Abstract

The anisotropic nature of the UV-induced index change achieved in photosensitive optical fibers is characterized by a direct measurement of the induced birefringence in three different fibers. The birefringence, which grows with UV exposure proportionally to the total induced index change, is measured to be as small as 0.2% and as large as 8% of the total index change, depending on the fiber type and the exposure geometry. Such large values of birefringence are especially notable, since they can lead to substantial resonant effects such as polarization-dependent reflectivity in a fiber Bragg grating. The birefringence is predominantly determined by the polarization of the UV irradiation. We demonstrate an order-of-magnitude reduction of birefringence in an actual fiber phase grating by rotating the UV polarization to lie in the plane of the irradiating beams and the fiber axis.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, and W. H. Glenn, "Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method," Opt. Lett. 14, 823–825 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Meltz and W. W. Morey, "Bragg grating formation and germanosilicate fiber photosensitivity," in International Workshop on Photoinduced Self-Organization Effects in Optical Fiber, F. Ouellette, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1516, 185–199 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, and D. C. Johnson, "Birefringent photosensitivity in monomode optical fibre: application to external writing of rocking filters," Electron. Lett. 27, 1548–1550 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Parent, J. Bures, S. Lacroix, and J. Lapierre, "Propriétés de polarisation des réflecteurs de Bragg induits par photo-sensibilité dans les fibres optiques monomodes," Appl. Opt. 24, 354–357 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. St. J. Russell and D. P. Hand, "Rocking filter formation in photosensitive high birefringence optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 26, 1846–1848 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Ouellette, D. Gagnon, and M. Poirier, "Permanent photoinduced birefringence in a Ge-doped fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1813–1815 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Lauzon, D. Gagnon, S. LaRochelle, A. Blouin, and F. Ouellette, "Dynamic polarization coupling in elliptical-core photosensitive optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 17, 1664–1666 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. V. Mizrahi, D. J. D. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, S. G. Grubb, Y. K. Park, and J. M. P. Delavaux, "Stable single-mode erbium fiber-grating laser for digital communications," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2021–2025 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, and R. M. Atkins, "Ultraviolet laser fabrication of ultrastrong optical fiber gratings and germania-doped channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727–1729 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High-pressure H2-loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2-doped optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Poirier, S. Thibault, J. Lauzon, and F. Ouellette, "Dynamic and orientational behavior of UV-induced luminescence bleaching in Ge-doped silica optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 18, 870–872 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. B. L. Heffner, "Deterministic, analytically complete measurement of polarization-dependent transmission through optical devices," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 451–454 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. See, for example, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), p. 202.
  14. D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, "Production of in-fibre gratings using a diffractive optical element," Electron. Lett. 29, 566–568 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, "Mechanisms of enhanced photosensitivity via hydrogen loading in germanosilicate glasses," Electron. Lett. 29, 1234–1235 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and T. Erdogan, "248 nm induced vacuum UV spectral changes in optical fibre preform cores: support for a colour centre model of photosensitivity," Electron. Lett. 29, 385–387 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Albert, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, J. L. Brebner, and G. Kajrys, "Dichroism in the absorption spectrum of photobleached ion-implanted silica," Opt. Lett. 18, 1126–1128 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. V. Mizrahi and J. E. Sipe, "Optical properties of photosensitive fiber phase gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1513–1517 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1993 (9)

V. Mizrahi, D. J. D. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, S. G. Grubb, Y. K. Park, and J. M. P. Delavaux, "Stable single-mode erbium fiber-grating laser for digital communications," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2021–2025 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, and R. M. Atkins, "Ultraviolet laser fabrication of ultrastrong optical fiber gratings and germania-doped channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727–1729 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High-pressure H2-loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2-doped optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Poirier, S. Thibault, J. Lauzon, and F. Ouellette, "Dynamic and orientational behavior of UV-induced luminescence bleaching in Ge-doped silica optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 18, 870–872 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, "Production of in-fibre gratings using a diffractive optical element," Electron. Lett. 29, 566–568 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, "Mechanisms of enhanced photosensitivity via hydrogen loading in germanosilicate glasses," Electron. Lett. 29, 1234–1235 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and T. Erdogan, "248 nm induced vacuum UV spectral changes in optical fibre preform cores: support for a colour centre model of photosensitivity," Electron. Lett. 29, 385–387 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, J. L. Brebner, and G. Kajrys, "Dichroism in the absorption spectrum of photobleached ion-implanted silica," Opt. Lett. 18, 1126–1128 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Mizrahi and J. E. Sipe, "Optical properties of photosensitive fiber phase gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1513–1517 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

