Abstract

We have developed a compact, flash-lamp-pumped Cr:LiSrAlF6 (Cr:LiSAF) laser system capable of producing femtosecond pulses exhibiting peak powers greater than 2 TW. Chirped pulse amplification in a Cr:LiSAF regenerative amplifier produces 15-mJ pulses at a 5-Hz repetition rate. Further amplification in Cr:LiSAF yields recompressed pulse energies of 280 mJ and a pulse duration of less than 135 fs at a 1.0-Hz repetition rate. We describe the design and performance of this laser as well as the optimization of chirped pulse amplification in flash-lamp-pumped Cr:LiSAF.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. B. Darrow, C. Coverdale, M. D. Perry, M. B. Mori, C. Clayton, K. Marsh, and C. Joshi, “Strongly coupled stimulated Raman backscatter from subpicosecond laser plasma interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 442 (1992).
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  13. C. Sauteret, D. Husson, G. Thiell, S. Seznec, S. Gary, A. Migus, and G. Mourou, “Generation of 20-TW pulses of picosecond duration using chirped pulse amplification in a Nd:glass power chain,” Opt. Lett. 16, 238 (1991).
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  14. F. G. Patterson, R. Gonzales, and M. D. Perry, “Compact 10-TW, 800-fs Nd:glass laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1107 (1991).
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  15. K. Yamakawa, H. Shiraga, Y. Kato, and C. P. J. Barty, “Prepulse-free 30-TW, 1-ps Nd:glass laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1593 (1991).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Q. Zhang, G. J. Dixon, B. H. T. Chai, and P. N. Kean, “Electronically tuned diode-laser-pumped Cr:LiSrAlF6laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 43 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. R. Sheps, J. F. Myers, H. B. Serreze, A. Rosenberg, R. C. Morris, and M. Long, “Diode-pumped Cr:LiSrAlF6laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 820 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  27. N. H. Rizvi, R. Mellish, J. F. Solis, P. M. W. French, J. R. Taylor, P. J. Delfyett, and L. T. Florez, “Femtosecond Cr:LiSrAIF6lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of OSA 1993 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper JTuC5.
  28. M. D. Perry, D. Strickland, T. Ditmire, and F. G. Patterson, “Cr:LiSrAlF6regenerative amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 17, 604 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. P. Beaud, E. Miesak, Y-F. Chen, B. H. T. Chai, and M. C. Richardson, “110 fsec Fourier-transform limited Gaussian pulses from a Cr:LiSAF regenerative amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 95, 46 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  30. T. Ditmire and M. D. Perry, “Terawatt Cr:LiSrA1F6laser system,” Opt. Lett. 18, 426 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. O. E. Martinez, “3000 times grating compressor with positive group velocity dispersion: application to fiber compensation in the 1.3–1.6μm region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 454 (1987).
  32. L. M. Frantz and J. S. Nodvick, “Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2346 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  33. F. G. Patterson, M. D. Perry, and J. T. Hunt, “Design and performance of a multiterawatt, subpicosecond neodymium:glass laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 2384 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  34. T. Ditmire and M. D. Perry, “Self-phase modulation in chirped pulse amplification,” submitted to Opt. Lett.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. B. Chai, Center for Research in Electro-Optics and Lasers, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32826 (personal communication, 1993).
  37. M. D. Perry, O. L. Landen, A. Szoke, and E. M. Campbell, “Multiphoton ionization of the noble gases by an intense 1014 W/cm2 dye laser,” Phys. Rev. A 37, 747 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. B. Chang, P. R. Bolton, and D. N. Fittinghoff, “Closed-form solutions for the production of ions in the collisionless ionization of gases by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 4193 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

1993 (5)

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Beaud, E. Miesak, Y-F. Chen, B. H. T. Chai, and M. C. Richardson, “110 fsec Fourier-transform limited Gaussian pulses from a Cr:LiSAF regenerative amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 95, 46 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Ditmire and M. D. Perry, “Terawatt Cr:LiSrA1F6laser system,” Opt. Lett. 18, 426 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rouyer, E. Mazataud, I. Allais, A. Pierre, S. Seznec, C. Sauteret, G. Mourou, and A. Migus, “Generation of 50-TW femtosecond pulses in a Ti:sapphire/Nd:glass chain,” Opt. Lett. 18, 214 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chang, P. R. Bolton, and D. N. Fittinghoff, “Closed-form solutions for the production of ions in the collisionless ionization of gases by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 4193 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (9)

