh, G. N. Pirogova, Y. Voronin, and B. I. Zakharkin, Sov. Phys. Solid State 33, 2660 (1991).

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vet-terling, Numerical Recipes (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1986).

Radhakrishna, S.

J. K. Rath and S. Radhakrishna, Solid State Commun. 65, 1621 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rainer, F.

F. Rainer, L. J. Atherton, and J. J. DeYoreo, "Laser damage to production and research grade KDP crystals," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. Bennett, L. Chase, A. Guenther, B. Newman, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1848, 46 (1992).

Rath, J. K.

J. K. Rath and S. Radhakrishna, Solid State Commun. 65, 1621 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Reinecker, Jr., F. R.

K. R. Manes, O. C. Barr, E. S. Bliss, R. P. Drake, R. O. Godwin, D. G. Gritton, J. S. Hildum, F. W. Holloway, C. A. Hurloy, B. C. Johson, D. J. Kuizonga, B. Merritt, R. G. Ozarski, F. R. Reinecker, Jr., J. R. Severyn, D. R. Speck, M. A. Summers, G. J. Suski, and E. P. Wallerstein, Laser Part. Beams 3, 173 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Reintjes, J.

J. Reintjes and R. C. Eckardt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 91 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Reintjes and R. C. Eckhardt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 791 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ryabov, A. I.

A. I. Ryabov, N. S. Stelmakh, G. N. Pirogova, Y. Voronin, and B. I. Zakharkin, Sov. Phys. Solid State 33, 2660 (1991).

G. N. Pirogova, Y. Voronin, A. I. Ryabov, and N. A. Malov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 23, 477 (1987).

G. N. Pirogova, Y. V. Voronin, V. E. Kritskaya, A. I. Ryabov, and N. A. Malov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 22, 97 (1986).

Saito, S.

S. Saito and R. Onaka, Ferroelectrics 21, 553 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Salo, V. I.

V. V. Azarov, B. P. Gritsenko, V. M. Lisitsyn and V. I. Salo, Sb. Nauchn. Tr. Vses. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Monokris. Stsintill. Mater. Osobo Chist. Khim. Veshchestv. 12, 34 (1984).

Schmidt, V. H.

V. H. Schmidt and E. A. Uehling, Phys. Rev. 126, 447 (1962).
[CrossRef]

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B. V. R. Chowdari and Y. R. Sekhar, J. Chem. Phys. 75, 2513 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Severyn, J. R.

K. R. Manes, O. C. Barr, E. S. Bliss, R. P. Drake, R. O. Godwin, D. G. Gritton, J. S. Hildum, F. W. Holloway, C. A. Hurloy, B. C. Johson, D. J. Kuizonga, B. Merritt, R. G. Ozarski, F. R. Reinecker, Jr., J. R. Severyn, D. R. Speck, M. A. Summers, G. J. Suski, and E. P. Wallerstein, Laser Part. Beams 3, 173 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Shulga, V. M.

A. N. Levchenko, V. M. Shulga, and A. O. Doroshenko, Sov. Phys. Solid State 32, 1432 (1990).

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P. Liu, W. L. Smith, H. Lotem, J. H. Bechtel, N. Bloember-gen, and R. S. Adhav, Phys. Rev. B 17, 4620 (1978).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Linford, B. C. Johnson, J. S. Hildum, W. E. Martin, K. Snyder, R. D. Boyd, W. L. Smith, C. L. Vercimak, D. Eimerl, and J. T. Hunt, Appl. Opt. 21, 3633 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snyder, K.

G. J. Linford, B. C. Johnson, J. S. Hildum, W. E. Martin, K. Snyder, R. D. Boyd, W. L. Smith, C. L. Vercimak, D. Eimerl, and J. T. Hunt, Appl. Opt. 21, 3633 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Speck, D. R.

