Abstract

Using a simple and effective technique, we have systematically studied the UV absorption in a number of fiber preforms made by modified chemical vapor deposition. The 242-nm absorption band due to germanium-related oxygen-deficient centers (GODC’s) is found to be approximately linearly dependent on germania concentration and, after a small initial increase, is almost constant throughout the preform collapse process. However, we found that the band can be increased by 700% when a reducing atmosphere (He + 1%D2) is substituted for O2 Several codopants have been evaluated to determine their effect on the GODC concentration. Phosphorus, boron, aluminum, and fluorine all reduce the 242-nm band; phosphorus causes the largest change.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: application to reflection filter fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647–649 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, and W. H. Glenn, "Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method," Opt. Lett. 14, 823–825 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. M. Atkins and V. Mizarahi, "Observation of changes in UV absorption bands of single mode germanosilicate core optical fibers on writing and thermally erasing reflective index gratings," Electron. Lett. 28, 1743–1744 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, and B. J. Ainslie, "Direct observation of UV induced bleaching of 240-nm absorption band in photosensitive germanosilicate glass fibers," Electron. Lett. 28, 369–370 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, and K. O. Hill, "Photosensitization of optical fiber and silica-on-silicon/silica waveguides," Opt. Lett. 18, 953–955 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Kohketsu, K. Awazu, H. Kawazoe, and M. Yamane, "Photoluminescence in VAD SiO2:GeO2 glass sintered under reducing or oxidising conditions," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 622–631 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. M. Atkins, K. T. Nelson, and K. L. Walker, "Photorefractive optical fiber," U.S. Patent 5,157,747.
  8. D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, and R. Kashyap, "Enhanced photosensitivity in germania doped silica fibres for future optical network," presented at the 18th European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, 1992.
  9. M. D. Gallagher and U. L. Österberg, "Ultraviolet absorption measurements in single-mode optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1791–1793 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. R. Nagel, J. B. MacChesney, and K. L. Walker, "An overview of the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process and performance," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 459–476 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. R. Hammond, "Silica-based binary glass systems—refractive index behavior and composition in optical fibres," Opt. Quantum Electron. 9, 399–409 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. N. Greaves, "Colour centres in vitreous silica," Philos. Mag. B 37, 447–466 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. L. Walker, "Optical fiber fabrication and characteristics," in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 3 of 1987 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), pp. 49–64.
  14. R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and P. J. Lemaire, "Enhanced photo-induced refractive index changes in optical fibers via low temperature hydrogen loading," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper CPD20.
  15. D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, "Enhanced UV photosensitivity in boroncodoped germanosilicate fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 45–47 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, and J. R. Armitage, "UV written 1.5 µm reflection filters in single mode planar silica guides," Electron. Lett. 28, 2106–2107 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Hosono and Y. Abe, "Nature and origin of the 5-eV band in SiO2:GeO2 glasses," Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445–11451 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  18. V. Mizrahi and R. M. Atkins, "Constant fluorescence during phase grating formation and defect band bleaching in optical fibers under 5.1 eV laser exposure," Electron. Lett. 28, 2210–2211 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1993 (2)

F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, and K. O. Hill, "Photosensitization of optical fiber and silica-on-silicon/silica waveguides," Opt. Lett. 18, 953–955 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, "Enhanced UV photosensitivity in boroncodoped germanosilicate fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 45–47 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (6)

