Abstract

Ultrafast dynamics of the transient velocity overshoot in GaAs and Si have been studied through the use of measurements of radiated and guided terahertz pulses whose time-domain waveforms are proportional to the acceleration and the velocity of carriers, respectively. These measurements have been compared with each other and also with a Monte Carlo simulation. The field-dependent free-space and guided waveforms are qualitatively consistent with Monte Carlo calculations. By correlation of the calculated velocities with a sampling gate function the observed ratio of peak-to-steady-state velocities is found to be in reasonable quantitative agreement. Also, by detecting the free-space radiation from a Si p-i-n structure, we have made the first, to our knowledge, direct experimental observation of transient velocity overshoot in Si.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Mourou, C. V. Stancampiano, and D. Blumenthal, "Picosecond microwave pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 470 (1981).
  2. D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, "Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284 (1984).
  3. Ch. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, "Point source teraHertz optics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1480 (1988).
  4. S. L. Chuang, S. Schmitt-Rink, B. I. Green, P. N. Saeta, and A. F. J. Levi, "Optical rectification at semiconductor surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 102 (1992).
  5. See, for a general review, M. Lundstrom, Fundamentals of Carrier Transport (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1990), Chap. 8.
  6. A. F. J. Levi and Y. Yafet, "Nonequilibrium electron transport in bipolar devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 42 (1987).
  7. E. Constant, "Non-steady-state carrier transport in semiconductors in perspective with submicrometer devices," in Hot-Electron Transport in Semiconductors, L. Reggiani, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), Chap. 8.
  8. D. E. Spence, P. N. Kean, and W. Sibbett, "60-fsec pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 16, 42 (1991).
  9. C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, B. I. Green, F. K. Reinhart, and R. A. Logan, "Picosecond nonequilibrium carrier transport in GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 104 (1981).
  10. K. Meyer, M. Pessot, G. Mourou, R. Grondin, and S. Chamoun, "Subpicosecond photoconductivity overshoot in gallium arsenide observed by electro-optic sampling." Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2254 (1988).
  11. J. A. Valdmanis and G. A. Mourou, "Subpicosecond elec-trooptic sampling: principles and applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 69 (1986).
  12. D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and Ch. Fattinger, "Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006 (1990); J. M. Chwalek, J. F. Whitaker, and G. A. Mourou, "Submillimetre wave response of superconducting YBCO using coherent time-domain spectroscopy," Electron. Lett. 27, 447 (1991).
  13. N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291 (1992).
  14. L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz radiation from large aperture Si p-i-n diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3357 (1991).
  15. J. Son, W. Sha, J. Kim, T. B. Norris, J. F. Whitaker, and G. A. Mourou, "Transient velocity overshoot dynamics in GaAs for electric fields ≤ 200 kV/cm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 923 (1993).
  16. W. Sha, J. Rhee, T. B. Norris, and W. J. Schaff, "Transient carrier and field dynamics in quantum-well parallel transport: from the ballistic to the quasi-equilibrium regime," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2445 (1992).
  17. M. van Exter and D. R. Grischkowsky, "Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684 (1990).
  18. S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, "Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276 (1991).
  19. J. M. Chwalek, J. F. Whitaker, and G. A. Mourou, "Low-temperature grown GaAs as a high speed photoconductor for terahertz spectroscopy," in Picosecond Eelectronics and Optoelectronics, T. C. L. G. Sollner and J. Shah, eds., Vol. 9 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 40–45.
  20. X.-C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, "Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011 (1990).
  21. X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, and X. F. Ma, "Coherent measurement of THz optical rectification from electro-optic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2764 (1992).
  22. B. B. Hu, A. S. Weling, S. H. Auston, A. V. Kuznetsov, and C. J. Stanton, "dc-electric-field dependence of THz radiation induced by femtosecond optical excitation of bulk GaAs," Phys. Rev. B 49, 2234 (1994).
  23. A. V. Kuznetsov and C. J. Stanton, "Ultrafast optical generation of carriers in a dc electric field: transient localization and photocurrent," Phys. Rev. B 48, 10,828 (1993).
  24. R. O. Grondin, Department of Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Ariz. 85287, and R. P. Joshi, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Va. 23529 (personal communication, 1994). The Monte Carlo code was essentially that discussed in S. El-Ghazaly, R. P. Joshi, and R. O. Grondin, "Electromagnetic and transport considerations in subpicosecond photoconductive switch modeling," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 629 (1990), and in S. N. Chamoun, R. Joshi, E. N. Arnold, R. O. Grondin, K. E. Meyer, M. Pessot, and G. A. Mourou, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of subpicosecond photoconductivity," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 236 (1989).
  25. A. E. Iverson, G. M. Wysin, D. L. Smith, and A. Redondo, "Overshoot in the response of a photoconductor excited by subpicosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2148 (1988).
  26. U. D. Keil and D. R. Dykaar, "Electro-optic sampling and carrier dynamics at zero propagation distance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1504 (1992).
  27. G. M. Wysin, D. L. Smith, and A. Redondo, "Picosecond response of photoexcited GaAs in a uniform electric field by Monte Carlo dynamics," Phys. Rev. B 38, 12,514 (1988).
  28. W. Sha, T. B. Norris, J. Burm, D. Woodard, and W. J. Schaff, "A new coherent detector for THz radiation based on excitonic electroabsorption effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1763 (1992).
  29. B. I. Greene, J. F. Federici, D. R. Dykaar, R. R. Jones, and P. H. Bucksbaum, "Interferometric characterization of 160 fs far-infrared light pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 893 (1991).