K. R. Manes, O. C. Barr, E. S. Bliss, R. P. Drake, R. O. Godwin, D. G. Gritton, J. S. Hildum, F. W. Holloway, C. A. Hurloy, B. C. Johson, D. J. Kuizonga, B. Merritt, R. G. Ozarski, F. R. Reinecker, Jr., J. R. Severyn, D. R. Speck, M. A. Summers, G. J. Suski, and E. P. Wallerstein, Laser Part. Beams 3, 173 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Stelmakh, N. S.

A. I. Ryabov, N. S. Stelmakh, G. N. Pirogova, Y. Voronin, and B. I. Zakharkin, Sov. Phys. Solid State 33, 2660 (1991).

Stulen, R. H.

G. Ascarelli and R. H. Stulen, Phys. Rev. B 11, 4045 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Summers, M. A.

K. R. Manes, O. C. Barr, E. S. Bliss, R. P. Drake, R. O. Godwin, D. G. Gritton, J. S. Hildum, F. W. Holloway, C. A. Hurloy, B. C. Johson, D. J. Kuizonga, B. Merritt, R. G. Ozarski, F. R. Reinecker, Jr., J. R. Severyn, D. R. Speck, M. A. Summers, G. J. Suski, and E. P. Wallerstein, Laser Part. Beams 3, 173 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Suski, G. J.

K. R. Manes, O. C. Barr, E. S. Bliss, R. P. Drake, R. O. Godwin, D. G. Gritton, J. S. Hildum, F. W. Holloway, C. A. Hurloy, B. C. Johson, D. J. Kuizonga, B. Merritt, R. G. Ozarski, F. R. Reinecker, Jr., J. R. Severyn, D. R. Speck, M. A. Summers, G. J. Suski, and E. P. Wallerstein, Laser Part. Beams 3, 173 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

I. Fujita, T. Suzuki, and Y. Miwa, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 51, 3998 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vet-terling, Numerical Recipes (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1986).

Tournade, A. M.

D. Bruneau, A. M. Tournade, and E. Fabre, +Appl. Opt. 24, 3740 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Uehling, E. A.

V. H. Schmidt and E. A. Uehling, Phys. Rev. 126, 447 (1962).
[CrossRef]

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L. B. Harris and G. J. Vella, J. Chem. Phys. 58, 4550 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Vercimak, C. L.

G. J. Linford, B. C. Johnson, J. S. Hildum, W. E. Martin, K. Snyder, R. D. Boyd, W. L. Smith, C. L. Vercimak, D. Eimerl, and J. T. Hunt, Appl. Opt. 21, 3633 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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O. M. Arbotoev, A. A. Alybakov, and T. F. Veremeichik, J. Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 924 (1991).
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W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vet-terling, Numerical Recipes (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1986).

Voronin, Y.

A. I. Ryabov, N. S. Stelmakh, G. N. Pirogova, Y. Voronin, and B. I. Zakharkin, Sov. Phys. Solid State 33, 2660 (1991).

G. N. Pirogova, Y. Voronin, A. I. Ryabov, and N. A. Malov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 23, 477 (1987).

Voronin, Y. V.

G. N. Pirogova, Y. V. Voronin, V. E. Kritskaya, A. I. Ryabov, and N. A. Malov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 22, 97 (1986).

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T. R. Waite, Phys. Rev. 107, 471 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Wallerstein, E. P.

K. R. Manes, O. C. Barr, E. S. Bliss, R. P. Drake, R. O. Godwin, D. G. Gritton, J. S. Hildum, F. W. Holloway, C. A. Hurloy, B. C. Johson, D. J. Kuizonga, B. Merritt, R. G. Ozarski, F. R. Reinecker, Jr., J. R. Severyn, D. R. Speck, M. A. Summers, G. J. Suski, and E. P. Wallerstein, Laser Part. Beams 3, 173 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975).

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1967).

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A. I. Ryabov, N. S. Stelmakh, G. N. Pirogova, Y. Voronin, and B. I. Zakharkin, Sov. Phys. Solid State 33, 2660 (1991).

Zernike, F.