M. D. Perry, D. Strickland, T. Ditmire, and F. G. Patterson, “Cr:LiSrAlF6regenerative amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 17, 604 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Beaud, Y. F. Chen, B. H. T. Chai, and M. C. Richardson, “Gain properties of LiSrAIF6:Cr3+,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1064 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. H. Rizvi, P. M. W. French, and J. R. Taylor, “Generation of 33-fs pulses from a passively mode-locked Cr3+:LiSrAlF6laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1605 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, G. J. Dixon, B. H. T. Chai, and P. N. Kean, “Electronically tuned diode-laser-pumped Cr:LiSrAlF6laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 43 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Crane, M. D. Perry, S. Herman, and R. W. Falcone, “High-field harmonic generation in helium,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1256 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, and S. E. Harris, “MeV x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. B. Darrow, C. Coverdale, M. D. Perry, M. B. Mori, C. Clayton, K. Marsh, and C. Joshi, “Strongly coupled stimulated Raman backscatter from subpicosecond laser plasma interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 442 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu and D. Umsteder, “Competition between ponderomotive and thermal forces in short-scale-length laser plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1935 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. White, J. R. Hunter, L. Van Woerkom, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “120-fs terawatt Ti:A12O3/Cr:LiSrAIF6laser system,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1067 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (10)

C. Sauteret, D. Husson, G. Thiell, S. Seznec, S. Gary, A. Migus, and G. Mourou, “Generation of 20-TW pulses of picosecond duration using chirped pulse amplification in a Nd:glass power chain,” Opt. Lett. 16, 238 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Patterson, R. Gonzales, and M. D. Perry, “Compact 10-TW, 800-fs Nd:glass laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1107 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamakawa, H. Shiraga, Y. Kato, and C. P. J. Barty, “Prepulse-free 30-TW, 1-ps Nd:glass laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1593 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Kmetec, J. J. Macklin, and J. F. Young, “0.5-TW, 125-fs Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1001 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sullivan, H. Hamster, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Gordon, W. White, H. Nathel, R. J. Blair, and R. W. Falcone, “Multiterawatt, 100-fs laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1406 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Augst, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Strickland, and S. L. Chin, “Laser ionization of Noble gases by Coulomb-barrier suppression,” J. Opt. Soc. B 8, 858 (1991); M. D. Perry, A. Szoke, O. L. Landen, and E. M. Campbell, “Nonresonant multiphoton ionization of noble gases: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1270 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 24, 3315 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Amendt, D. C. Eder, and S. C. Wilks, “X-ray lasing by optical-field-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2589 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sheps, J. F. Myers, H. B. Serreze, A. Rosenberg, R. C. Morris, and M. Long, “Diode-pumped Cr:LiSrAlF6laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 820 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Patterson, M. D. Perry, and J. T. Hunt, “Design and performance of a multiterawatt, subpicosecond neodymium:glass laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 2384 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1989 (4)

1988 (2)

M. D. Perry, O. L. Landen, A. Szoke, and E. M. Campbell, “Multiphoton ionization of the noble gases by an intense 1014 W/cm2 dye laser,” Phys. Rev. A 37, 747 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

O. E. Martinez, “3000 times grating compressor with positive group velocity dispersion: application to fiber compensation in the 1.3–1.6μm region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 454 (1987).

1986 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

1985 (1)

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1963 (1)

L. M. Frantz and J. S. Nodvick, “Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2346 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Allais, I.

Amendt, P.

P. Amendt, D. C. Eder, and S. C. Wilks, “X-ray lasing by optical-field-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2589 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Augst, S.

S. Augst, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Strickland, and S. L. Chin, “Laser ionization of Noble gases by Coulomb-barrier suppression,” J. Opt. Soc. B 8, 858 (1991); M. D. Perry, A. Szoke, O. L. Landen, and E. M. Campbell, “Nonresonant multiphoton ionization of noble gases: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1270 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bado, P.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Barty, C. P. J.

Beaud, P.