1994

B. B. Hu, A. S. Weling, S. H. Auston, A. V. Kuznetsov, and C. J. Stanton, "dc-electric-field dependence of THz radiation induced by femtosecond optical excitation of bulk GaAs," Phys. Rev. B 49, 2234 (1994).

1993

A. V. Kuznetsov and C. J. Stanton, "Ultrafast optical generation of carriers in a dc electric field: transient localization and photocurrent," Phys. Rev. B 48, 10,828 (1993).

J. Son, W. Sha, J. Kim, T. B. Norris, J. F. Whitaker, and G. A. Mourou, "Transient velocity overshoot dynamics in GaAs for electric fields ≤ 200 kV/cm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 923 (1993).

1992

W. Sha, J. Rhee, T. B. Norris, and W. J. Schaff, "Transient carrier and field dynamics in quantum-well parallel transport: from the ballistic to the quasi-equilibrium regime," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2445 (1992).

X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, and X. F. Ma, "Coherent measurement of THz optical rectification from electro-optic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2764 (1992).

S. L. Chuang, S. Schmitt-Rink, B. I. Green, P. N. Saeta, and A. F. J. Levi, "Optical rectification at semiconductor surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 102 (1992).

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291 (1992).

W. Sha, T. B. Norris, J. Burm, D. Woodard, and W. J. Schaff, "A new coherent detector for THz radiation based on excitonic electroabsorption effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1763 (1992).

U. D. Keil and D. R. Dykaar, "Electro-optic sampling and carrier dynamics at zero propagation distance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1504 (1992).

1991

B. I. Greene, J. F. Federici, D. R. Dykaar, R. R. Jones, and P. H. Bucksbaum, "Interferometric characterization of 160 fs far-infrared light pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 893 (1991).

D. E. Spence, P. N. Kean, and W. Sibbett, "60-fsec pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 16, 42 (1991).

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz radiation from large aperture Si p-i-n diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3357 (1991).

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, "Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276 (1991).

1990

X.-C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, "Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011 (1990).

M. van Exter and D. R. Grischkowsky, "Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684 (1990).

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and Ch. Fattinger, "Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006 (1990); J. M. Chwalek, J. F. Whitaker, and G. A. Mourou, "Submillimetre wave response of superconducting YBCO using coherent time-domain spectroscopy," Electron. Lett. 27, 447 (1991).

1988

G. M. Wysin, D. L. Smith, and A. Redondo, "Picosecond response of photoexcited GaAs in a uniform electric field by Monte Carlo dynamics," Phys. Rev. B 38, 12,514 (1988).

Ch. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, "Point source teraHertz optics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1480 (1988).

A. E. Iverson, G. M. Wysin, D. L. Smith, and A. Redondo, "Overshoot in the response of a photoconductor excited by subpicosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2148 (1988).