F. Zernike and J. E. Midwinter, Applied Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1973).

Other (44)

P. H. Chaffee and R. B. Ehrlich, in Laser Program Annual Report, E. M. O'Neal and P. W. Murphy, eds. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1987).

P. H. Chaffee, in Laser Program Annual Report, M. L. Rufer and P. W. Murphy, eds. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1986).

K. R. Manes, O. C. Barr, E. S. Bliss, R. P. Drake, R. O. Godwin, D. G. Gritton, J. S. Hildum, F. W. Holloway, C. A. Hurloy, B. C. Johson, D. J. Kuizonga, B. Merritt, R. G. Ozarski, F. R. Reinecker, Jr., J. R. Severyn, D. R. Speck, M. A. Summers, G. J. Suski, and E. P. Wallerstein, Laser Part. Beams 3, 173 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. Bruneau, A. M. Tournade, and E. Fabre, +Appl. Opt. 24, 3740 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Linford, B. C. Johnson, J. S. Hildum, W. E. Martin, K. Snyder, R. D. Boyd, W. L. Smith, C. L. Vercimak, D. Eimerl, and J. T. Hunt, Appl. Opt. 21, 3633 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Linford, in Laser Program Annual Report, E. V. George, J. R. Strack, and G. R. Grow, eds. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1981).

J. Reintjes and R. C. Eckardt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 91 (1977).
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J. E. Davis, R. S. Hughes, and H. W. H. Lee, Chem. Phys. Lett. 207, 540 (1993).
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E. Dieguez and J. M. Cabrera, J. Phys. D 14, 19 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. A. McMillan and J. M. Clemens, J. Chem. Phys. 68, 3627 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Ryabov, N. S. Stelmakh, G. N. Pirogova, Y. Voronin, and B. I. Zakharkin, Sov. Phys. Solid State 33, 2660 (1991).

G. N. Pirogova, Y. V. Voronin, V. E. Kritskaya, A. I. Ryabov, and N. A. Malov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 22, 97 (1986).

H. I. Farag, M. S. Elmanharawy, and A. Abdel-Kader, Acta Phys. Hung. 60, 19 (1986).

V. V. Azarov, B. P. Gritsenko, V. M. Lisitsyn and V. I. Salo, Sb. Nauchn. Tr. Vses. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Monokris. Stsintill. Mater. Osobo Chist. Khim. Veshchestv. 12, 34 (1984).

J. J. DeYoreo, Laser Program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 94551 (personal communication, 1993).

F. Rainer, L. J. Atherton, and J. J. DeYoreo, "Laser damage to production and research grade KDP crystals," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. Bennett, L. Chase, A. Guenther, B. Newman, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1848, 46 (1992).

B. V. Andreev, Y. N. Kostrubov, L. G. Karaseva and V. V. Gromov, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 1, 3359 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Levchenko, V. M. Shulga, and A. O. Doroshenko, Sov. Phys. Solid State 32, 1432 (1990).

J. K. Rath and S. Radhakrishna, Solid State Commun. 65, 1621 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Pirogova, Y. Voronin, A. I. Ryabov, and N. A. Malov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 23, 477 (1987).

E. Dieguez, A. Cintas, P. Hernandez, and J. M. Cabrera, J. Cryst. Growth 73, 193 (1985).
[CrossRef]

B. V. R. Chowdari and Y. R. Sekhar, J. Chem. Phys. 75, 2513 (1981).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Arbotoev, A. A. Alybakov, and T. F. Veremeichik, J. Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 924 (1991).
[CrossRef]

I. Fujita, T. Suzuki, and Y. Miwa, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 51, 3998 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Lee, J. E. Davis, and R. S. Hughes, "Physics of optically generated transient electronic defect in KH2PO4 and KD2PO4," presented at Nonlinear Optics: Materials Fundamentals and Applications Conference, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1992.