P. Beaud, E. Miesak, Y-F. Chen, B. H. T. Chai, and M. C. Richardson, “110 fsec Fourier-transform limited Gaussian pulses from a Cr:LiSAF regenerative amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 95, 46 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Beaud, Y. F. Chen, B. H. T. Chai, and M. C. Richardson, “Gain properties of LiSrAIF6:Cr3+,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1064 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blair, R. J.

Bolton, P. R.

B. Chang, P. R. Bolton, and D. N. Fittinghoff, “Closed-form solutions for the production of ions in the collisionless ionization of gases by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 4193 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, G. S.

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, and S. E. Harris, “MeV x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, N. H.

Campbell, E. M.

M. D. Perry, O. L. Landen, A. Szoke, and E. M. Campbell, “Multiphoton ionization of the noble gases by an intense 1014 W/cm2 dye laser,” Phys. Rev. A 37, 747 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chai, B.

B. Chai, Center for Research in Electro-Optics and Lasers, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32826 (personal communication, 1993).

Chai, B. H. T.

Chang, B.

B. Chang, P. R. Bolton, and D. N. Fittinghoff, “Closed-form solutions for the production of ions in the collisionless ionization of gases by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 4193 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chase, L. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and H. M. Newkirk, “Laser performance of LiSrAIF6:Cr3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 1051 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

Chen, Y-F.

P. Beaud, E. Miesak, Y-F. Chen, B. H. T. Chai, and M. C. Richardson, “110 fsec Fourier-transform limited Gaussian pulses from a Cr:LiSAF regenerative amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 95, 46 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

S. Augst, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Strickland, and S. L. Chin, “Laser ionization of Noble gases by Coulomb-barrier suppression,” J. Opt. Soc. B 8, 858 (1991); M. D. Perry, A. Szoke, O. L. Landen, and E. M. Campbell, “Nonresonant multiphoton ionization of noble gases: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1270 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clayton, C.

C. B. Darrow, C. Coverdale, M. D. Perry, M. B. Mori, C. Clayton, K. Marsh, and C. Joshi, “Strongly coupled stimulated Raman backscatter from subpicosecond laser plasma interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 442 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

Coverdale, C.

C. B. Darrow, C. Coverdale, M. D. Perry, M. B. Mori, C. Clayton, K. Marsh, and C. Joshi, “Strongly coupled stimulated Raman backscatter from subpicosecond laser plasma interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 442 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crane, J. K.

Darrow, C. B.

C. B. Darrow, C. Coverdale, M. D. Perry, M. B. Mori, C. Clayton, K. Marsh, and C. Joshi, “Strongly coupled stimulated Raman backscatter from subpicosecond laser plasma interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 442 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delfyett, P. J.

N. H. Rizvi, R. Mellish, J. F. Solis, P. M. W. French, J. R. Taylor, P. J. Delfyett, and L. T. Florez, “Femtosecond Cr:LiSrAIF6lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of OSA 1993 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper JTuC5.

Delone, N. B.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Ditmire, T.

Dixon, G. J.

Eder, D. C.

P. Amendt, D. C. Eder, and S. C. Wilks, “X-ray lasing by optical-field-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2589 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Endoh, A.

Falcone, R. W.

Fittinghoff, D. N.

B. Chang, P. R. Bolton, and D. N. Fittinghoff, “Closed-form solutions for the production of ions in the collisionless ionization of gases by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 4193 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Florez, L. T.

N. H. Rizvi, R. Mellish, J. F. Solis, P. M. W. French, J. R. Taylor, P. J. Delfyett, and L. T. Florez, “Femtosecond Cr:LiSrAIF6lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of OSA 1993 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper JTuC5.

Frantz, L. M.

L. M. Frantz and J. S. Nodvick, “Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2346 (1963).
[CrossRef]

French, P. M. W.

N. H. Rizvi, P. M. W. French, and J. R. Taylor, “Generation of 33-fs pulses from a passively mode-locked Cr3+:LiSrAlF6laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1605 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. H. Rizvi, R. Mellish, J. F. Solis, P. M. W. French, J. R. Taylor, P. J. Delfyett, and L. T. Florez, “Femtosecond Cr:LiSrAIF6lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of OSA 1993 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper JTuC5.

Gary, S.

Glaze, J. A.

Gonzales, R.

Gordon, C. L.