K. Meyer, M. Pessot, G. Mourou, R. Grondin, and S. Chamoun, "Subpicosecond photoconductivity overshoot in gallium arsenide observed by electro-optic sampling." Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2254 (1988).

1987

A. F. J. Levi and Y. Yafet, "Nonequilibrium electron transport in bipolar devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 42 (1987).

1986

J. A. Valdmanis and G. A. Mourou, "Subpicosecond elec-trooptic sampling: principles and applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 69 (1986).

1984

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, "Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284 (1984).

1981

G. Mourou, C. V. Stancampiano, and D. Blumenthal, "Picosecond microwave pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 470 (1981).

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, B. I. Green, F. K. Reinhart, and R. A. Logan, "Picosecond nonequilibrium carrier transport in GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 104 (1981).

Fattinger, Ch.

Grischkowsky, D.

Grischkowsky, D. R.

M. van Exter and D. R. Grischkowsky, "Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684 (1990).

Keiding, S.

van Exter, M.

Auston, D. H.

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291 (1992).

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz radiation from large aperture Si p-i-n diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3357 (1991).

X.-C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, "Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011 (1990).

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, "Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284 (1984).

Auston, S. H.

B. B. Hu, A. S. Weling, S. H. Auston, A. V. Kuznetsov, and C. J. Stanton, "dc-electric-field dependence of THz radiation induced by femtosecond optical excitation of bulk GaAs," Phys. Rev. B 49, 2234 (1994).

Blumenthal, D.

G. Mourou, C. V. Stancampiano, and D. Blumenthal, "Picosecond microwave pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 470 (1981).

Bucksbaum, P. H.

B. I. Greene, J. F. Federici, D. R. Dykaar, R. R. Jones, and P. H. Bucksbaum, "Interferometric characterization of 160 fs far-infrared light pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 893 (1991).

Burm, J.

W. Sha, T. B. Norris, J. Burm, D. Woodard, and W. J. Schaff, "A new coherent detector for THz radiation based on excitonic electroabsorption effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1763 (1992).

Calawa, A. R.

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, "Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276 (1991).

Chamoun, S.

K. Meyer, M. Pessot, G. Mourou, R. Grondin, and S. Chamoun, "Subpicosecond photoconductivity overshoot in gallium arsenide observed by electro-optic sampling." Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2254 (1988).

Cheung, K. P.

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, "Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284 (1984).

Chuang, S. L.

S. L. Chuang, S. Schmitt-Rink, B. I. Green, P. N. Saeta, and A. F. J. Levi, "Optical rectification at semiconductor surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 102 (1992).

Chwalek, J. M.

J. M. Chwalek, J. F. Whitaker, and G. A. Mourou, "Low-temperature grown GaAs as a high speed photoconductor for terahertz spectroscopy," in Picosecond Eelectronics and Optoelectronics, T. C. L. G. Sollner and J. Shah, eds., Vol. 9 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 40–45.

Constant, E.

E. Constant, "Non-steady-state carrier transport in semiconductors in perspective with submicrometer devices," in Hot-Electron Transport in Semiconductors, L. Reggiani, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), Chap. 8.

Darrow, J. T.

X.-C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, "Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011 (1990).

Dykaar, D. R.

U. D. Keil and D. R. Dykaar, "Electro-optic sampling and carrier dynamics at zero propagation distance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1504 (1992).

B. I. Greene, J. F. Federici, D. R. Dykaar, R. R. Jones, and P. H. Bucksbaum, "Interferometric characterization of 160 fs far-infrared light pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 893 (1991).

Fattinger, Ch.

Ch. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, "Point source teraHertz optics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1480 (1988).

Federici, J. F.

B. I. Greene, J. F. Federici, D. R. Dykaar, R. R. Jones, and P. H. Bucksbaum, "Interferometric characterization of 160 fs far-infrared light pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 893 (1991).

Fork, R. L.

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, B. I. Green, F. K. Reinhart, and R. A. Logan, "Picosecond nonequilibrium carrier transport in GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 104 (1981).

Frankel, M. Y.

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, "Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276 (1991).

Froberg, N. M.

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291 (1992).