G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, and J. R. Armitage, "UV written 1.5 µm reflection filters in single mode planar silica guides," Electron. Lett. 28, 2106–2107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Hosono and Y. Abe, "Nature and origin of the 5-eV band in SiO2:GeO2 glasses," Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445–11451 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. Mizrahi and R. M. Atkins, "Constant fluorescence during phase grating formation and defect band bleaching in optical fibers under 5.1 eV laser exposure," Electron. Lett. 28, 2210–2211 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Gallagher and U. L. Österberg, "Ultraviolet absorption measurements in single-mode optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1791–1793 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins and V. Mizarahi, "Observation of changes in UV absorption bands of single mode germanosilicate core optical fibers on writing and thermally erasing reflective index gratings," Electron. Lett. 28, 1743–1744 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, and B. J. Ainslie, "Direct observation of UV induced bleaching of 240-nm absorption band in photosensitive germanosilicate glass fibers," Electron. Lett. 28, 369–370 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, and W. H. Glenn, "Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method," Opt. Lett. 14, 823–825 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kohketsu, K. Awazu, H. Kawazoe, and M. Yamane, "Photoluminescence in VAD SiO2:GeO2 glass sintered under reducing or oxidising conditions," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 622–631 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

G. N. Greaves, "Colour centres in vitreous silica," Philos. Mag. B 37, 447–466 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

S. R. Nagel, J. B. MacChesney, and K. L. Walker, "An overview of the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process and performance," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 459–476 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: application to reflection filter fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647–649 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

C. R. Hammond, "Silica-based binary glass systems—refractive index behavior and composition in optical fibres," Opt. Quantum Electron. 9, 399–409 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Abe, Y.

H. Hosono and Y. Abe, "Nature and origin of the 5-eV band in SiO2:GeO2 glasses," Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445–11451 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ainslie, B. J.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, "Enhanced UV photosensitivity in boroncodoped germanosilicate fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 45–47 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, and J. R. Armitage, "UV written 1.5 µm reflection filters in single mode planar silica guides," Electron. Lett. 28, 2106–2107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, and B. J. Ainslie, "Direct observation of UV induced bleaching of 240-nm absorption band in photosensitive germanosilicate glass fibers," Electron. Lett. 28, 369–370 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, and R. Kashyap, "Enhanced photosensitivity in germania doped silica fibres for future optical network," presented at the 18th European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, 1992.

Albert, J.

Armitage, J. R.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, "Enhanced UV photosensitivity in boroncodoped germanosilicate fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 45–47 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, and J. R. Armitage, "UV written 1.5 µm reflection filters in single mode planar silica guides," Electron. Lett. 28, 2106–2107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, and B. J. Ainslie, "Direct observation of UV induced bleaching of 240-nm absorption band in photosensitive germanosilicate glass fibers," Electron. Lett. 28, 369–370 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, and R. Kashyap, "Enhanced photosensitivity in germania doped silica fibres for future optical network," presented at the 18th European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, 1992.

Atkins, R. M.

V. Mizrahi and R. M. Atkins, "Constant fluorescence during phase grating formation and defect band bleaching in optical fibers under 5.1 eV laser exposure," Electron. Lett. 28, 2210–2211 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins and V. Mizarahi, "Observation of changes in UV absorption bands of single mode germanosilicate core optical fibers on writing and thermally erasing reflective index gratings," Electron. Lett. 28, 1743–1744 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, K. T. Nelson, and K. L. Walker, "Photorefractive optical fiber," U.S. Patent 5,157,747.

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and P. J. Lemaire, "Enhanced photo-induced refractive index changes in optical fibers via low temperature hydrogen loading," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper CPD20.

Awazu, K.

M. Kohketsu, K. Awazu, H. Kawazoe, and M. Yamane, "Photoluminescence in VAD SiO2:GeO2 glass sintered under reducing or oxidising conditions," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 622–631 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bilodeau, F.

Campbell, R.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, "Enhanced UV photosensitivity in boroncodoped germanosilicate fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 45–47 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Davey, S. T.

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, and B. J. Ainslie, "Direct observation of UV induced bleaching of 240-nm absorption band in photosensitive germanosilicate glass fibers," Electron. Lett. 28, 369–370 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, Y.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: application to reflection filter fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647–649 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, M. D.

M. D. Gallagher and U. L. Österberg, "Ultraviolet absorption measurements in single-mode optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1791–1793 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Glenn, W. H.