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, and S. E. Harris, “MeV x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, S.

Hamster, H.

Harris, S. E.

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, and S. E. Harris, “MeV x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harter, D. J.

Herman, S.

Hunt, J. T.

Hunter, J. R.

Husson, D.

Joshi, C.

C. B. Darrow, C. Coverdale, M. D. Perry, M. B. Mori, C. Clayton, K. Marsh, and C. Joshi, “Strongly coupled stimulated Raman backscatter from subpicosecond laser plasma interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 442 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

Kato, Y.

Kean, P. N.

Kmetec, J. D.

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, and S. E. Harris, “MeV x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Kmetec, J. J. Macklin, and J. F. Young, “0.5-TW, 125-fs Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1001 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krainov, V. P.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Kulander, K. C.

A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 24, 3315 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kway, W. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and H. M. Newkirk, “Laser performance of LiSrAIF6:Cr3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 1051 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, A.

A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 24, 3315 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Landen, O. L.

M. D. Perry, O. L. Landen, A. Szoke, and E. M. Campbell, “Multiphoton ionization of the noble gases by an intense 1014 W/cm2 dye laser,” Phys. Rev. A 37, 747 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemoff, B. E.

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, and S. E. Harris, “MeV x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

X. Liu and D. Umsteder, “Competition between ponderomotive and thermal forces in short-scale-length laser plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1935 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Long, M.

Macklin, J. J.

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, and S. E. Harris, “MeV x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Kmetec, J. J. Macklin, and J. F. Young, “0.5-TW, 125-fs Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1001 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maine, P.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Marsh, K.

C. B. Darrow, C. Coverdale, M. D. Perry, M. B. Mori, C. Clayton, K. Marsh, and C. Joshi, “Strongly coupled stimulated Raman backscatter from subpicosecond laser plasma interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 442 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinez, O. E.

O. E. Martinez, “3000 times grating compressor with positive group velocity dispersion: application to fiber compensation in the 1.3–1.6μm region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 454 (1987).

Mazataud, E.

Mellish, R.

N. H. Rizvi, R. Mellish, J. F. Solis, P. M. W. French, J. R. Taylor, P. J. Delfyett, and L. T. Florez, “Femtosecond Cr:LiSrAIF6lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of OSA 1993 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper JTuC5.

Meyerhofer, D. D.

S. Augst, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Strickland, and S. L. Chin, “Laser ionization of Noble gases by Coulomb-barrier suppression,” J. Opt. Soc. B 8, 858 (1991); M. D. Perry, A. Szoke, O. L. Landen, and E. M. Campbell, “Nonresonant multiphoton ionization of noble gases: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1270 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miesak, E.

P. Beaud, E. Miesak, Y-F. Chen, B. H. T. Chai, and M. C. Richardson, “110 fsec Fourier-transform limited Gaussian pulses from a Cr:LiSAF regenerative amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 95, 46 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Migus, A.

Mori, M. B.

C. B. Darrow, C. Coverdale, M. D. Perry, M. B. Mori, C. Clayton, K. Marsh, and C. Joshi, “Strongly coupled stimulated Raman backscatter from subpicosecond laser plasma interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 442 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morris, R. C.

Mourou, G.

Myers, J. F.

Nathel, H.

Newkirk, H. M.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and H. M. Newkirk, “Laser performance of LiSrAIF6:Cr3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 1051 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nodvick, J. S.

L. M. Frantz and J. S. Nodvick, “Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2346 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, F. G.

Payne, S. A.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and H. M. Newkirk, “Laser performance of LiSrAIF6:Cr3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 1051 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