Green, B. I.

S. L. Chuang, S. Schmitt-Rink, B. I. Green, P. N. Saeta, and A. F. J. Levi, "Optical rectification at semiconductor surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 102 (1992).

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, B. I. Green, F. K. Reinhart, and R. A. Logan, "Picosecond nonequilibrium carrier transport in GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 104 (1981).

Greene, B. I.

B. I. Greene, J. F. Federici, D. R. Dykaar, R. R. Jones, and P. H. Bucksbaum, "Interferometric characterization of 160 fs far-infrared light pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 893 (1991).

Grischkowsky, D.

Ch. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, "Point source teraHertz optics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1480 (1988).

Grondin, R.

K. Meyer, M. Pessot, G. Mourou, R. Grondin, and S. Chamoun, "Subpicosecond photoconductivity overshoot in gallium arsenide observed by electro-optic sampling." Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2254 (1988).

Grondin, R. O.

R. O. Grondin, Department of Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Ariz. 85287, and R. P. Joshi, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Va. 23529 (personal communication, 1994). The Monte Carlo code was essentially that discussed in S. El-Ghazaly, R. P. Joshi, and R. O. Grondin, "Electromagnetic and transport considerations in subpicosecond photoconductive switch modeling," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 629 (1990), and in S. N. Chamoun, R. Joshi, E. N. Arnold, R. O. Grondin, K. E. Meyer, M. Pessot, and G. A. Mourou, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of subpicosecond photoconductivity," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 236 (1989).

Gupta, S.

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, "Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276 (1991).

Hu, B. B.

B. B. Hu, A. S. Weling, S. H. Auston, A. V. Kuznetsov, and C. J. Stanton, "dc-electric-field dependence of THz radiation induced by femtosecond optical excitation of bulk GaAs," Phys. Rev. B 49, 2234 (1994).

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291 (1992).

X.-C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, "Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011 (1990).

Iverson, A. E.

A. E. Iverson, G. M. Wysin, D. L. Smith, and A. Redondo, "Overshoot in the response of a photoconductor excited by subpicosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2148 (1988).

Jin, Y.

X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, and X. F. Ma, "Coherent measurement of THz optical rectification from electro-optic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2764 (1992).

Jones, R. R.

B. I. Greene, J. F. Federici, D. R. Dykaar, R. R. Jones, and P. H. Bucksbaum, "Interferometric characterization of 160 fs far-infrared light pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 893 (1991).

Kean, P. N.

Keil, U. D.

U. D. Keil and D. R. Dykaar, "Electro-optic sampling and carrier dynamics at zero propagation distance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1504 (1992).

Kim, J.

J. Son, W. Sha, J. Kim, T. B. Norris, J. F. Whitaker, and G. A. Mourou, "Transient velocity overshoot dynamics in GaAs for electric fields ≤ 200 kV/cm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 923 (1993).

Kuznetsov, A. V.

B. B. Hu, A. S. Weling, S. H. Auston, A. V. Kuznetsov, and C. J. Stanton, "dc-electric-field dependence of THz radiation induced by femtosecond optical excitation of bulk GaAs," Phys. Rev. B 49, 2234 (1994).

A. V. Kuznetsov and C. J. Stanton, "Ultrafast optical generation of carriers in a dc electric field: transient localization and photocurrent," Phys. Rev. B 48, 10,828 (1993).

Levi, A. F. J.

S. L. Chuang, S. Schmitt-Rink, B. I. Green, P. N. Saeta, and A. F. J. Levi, "Optical rectification at semiconductor surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 102 (1992).

A. F. J. Levi and Y. Yafet, "Nonequilibrium electron transport in bipolar devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 42 (1987).

Logan, R. A.

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, B. I. Green, F. K. Reinhart, and R. A. Logan, "Picosecond nonequilibrium carrier transport in GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 104 (1981).

Lundstrom, M.

See, for a general review, M. Lundstrom, Fundamentals of Carrier Transport (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1990), Chap. 8.

Ma, X. F.

X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, and X. F. Ma, "Coherent measurement of THz optical rectification from electro-optic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2764 (1992).

Meyer, K.