Greaves, G. N.

G. N. Greaves, "Colour centres in vitreous silica," Philos. Mag. B 37, 447–466 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hammond, C. R.

C. R. Hammond, "Silica-based binary glass systems—refractive index behavior and composition in optical fibres," Opt. Quantum Electron. 9, 399–409 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, and K. O. Hill, "Photosensitization of optical fiber and silica-on-silicon/silica waveguides," Opt. Lett. 18, 953–955 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: application to reflection filter fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647–649 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hosono, H.

H. Hosono and Y. Abe, "Nature and origin of the 5-eV band in SiO2:GeO2 glasses," Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445–11451 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, and K. O. Hill, "Photosensitization of optical fiber and silica-on-silicon/silica waveguides," Opt. Lett. 18, 953–955 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: application to reflection filter fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647–649 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, "Enhanced UV photosensitivity in boroncodoped germanosilicate fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 45–47 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, and J. R. Armitage, "UV written 1.5 µm reflection filters in single mode planar silica guides," Electron. Lett. 28, 2106–2107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, and B. J. Ainslie, "Direct observation of UV induced bleaching of 240-nm absorption band in photosensitive germanosilicate glass fibers," Electron. Lett. 28, 369–370 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, and R. Kashyap, "Enhanced photosensitivity in germania doped silica fibres for future optical network," presented at the 18th European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, 1992.

Kawasaki, B. S.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: application to reflection filter fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647–649 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kawazoe, H.

M. Kohketsu, K. Awazu, H. Kawazoe, and M. Yamane, "Photoluminescence in VAD SiO2:GeO2 glass sintered under reducing or oxidising conditions," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 622–631 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kohketsu, M.

M. Kohketsu, K. Awazu, H. Kawazoe, and M. Yamane, "Photoluminescence in VAD SiO2:GeO2 glass sintered under reducing or oxidising conditions," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 622–631 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P. J.

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and P. J. Lemaire, "Enhanced photo-induced refractive index changes in optical fibers via low temperature hydrogen loading," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper CPD20.

MacChesney, J. B.

S. R. Nagel, J. B. MacChesney, and K. L. Walker, "An overview of the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process and performance," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 459–476 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Malo, B.

Maxwell, G. D.

G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, and J. R. Armitage, "UV written 1.5 µm reflection filters in single mode planar silica guides," Electron. Lett. 28, 2106–2107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meltz, G.

Mizarahi, V.

R. M. Atkins and V. Mizarahi, "Observation of changes in UV absorption bands of single mode germanosilicate core optical fibers on writing and thermally erasing reflective index gratings," Electron. Lett. 28, 1743–1744 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mizrahi, V.

V. Mizrahi and R. M. Atkins, "Constant fluorescence during phase grating formation and defect band bleaching in optical fibers under 5.1 eV laser exposure," Electron. Lett. 28, 2210–2211 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and P. J. Lemaire, "Enhanced photo-induced refractive index changes in optical fibers via low temperature hydrogen loading," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper CPD20.

Morey, W. W.

Nagel, S. R.

S. R. Nagel, J. B. MacChesney, and K. L. Walker, "An overview of the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process and performance," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 459–476 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, K. T.

R. M. Atkins, K. T. Nelson, and K. L. Walker, "Photorefractive optical fiber," U.S. Patent 5,157,747.

Österberg, U. L.

M. D. Gallagher and U. L. Österberg, "Ultraviolet absorption measurements in single-mode optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1791–1793 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Walker, K. L.

S. R. Nagel, J. B. MacChesney, and K. L. Walker, "An overview of the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process and performance," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 459–476 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Walker, "Optical fiber fabrication and characteristics," in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 3 of 1987 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), pp. 49–64.