T. Ditmire and M. D. Perry, “Terawatt Cr:LiSrA1F6laser system,” Opt. Lett. 18, 426 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Perry, D. Strickland, T. Ditmire, and F. G. Patterson, “Cr:LiSrAlF6regenerative amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 17, 604 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. White, J. R. Hunter, L. Van Woerkom, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “120-fs terawatt Ti:A12O3/Cr:LiSrAIF6laser system,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1067 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. B. Darrow, C. Coverdale, M. D. Perry, M. B. Mori, C. Clayton, K. Marsh, and C. Joshi, “Strongly coupled stimulated Raman backscatter from subpicosecond laser plasma interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 442 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Crane, M. D. Perry, S. Herman, and R. W. Falcone, “High-field harmonic generation in helium,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1256 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Patterson, R. Gonzales, and M. D. Perry, “Compact 10-TW, 800-fs Nd:glass laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1107 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Patterson, M. D. Perry, and J. T. Hunt, “Design and performance of a multiterawatt, subpicosecond neodymium:glass laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 2384 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Perry, F. G. Patterson, and J. Weston, “Spectral shaping in chirped-pulse amplification,” Opt. Lett. 15, 381 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Perry, O. L. Landen, A. Szoke, and E. M. Campbell, “Multiphoton ionization of the noble gases by an intense 1014 W/cm2 dye laser,” Phys. Rev. A 37, 747 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ditmire and M. D. Perry, “Self-phase modulation in chirped pulse amplification,” submitted to Opt. Lett.

Pessot, M.

M. Pessot, J. Squier, G. Mourou, and D. J. Harter, “Chirped-pulse amplification of 100-fs pulses,” Opt. Lett. 14, 797 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pierre, A.

Renard, P. A.

Richardson, M. C.

P. Beaud, E. Miesak, Y-F. Chen, B. H. T. Chai, and M. C. Richardson, “110 fsec Fourier-transform limited Gaussian pulses from a Cr:LiSAF regenerative amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 95, 46 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Beaud, Y. F. Chen, B. H. T. Chai, and M. C. Richardson, “Gain properties of LiSrAIF6:Cr3+,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1064 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rizvi, N. H.

N. H. Rizvi, P. M. W. French, and J. R. Taylor, “Generation of 33-fs pulses from a passively mode-locked Cr3+:LiSrAlF6laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1605 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. H. Rizvi, R. Mellish, J. F. Solis, P. M. W. French, J. R. Taylor, P. J. Delfyett, and L. T. Florez, “Femtosecond Cr:LiSrAIF6lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of OSA 1993 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper JTuC5.

Rosenberg, A.

Rouyer, C.

Sarakura, N.

Sauteret, C.

Schafer, K. J.

A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 24, 3315 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Serreze, H. B.

Seznec, S.

Sheps, R.

Shiraga, H.

Simmons, W. W.

Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and H. M. Newkirk, “Laser performance of LiSrAIF6:Cr3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 1051 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Solis, J. F.

N. H. Rizvi, R. Mellish, J. F. Solis, P. M. W. French, J. R. Taylor, P. J. Delfyett, and L. T. Florez, “Femtosecond Cr:LiSrAIF6lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of OSA 1993 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper JTuC5.

Squier, J.

Strickland, D.

M. D. Perry, D. Strickland, T. Ditmire, and F. G. Patterson, “Cr:LiSrAlF6regenerative amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 17, 604 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Augst, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Strickland, and S. L. Chin, “Laser ionization of Noble gases by Coulomb-barrier suppression,” J. Opt. Soc. B 8, 858 (1991); M. D. Perry, A. Szoke, O. L. Landen, and E. M. Campbell, “Nonresonant multiphoton ionization of noble gases: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1270 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, A.

Szoke, A.

M. D. Perry, O. L. Landen, A. Szoke, and E. M. Campbell, “Multiphoton ionization of the noble gases by an intense 1014 W/cm2 dye laser,” Phys. Rev. A 37, 747 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, J. R.

N. H. Rizvi, P. M. W. French, and J. R. Taylor, “Generation of 33-fs pulses from a passively mode-locked Cr3+:LiSrAlF6laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1605 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. H. Rizvi, R. Mellish, J. F. Solis, P. M. W. French, J. R. Taylor, P. J. Delfyett, and L. T. Florez, “Femtosecond Cr:LiSrAIF6lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of OSA 1993 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper JTuC5.

Thiell, G.

Tittel, F.

Umsteder, D.

X. Liu and D. Umsteder, “Competition between ponderomotive and thermal forces in short-scale-length laser plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1935 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Woerkom, L.

Watanabe, M.

Watanabe, S.

Weston, J.

White, W.

White, W. E.

Wilks, S. C.

P. Amendt, D. C. Eder, and S. C. Wilks, “X-ray lasing by optical-field-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2589 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamakawa, K.

Young, J. F.