K. Meyer, M. Pessot, G. Mourou, R. Grondin, and S. Chamoun, "Subpicosecond photoconductivity overshoot in gallium arsenide observed by electro-optic sampling." Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2254 (1988).

Mourou, G.

K. Meyer, M. Pessot, G. Mourou, R. Grondin, and S. Chamoun, "Subpicosecond photoconductivity overshoot in gallium arsenide observed by electro-optic sampling." Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2254 (1988).

G. Mourou, C. V. Stancampiano, and D. Blumenthal, "Picosecond microwave pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 470 (1981).

Mourou, G. A.

J. Son, W. Sha, J. Kim, T. B. Norris, J. F. Whitaker, and G. A. Mourou, "Transient velocity overshoot dynamics in GaAs for electric fields ≤ 200 kV/cm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 923 (1993).

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, "Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276 (1991).

J. A. Valdmanis and G. A. Mourou, "Subpicosecond elec-trooptic sampling: principles and applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 69 (1986).

J. M. Chwalek, J. F. Whitaker, and G. A. Mourou, "Low-temperature grown GaAs as a high speed photoconductor for terahertz spectroscopy," in Picosecond Eelectronics and Optoelectronics, T. C. L. G. Sollner and J. Shah, eds., Vol. 9 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 40–45.

Norris, T. B.

J. Son, W. Sha, J. Kim, T. B. Norris, J. F. Whitaker, and G. A. Mourou, "Transient velocity overshoot dynamics in GaAs for electric fields ≤ 200 kV/cm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 923 (1993).

W. Sha, J. Rhee, T. B. Norris, and W. J. Schaff, "Transient carrier and field dynamics in quantum-well parallel transport: from the ballistic to the quasi-equilibrium regime," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2445 (1992).

W. Sha, T. B. Norris, J. Burm, D. Woodard, and W. J. Schaff, "A new coherent detector for THz radiation based on excitonic electroabsorption effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1763 (1992).

Pessot, M.

K. Meyer, M. Pessot, G. Mourou, R. Grondin, and S. Chamoun, "Subpicosecond photoconductivity overshoot in gallium arsenide observed by electro-optic sampling." Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2254 (1988).

Redondo, A.

A. E. Iverson, G. M. Wysin, D. L. Smith, and A. Redondo, "Overshoot in the response of a photoconductor excited by subpicosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2148 (1988).

G. M. Wysin, D. L. Smith, and A. Redondo, "Picosecond response of photoexcited GaAs in a uniform electric field by Monte Carlo dynamics," Phys. Rev. B 38, 12,514 (1988).

Reinhart, F. K.

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, B. I. Green, F. K. Reinhart, and R. A. Logan, "Picosecond nonequilibrium carrier transport in GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 104 (1981).

Rhee, J.

W. Sha, J. Rhee, T. B. Norris, and W. J. Schaff, "Transient carrier and field dynamics in quantum-well parallel transport: from the ballistic to the quasi-equilibrium regime," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2445 (1992).

Saeta, P. N.

S. L. Chuang, S. Schmitt-Rink, B. I. Green, P. N. Saeta, and A. F. J. Levi, "Optical rectification at semiconductor surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 102 (1992).

Schaff, W. J.

W. Sha, J. Rhee, T. B. Norris, and W. J. Schaff, "Transient carrier and field dynamics in quantum-well parallel transport: from the ballistic to the quasi-equilibrium regime," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2445 (1992).

W. Sha, T. B. Norris, J. Burm, D. Woodard, and W. J. Schaff, "A new coherent detector for THz radiation based on excitonic electroabsorption effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1763 (1992).

Schmitt-Rink, S.

S. L. Chuang, S. Schmitt-Rink, B. I. Green, P. N. Saeta, and A. F. J. Levi, "Optical rectification at semiconductor surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 102 (1992).

Sha, W.

J. Son, W. Sha, J. Kim, T. B. Norris, J. F. Whitaker, and G. A. Mourou, "Transient velocity overshoot dynamics in GaAs for electric fields ≤ 200 kV/cm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 923 (1993).

W. Sha, J. Rhee, T. B. Norris, and W. J. Schaff, "Transient carrier and field dynamics in quantum-well parallel transport: from the ballistic to the quasi-equilibrium regime," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2445 (1992).