J. Reintjes and R. C. Eckhardt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 791 (1977).
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P. Liu, W. L. Smith, H. Lotem, J. H. Bechtel, N. Bloember-gen, and R. S. Adhav, Phys. Rev. B 17, 4620 (1978).
[CrossRef]

S. Saito and R. Onaka, Ferroelectrics 21, 553 (1978).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Loiacono, D. N. Loiacono, T. McGee, and M. Babb, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 2705 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Pekar, Untersuchungen uber die Elektronentheorie der Kristalle (Academie Verlag, Berlin, 1954).

L. F. Lemmens and J. T. Devreese, Solid State Commun. 12, 1067 (1973).
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G. Ascarelli and R. H. Stulen, Phys. Rev. B 11, 4045 (1975).
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V. H. Schmidt and E. A. Uehling, Phys. Rev. 126, 447 (1962).
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L. B. Harris and G. J. Vella, J. Chem. Phys. 58, 4550 (1973).
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W. E. Boyce and R. C. DiPrima, Elementary Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems (Wiley, New York, 1977).

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T. R. Waite, Phys. Rev. 107, 471 (1957).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[CrossRef]

F. Zernike and J. E. Midwinter, Applied Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1973).

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vet-terling, Numerical Recipes (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1986).

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1975).

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1967).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental arrangement used to measure spectral and temporal characteristics of the UV-induced transient absorption in KDP and its isomorphs. The pulsed excitation laser systems were quadrupled to 266 nm with two doubling crystals (D1 and D2), attenuated with a half-wave plate (λ/2) and a polarizer (Pol), and focused into the test sample to generate transient absorption. A shutter (S) permitted single-shot excitation to be used. The excitation energy and focused spot size were measured with fused-silica wedges (W’s), color-filters (F’s), a pyroelectric detector (PD1), and a video camera. By inserting partially transmitting mirrors M1 and M2, we measured the polarized absorption spectrum with a Xe arc lamp, monochromator, and optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) system. The temporal decay of the spectrum was monitored with a 544-nm He–Ne laser and two photodiodes (PD2 and PD3) before and after the sample.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption spectrum of U-V-induced transient defects in an 8-mm-thick KDP crystal taken ~1 s after excitation at 266 nm with 10-J/cm2, 10-ns pulses. The spectrum was measured with a Xe arc lamp that was polarized parallel to the excitation source, and the crystal was rotated such that the spectrum was recorded with the polarizations either parallel, π, or perpendicular, σ, to the optical axis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Representative decays obtained from time-resolved transient absorption experiments performed on KDP sample b and two KD*P samples, a* and c*. We measured absorption decays by monitoring the time-resolved transmission of a 543.5-nm cw He–Ne laser after pulsed UV excitation. See Table 1 for the decay times for all the samples studied.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temperature dependence of absorption decay rate for several 8-mm-thick KD*P, KDP, ADP, and RDP samples. The linear nature of the temperature dependences indicates that a thermally activated process is responsible for the absorption decay mechanism. The slopes are proportional to the Arrhenius activation energies determined by Eq. (2).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fluence dependence of transient absorption strength at ~1-ms delay times after excitation. Five different samples, labeled a, d, f, g, and d*, correspond to KDP and KD*P crystals. (a), (b) Data taken with ~10-ns and ~100-ps Gaussian pulses, respectively, using 4ω excitation, unless indicated. The solid curves are fits to a model described by Eqs. (3)(6) and the parameters in Table 1.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Diagram of transient absorption phenomena in KDP. (a) Two-photon absorption generating an absorbing defect with efficiency ηf. (b), (c) Optical, with an efficiency of ηb, and thermal bleaching processes that can lead to defect-site destruction and consequent decay of transient absorption.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Time-dependent logarithmic plot of the transient absorption strengths for two different samples. The nonexponential behavior can clearly be seen for all the samples studied. The fits described by Eq. (15) below assume that a thermally activated diffusion-limited decay mechanism is present.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Transient absorption strength in an 8-mm-thick KD*P sample, d*, arising from successive 10-ns excitation pulses at 10 Hz for (a) low, 0.3-J/cm2, and (b) high, 6-J/cm2, single-pulse fluences.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calculated KDP frequency conversion efficiency from 2ω to 4ω plotted along with previously published data.5,6 The parameters β, σ, ηf, and ηb defined in Table 1, were taken from the fits shown in Fig. 5 with small adjustments within the error ranges; (b) is identical to (a) except that transient absorption has been eliminated from the model.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Transient Absorption Decay Times, Thermal Activation Energies, and Impurity Concentrations (μg/g) of 13 Elements for KDP, KD*P, RDP, and ADP Crystalline Samplesa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameters Used to Model Transient Defect Absorption Strength and Fourth-Harmonic Conversion Efficienciesa