Zhang, Q.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

O. E. Martinez, “3000 times grating compressor with positive group velocity dispersion: application to fiber compensation in the 1.3–1.6μm region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 454 (1987).

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

L. M. Frantz and J. S. Nodvick, “Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2346 (1963).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and H. M. Newkirk, “Laser performance of LiSrAIF6:Cr3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 1051 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Opt. Soc. B (1)

S. Augst, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Strickland, and S. L. Chin, “Laser ionization of Noble gases by Coulomb-barrier suppression,” J. Opt. Soc. B 8, 858 (1991); M. D. Perry, A. Szoke, O. L. Landen, and E. M. Campbell, “Nonresonant multiphoton ionization of noble gases: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1270 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. B (1)

A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 24, 3315 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. Beaud, E. Miesak, Y-F. Chen, B. H. T. Chai, and M. C. Richardson, “110 fsec Fourier-transform limited Gaussian pulses from a Cr:LiSAF regenerative amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 95, 46 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (17)

T. Ditmire and M. D. Perry, “Terawatt Cr:LiSrA1F6laser system,” Opt. Lett. 18, 426 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Tittel, A. Endoh, M. Watanabe, N. Sarakura, and S. Watanabe, “Multiterawatt subpicosecond KrF laser,” Opt. Lett. 14, 353 (1989); T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, G. Gibson, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Ultrahigh-intensity KrF* laser system,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1113 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Beaud, Y. F. Chen, B. H. T. Chai, and M. C. Richardson, “Gain properties of LiSrAIF6:Cr3+,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1064 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. H. Rizvi, P. M. W. French, and J. R. Taylor, “Generation of 33-fs pulses from a passively mode-locked Cr3+:LiSrAlF6laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1605 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, G. J. Dixon, B. H. T. Chai, and P. N. Kean, “Electronically tuned diode-laser-pumped Cr:LiSrAlF6laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 43 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sheps, J. F. Myers, H. B. Serreze, A. Rosenberg, R. C. Morris, and M. Long, “Diode-pumped Cr:LiSrAlF6laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 820 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Crane, M. D. Perry, S. Herman, and R. W. Falcone, “High-field harmonic generation in helium,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1256 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sauteret, D. Husson, G. Thiell, S. Seznec, S. Gary, A. Migus, and G. Mourou, “Generation of 20-TW pulses of picosecond duration using chirped pulse amplification in a Nd:glass power chain,” Opt. Lett. 16, 238 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Patterson, R. Gonzales, and M. D. Perry, “Compact 10-TW, 800-fs Nd:glass laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1107 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamakawa, H. Shiraga, Y. Kato, and C. P. J. Barty, “Prepulse-free 30-TW, 1-ps Nd:glass laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1593 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Kmetec, J. J. Macklin, and J. F. Young, “0.5-TW, 125-fs Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1001 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sullivan, H. Hamster, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Gordon, W. White, H. Nathel, R. J. Blair, and R. W. Falcone, “Multiterawatt, 100-fs laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1406 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. White, J. R. Hunter, L. Van Woerkom, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “120-fs terawatt Ti:A12O3/Cr:LiSrAIF6laser system,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1067 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pessot, J. Squier, G. Mourou, and D. J. Harter, “Chirped-pulse amplification of 100-fs pulses,” Opt. Lett. 14, 797 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Perry, F. G. Patterson, and J. Weston, “Spectral shaping in chirped-pulse amplification,” Opt. Lett. 15, 381 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rouyer, E. Mazataud, I. Allais, A. Pierre, S. Seznec, C. Sauteret, G. Mourou, and A. Migus, “Generation of 50-TW femtosecond pulses in a Ti:sapphire/Nd:glass chain,” Opt. Lett. 18, 214 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Perry, D. Strickland, T. Ditmire, and F. G. Patterson, “Cr:LiSrAlF6regenerative amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 17, 604 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

M. D. Perry, O. L. Landen, A. Szoke, and E. M. Campbell, “Multiphoton ionization of the noble gases by an intense 1014 W/cm2 dye laser,” Phys. Rev. A 37, 747 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chang, P. R. Bolton, and D. N. Fittinghoff, “Closed-form solutions for the production of ions in the collisionless ionization of gases by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 4193 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, and S. E. Harris, “MeV x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. B. Darrow, C. Coverdale, M. D. Perry, M. B. Mori, C. Clayton, K. Marsh, and C. Joshi, “Strongly coupled stimulated Raman backscatter from subpicosecond laser plasma interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 442 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu and D. Umsteder, “Competition between ponderomotive and thermal forces in short-scale-length laser plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1935 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Amendt, D. C. Eder, and S. C. Wilks, “X-ray lasing by optical-field-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2589 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Other (3)

B. Chai, Center for Research in Electro-Optics and Lasers, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32826 (personal communication, 1993).