W. Sha, T. B. Norris, J. Burm, D. Woodard, and W. J. Schaff, "A new coherent detector for THz radiation based on excitonic electroabsorption effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1763 (1992).

Shank, C. V.

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, B. I. Green, F. K. Reinhart, and R. A. Logan, "Picosecond nonequilibrium carrier transport in GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 104 (1981).

Sibbett, W.

Smith, D. L.

A. E. Iverson, G. M. Wysin, D. L. Smith, and A. Redondo, "Overshoot in the response of a photoconductor excited by subpicosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2148 (1988).

G. M. Wysin, D. L. Smith, and A. Redondo, "Picosecond response of photoexcited GaAs in a uniform electric field by Monte Carlo dynamics," Phys. Rev. B 38, 12,514 (1988).

Smith, F. W.

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, "Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276 (1991).

Smith, P. R.

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, "Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284 (1984).

Son, J.

J. Son, W. Sha, J. Kim, T. B. Norris, J. F. Whitaker, and G. A. Mourou, "Transient velocity overshoot dynamics in GaAs for electric fields ≤ 200 kV/cm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 923 (1993).

Spence, D. E.

Stancampiano, C. V.

G. Mourou, C. V. Stancampiano, and D. Blumenthal, "Picosecond microwave pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 470 (1981).

Stanton, C. J.

B. B. Hu, A. S. Weling, S. H. Auston, A. V. Kuznetsov, and C. J. Stanton, "dc-electric-field dependence of THz radiation induced by femtosecond optical excitation of bulk GaAs," Phys. Rev. B 49, 2234 (1994).

A. V. Kuznetsov and C. J. Stanton, "Ultrafast optical generation of carriers in a dc electric field: transient localization and photocurrent," Phys. Rev. B 48, 10,828 (1993).

Valdmanis, J. A.

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, "Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276 (1991).

J. A. Valdmanis and G. A. Mourou, "Subpicosecond elec-trooptic sampling: principles and applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 69 (1986).

Weling, A. S.

B. B. Hu, A. S. Weling, S. H. Auston, A. V. Kuznetsov, and C. J. Stanton, "dc-electric-field dependence of THz radiation induced by femtosecond optical excitation of bulk GaAs," Phys. Rev. B 49, 2234 (1994).

Whitaker, J. F.

J. Son, W. Sha, J. Kim, T. B. Norris, J. F. Whitaker, and G. A. Mourou, "Transient velocity overshoot dynamics in GaAs for electric fields ≤ 200 kV/cm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 923 (1993).

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, "Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276 (1991).

J. M. Chwalek, J. F. Whitaker, and G. A. Mourou, "Low-temperature grown GaAs as a high speed photoconductor for terahertz spectroscopy," in Picosecond Eelectronics and Optoelectronics, T. C. L. G. Sollner and J. Shah, eds., Vol. 9 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 40–45.

Woodard, D.

W. Sha, T. B. Norris, J. Burm, D. Woodard, and W. J. Schaff, "A new coherent detector for THz radiation based on excitonic electroabsorption effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1763 (1992).

Wysin, G. M.

G. M. Wysin, D. L. Smith, and A. Redondo, "Picosecond response of photoexcited GaAs in a uniform electric field by Monte Carlo dynamics," Phys. Rev. B 38, 12,514 (1988).

A. E. Iverson, G. M. Wysin, D. L. Smith, and A. Redondo, "Overshoot in the response of a photoconductor excited by subpicosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2148 (1988).

Xu, L.

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz radiation from large aperture Si p-i-n diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3357 (1991).

Yafet, Y.

A. F. J. Levi and Y. Yafet, "Nonequilibrium electron transport in bipolar devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 42 (1987).

Zhang, X.-C.

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291 (1992).

X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, and X. F. Ma, "Coherent measurement of THz optical rectification from electro-optic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2764 (1992).

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz radiation from large aperture Si p-i-n diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3357 (1991).

X.-C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, "Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011 (1990).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz radiation from large aperture Si p-i-n diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3357 (1991).