Equations (21)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

τ = 1 Δ α 0 0 Δ α ( t ) d t .
1 τ = 1 τ 0 exp ( - E a k T ) .
d N ( z , t ) d t = η f B I 4 ω 2 ( z , t ) 8 ω - N ( z , t ) η b σ 4 ω I 4 ω ( z , t ) 4 ω ,
d I 4 ω ( z , t ) d z = - { α 4 ω + N ( z , t ) σ 4 ω } I 4 ω ( z , t ) - β I 4 ω 2 ( z , t ) ,
d I p ( z , t ) d z = - { α p + N ( z , t ) σ p } I p ( z , t ) ,
N ( z , t = - ) = 0 ,
N ( z , t = τ ) = η f B I 4 ω 0 2 η b σ 4 ω [ 1 - exp ( - η b σ 4 ω I 4 ω 0 t 4 ω ) ] .
OD ( τ ) = N ( d , τ ) σ p d ln ( 10 ) = η f σ p β I 4 ω 0 d η b σ 4 ω 2 ln ( 10 ) [ 1 - exp ( - η b σ 4 ω I 4 ω 0 τ 4 ω ) ] .
N ( z , τ + Δ t ) = N ( z , t ) exp [ - η b σ 4 ω I 4 ω ( z , t ) Δ t 4 ω ] + η f B I 4 ω ( z , t ) 2 η b σ 4 ω × { 1 - exp [ - η b σ 4 ω ( z , t ) Δ t 4 ω ] } .
I 4 ω ( z + Δ z , t ) = I 4 ω ( z , t ) exp { - Δ z [ β I 4 ω ( z , t ) + α 4 ω + N ( z , t ) σ 4 ω ] } ,
I p ( z + Δ z , t ) = I p ( z , t ) exp { - Δ z [ α p + N ( z , t ) σ p ] } .
OD = - log 10 [ I p ( d , + 4 τ ) I p ( 0 , - 4 τ ) ] .
ρ i i ( r , t = 0 ) = 4 π r 2 A exp [ - ( r λ r 0 ) 2 ] ,
N ( t ) N 0 = 1 ( 1 + 4 D t / λ r 0 2 ) 1 / 2 + 1 2 ( π λ ) 1 / 2 × { arctan [ ( 4 D t / λ r 0 2 ) 1 / 2 ] - ( 4 D t / λ r 0 2 ) 1 / 2 ( 1 + 4 D t / λ r 0 2 ) } ,
d E 4 ( z , t ) d z = i K E 2 E 2 exp ( - i Δ k z ) - 1 2 α 4 ( z , t ) E 4 - β 2 E 4 * E 4 E 4 ,
d E 2 ( z , t ) d z = i K E 4 E 2 * exp ( + i Δ k z ) - 1 2 α 2 ( z , t ) E 2 ,
K = ( 2 0 c n 4 ) 1 / 2 2 ω 2 n 2 c d 36 sin θ ,
d N ( z , t ) d t = η f β 4 ( E 4 * E 4 ) 2 2 ω 4 - N ( z , t ) η b σ 4 E 4 * E 4 ω 4 .
α i ( z , t ) = α i 0 + N ( z , t ) σ i ,             i = 2 , 4.
l c = π Δ k = π ( 2 π Δ n 4 ω e / λ 4 ω - 4 π Δ n 2 ω 0 / λ 2 ω ) ,
1 α 2 ω = λ 2 ω 4 π Δ n 2 ω .

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