T. Ditmire and M. D. Perry, “Self-phase modulation in chirped pulse amplification,” submitted to Opt. Lett.

N. H. Rizvi, R. Mellish, J. F. Solis, P. M. W. French, J. R. Taylor, P. J. Delfyett, and L. T. Florez, “Femtosecond Cr:LiSrAIF6lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of OSA 1993 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper JTuC5.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the 2-TW Cr:LiSAF laser system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Stretched laser pulse monitored by a fast photodiode and sampling oscilloscope. (b) Spectrum of the stretched pulse that seeds the regenerative amplifier.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TEM00 spatial profile of the 15-mJ output from the regenerative amplifier.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Spectrum of a Q-switched light pulse from the unseeded, free-lasing regenerative amplifier. This spectrum represents the effective gain spectral profile of the regenerative amplifier with 36 round trips in the cavity. (b) Curve (1) is the spectrum calculated on the basis of the measured seed spectrum and gain profile of the regenerative amplifier without pulse saturation. Curve (2) is the actual measured spectrum of the laser pulse after amplification to 15 mJ. (c) Spectrum of the laser after amplification and compression.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Oscilloscope trace of a fast photodiode monitoring the pulse energy buildup inside the ring regenerative amplifier cavity.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Calculated stretched pulse shape for the Cr;LiSAF system before [curve (1)] and after [curve (2)] amplification to the 15-mJ level in our Cr:LiSAF regenerative amplifier. The calculation assumes an initial small-signal gain in the LiSAF amplifier of 2.9 and a round-trip cavity loss of 40%. (b) Logarithm plot of the calculated recompressed pulse shape [curve (2)], with the initial pulse shape [curve (1)]. (c) The same calculation as in (b), instead performed with a Ti:sapphire amplifier. The loss characteristics of the regenerative amplifier is the same as that in (a) and (b). The initial small-signal gain in the Ti:sapphire is assumed to be 10.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Small-signal gain as a function of radial position inside the 9.5-mm LiSAF amplifier when pumped with 600 J through four flash lamps.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calculated relative inversion density achievable in a flash-lamp-pumped LiSAF amplifier as a function of flash-lamp pulse width (circles, left axis). The corresponding small-signal gain achievable in our 9.5-mm LiSAF amplifier is plotted on the right axis (squares).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured small-signal gain in the 9.5-mm LiSAF amplifiers as a function of electrical energy delivered to the flash lamps.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Measured autocorrelation of the recompressed pulse. (b) Autocorrelation of a transform-limited pulse calculated from the measured final spectrum. Transform-limited pulse width is 135 fs.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Near-field spatial profile of the amplified laser pulse at the image plane of the second spatial filter.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Contour plot of the far-field profile calculated on the basis of the measured transmitted wave-front distortions of the 9.5-mm LiSAF rods with a top-hat spatial profile assumed for the incident laser pulse. The solid circle superimposed upon the contour plot is the first minimum of a diffraction-limited Airy pattern.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Measured far-field profile of the recompressed laser pulse by the use of an f/17 aspheric lens to focus the laser. The 1/e2 diameter is 78 μm in one dimension and 95 μm in the other dimension.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Measured ionization yields of both singly and doubly ionized helium as a function of peak laser intensity in the limit of collisionless ionization. Ion yields were measured with an ion time-of-flight detector. The solid curves represent a fit to the data from the ADK tunneling ionization theory.

Equations (2)

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I out ( t - x / c ) = I in ( t ) 1 1 - [ 1 - exp ( - σ 0 x n 0 d x ) ] exp [ - ( σ / ω ) - t - x / c I in ( t ) d t ] ,
d N ( t ) d t = - N ( t ) τ s + α t lamp W pump ( t )

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