R. M. Atkins, K. T. Nelson, and K. L. Walker, "Photorefractive optical fiber," U.S. Patent 5,157,747.

Williams, D. L.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, "Enhanced UV photosensitivity in boroncodoped germanosilicate fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 45–47 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, and J. R. Armitage, "UV written 1.5 µm reflection filters in single mode planar silica guides," Electron. Lett. 28, 2106–2107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, and B. J. Ainslie, "Direct observation of UV induced bleaching of 240-nm absorption band in photosensitive germanosilicate glass fibers," Electron. Lett. 28, 369–370 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, and R. Kashyap, "Enhanced photosensitivity in germania doped silica fibres for future optical network," presented at the 18th European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, 1992.

Yamane, M.

M. Kohketsu, K. Awazu, H. Kawazoe, and M. Yamane, "Photoluminescence in VAD SiO2:GeO2 glass sintered under reducing or oxidising conditions," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 622–631 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: application to reflection filter fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647–649 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Gallagher and U. L. Österberg, "Ultraviolet absorption measurements in single-mode optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1791–1793 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (5)

R. M. Atkins and V. Mizarahi, "Observation of changes in UV absorption bands of single mode germanosilicate core optical fibers on writing and thermally erasing reflective index gratings," Electron. Lett. 28, 1743–1744 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, and B. J. Ainslie, "Direct observation of UV induced bleaching of 240-nm absorption band in photosensitive germanosilicate glass fibers," Electron. Lett. 28, 369–370 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, "Enhanced UV photosensitivity in boroncodoped germanosilicate fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 45–47 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, and J. R. Armitage, "UV written 1.5 µm reflection filters in single mode planar silica guides," Electron. Lett. 28, 2106–2107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. Mizrahi and R. M. Atkins, "Constant fluorescence during phase grating formation and defect band bleaching in optical fibers under 5.1 eV laser exposure," Electron. Lett. 28, 2210–2211 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. R. Nagel, J. B. MacChesney, and K. L. Walker, "An overview of the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process and performance," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 459–476 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Kohketsu, K. Awazu, H. Kawazoe, and M. Yamane, "Photoluminescence in VAD SiO2:GeO2 glass sintered under reducing or oxidising conditions," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 622–631 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. R. Hammond, "Silica-based binary glass systems—refractive index behavior and composition in optical fibres," Opt. Quantum Electron. 9, 399–409 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Mag. B (1)

G. N. Greaves, "Colour centres in vitreous silica," Philos. Mag. B 37, 447–466 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. Hosono and Y. Abe, "Nature and origin of the 5-eV band in SiO2:GeO2 glasses," Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445–11451 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

R. M. Atkins, K. T. Nelson, and K. L. Walker, "Photorefractive optical fiber," U.S. Patent 5,157,747.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, and R. Kashyap, "Enhanced photosensitivity in germania doped silica fibres for future optical network," presented at the 18th European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, 1992.

K. L. Walker, "Optical fiber fabrication and characteristics," in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 3 of 1987 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), pp. 49–64.

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and P. J. Lemaire, "Enhanced photo-induced refractive index changes in optical fibers via low temperature hydrogen loading," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper CPD20.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Peak of the 242-nm band at different stages of collapse for three germanosilicate preforms. (See Table 1 for collapse procedures.)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Peak of the 242-nm band versus germania concentrations in germanosilicate preforms. The squares are from as-deposited samples, and the circles are from the sample after two collapse passes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effect of collapse conditions, on the 242-nm bands.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effect of phosphorus codoping on the 242-nm band. (See Table 2 for compositions.)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of boron codoping on the 242-nm band. (See Table 2 for compositions.)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of fluorine codoping on the 242-nm band. (See Table 2 for compositions.)

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Effect of aluminum codoping on the 242-nm band. (See Table 2 for compositions.)

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Peak of the 242-nm band versus the ratio between the number of codopant and germania atoms.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Typical Collapse Log

Tables Icon

Table 2 Samples Used in the Study of the Codoping Effect

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α 242 = K ρ GeO 2 ,
GeO 2 GeO + 1 2 O 2 .

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