J. Son, W. Sha, J. Kim, T. B. Norris, J. F. Whitaker, and G. A. Mourou, "Transient velocity overshoot dynamics in GaAs for electric fields ≤ 200 kV/cm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 923 (1993).

X.-C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, "Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011 (1990).

X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, and X. F. Ma, "Coherent measurement of THz optical rectification from electro-optic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2764 (1992).

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, "Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276 (1991).

A. E. Iverson, G. M. Wysin, D. L. Smith, and A. Redondo, "Overshoot in the response of a photoconductor excited by subpicosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2148 (1988).

U. D. Keil and D. R. Dykaar, "Electro-optic sampling and carrier dynamics at zero propagation distance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1504 (1992).

W. Sha, T. B. Norris, J. Burm, D. Woodard, and W. J. Schaff, "A new coherent detector for THz radiation based on excitonic electroabsorption effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1763 (1992).

B. I. Greene, J. F. Federici, D. R. Dykaar, R. R. Jones, and P. H. Bucksbaum, "Interferometric characterization of 160 fs far-infrared light pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 893 (1991).

G. Mourou, C. V. Stancampiano, and D. Blumenthal, "Picosecond microwave pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 470 (1981).

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, "Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284 (1984).

Ch. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, "Point source teraHertz optics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1480 (1988).

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, B. I. Green, F. K. Reinhart, and R. A. Logan, "Picosecond nonequilibrium carrier transport in GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 104 (1981).

K. Meyer, M. Pessot, G. Mourou, R. Grondin, and S. Chamoun, "Subpicosecond photoconductivity overshoot in gallium arsenide observed by electro-optic sampling." Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2254 (1988).

A. F. J. Levi and Y. Yafet, "Nonequilibrium electron transport in bipolar devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 42 (1987).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291 (1992).

J. A. Valdmanis and G. A. Mourou, "Subpicosecond elec-trooptic sampling: principles and applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 69 (1986).

W. Sha, J. Rhee, T. B. Norris, and W. J. Schaff, "Transient carrier and field dynamics in quantum-well parallel transport: from the ballistic to the quasi-equilibrium regime," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2445 (1992).

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

M. van Exter and D. R. Grischkowsky, "Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684 (1990).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

B. B. Hu, A. S. Weling, S. H. Auston, A. V. Kuznetsov, and C. J. Stanton, "dc-electric-field dependence of THz radiation induced by femtosecond optical excitation of bulk GaAs," Phys. Rev. B 49, 2234 (1994).

A. V. Kuznetsov and C. J. Stanton, "Ultrafast optical generation of carriers in a dc electric field: transient localization and photocurrent," Phys. Rev. B 48, 10,828 (1993).

G. M. Wysin, D. L. Smith, and A. Redondo, "Picosecond response of photoexcited GaAs in a uniform electric field by Monte Carlo dynamics," Phys. Rev. B 38, 12,514 (1988).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. L. Chuang, S. Schmitt-Rink, B. I. Green, P. N. Saeta, and A. F. J. Levi, "Optical rectification at semiconductor surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 102 (1992).

Other

See, for a general review, M. Lundstrom, Fundamentals of Carrier Transport (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1990), Chap. 8.

J. M. Chwalek, J. F. Whitaker, and G. A. Mourou, "Low-temperature grown GaAs as a high speed photoconductor for terahertz spectroscopy," in Picosecond Eelectronics and Optoelectronics, T. C. L. G. Sollner and J. Shah, eds., Vol. 9 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 40–45.

R. O. Grondin, Department of Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Ariz. 85287, and R. P. Joshi, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Va. 23529 (personal communication, 1994). The Monte Carlo code was essentially that discussed in S. El-Ghazaly, R. P. Joshi, and R. O. Grondin, "Electromagnetic and transport considerations in subpicosecond photoconductive switch modeling," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 629 (1990), and in S. N. Chamoun, R. Joshi, E. N. Arnold, R. O. Grondin, K. E. Meyer, M. Pessot, and G. A. Mourou, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of subpicosecond photoconductivity," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 236 (1989).

E. Constant, "Non-steady-state carrier transport in semiconductors in perspective with submicrometer devices," in Hot-Electron Transport in Semiconductors, L. Reggiani, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), Chap. 8.

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