J. Lauzon, D. Gagnon, S. LaRochelle, A. Blouin, and F. Ouellette, "Dynamic polarization coupling in elliptical-core photosensitive optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 17, 1664–1666 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Heffner, "Deterministic, analytically complete measurement of polarization-dependent transmission through optical devices," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 451–454 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, and D. C. Johnson, "Birefringent photosensitivity in monomode optical fibre: application to external writing of rocking filters," Electron. Lett. 27, 1548–1550 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Ouellette, D. Gagnon, and M. Poirier, "Permanent photoinduced birefringence in a Ge-doped fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1813–1815 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

P. St. J. Russell and D. P. Hand, "Rocking filter formation in photosensitive high birefringence optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 26, 1846–1848 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1985 (1)

Albert, J.

Anderson, D. Z.

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, "Production of in-fibre gratings using a diffractive optical element," Electron. Lett. 29, 566–568 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, R. M.

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, "Mechanisms of enhanced photosensitivity via hydrogen loading in germanosilicate glasses," Electron. Lett. 29, 1234–1235 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, and R. M. Atkins, "Ultraviolet laser fabrication of ultrastrong optical fiber gratings and germania-doped channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727–1729 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High-pressure H2-loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2-doped optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and T. Erdogan, "248 nm induced vacuum UV spectral changes in optical fibre preform cores: support for a colour centre model of photosensitivity," Electron. Lett. 29, 385–387 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Mizrahi, D. J. D. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, S. G. Grubb, Y. K. Park, and J. M. P. Delavaux, "Stable single-mode erbium fiber-grating laser for digital communications," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2021–2025 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bilodeau, F.

J. Albert, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, J. L. Brebner, and G. Kajrys, "Dichroism in the absorption spectrum of photobleached ion-implanted silica," Opt. Lett. 18, 1126–1128 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, and D. C. Johnson, "Birefringent photosensitivity in monomode optical fibre: application to external writing of rocking filters," Electron. Lett. 27, 1548–1550 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Blouin, A.

Brebner, J. L.

Bures, J.

Delavaux, J. M. P.

V. Mizrahi, D. J. D. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, S. G. Grubb, Y. K. Park, and J. M. P. Delavaux, "Stable single-mode erbium fiber-grating laser for digital communications," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2021–2025 (1993).
[CrossRef]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, and R. M. Atkins, "Ultraviolet laser fabrication of ultrastrong optical fiber gratings and germania-doped channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727–1729 (1993).
[CrossRef]

DiGiovanni, D. J. D.

V. Mizrahi, D. J. D. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, S. G. Grubb, Y. K. Park, and J. M. P. Delavaux, "Stable single-mode erbium fiber-grating laser for digital communications," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2021–2025 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, and R. M. Atkins, "Ultraviolet laser fabrication of ultrastrong optical fiber gratings and germania-doped channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727–1729 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, "Mechanisms of enhanced photosensitivity via hydrogen loading in germanosilicate glasses," Electron. Lett. 29, 1234–1235 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and T. Erdogan, "248 nm induced vacuum UV spectral changes in optical fibre preform cores: support for a colour centre model of photosensitivity," Electron. Lett. 29, 385–387 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, "Production of in-fibre gratings using a diffractive optical element," Electron. Lett. 29, 566–568 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gagnon, D.

J. Lauzon, D. Gagnon, S. LaRochelle, A. Blouin, and F. Ouellette, "Dynamic polarization coupling in elliptical-core photosensitive optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 17, 1664–1666 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ouellette, D. Gagnon, and M. Poirier, "Permanent photoinduced birefringence in a Ge-doped fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1813–1815 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Glenn, W. H.

Grubb, S. G.

V. Mizrahi, D. J. D. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, S. G. Grubb, Y. K. Park, and J. M. P. Delavaux, "Stable single-mode erbium fiber-grating laser for digital communications," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2021–2025 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hand, D. P.

P. St. J. Russell and D. P. Hand, "Rocking filter formation in photosensitive high birefringence optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 26, 1846–1848 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Heffner, B. L.

B. L. Heffner, "Deterministic, analytically complete measurement of polarization-dependent transmission through optical devices," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 451–454 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

J. Albert, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, J. L. Brebner, and G. Kajrys, "Dichroism in the absorption spectrum of photobleached ion-implanted silica," Opt. Lett. 18, 1126–1128 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, and D. C. Johnson, "Birefringent photosensitivity in monomode optical fibre: application to external writing of rocking filters," Electron. Lett. 27, 1548–1550 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

J. Albert, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, J. L. Brebner, and G. Kajrys, "Dichroism in the absorption spectrum of photobleached ion-implanted silica," Opt. Lett. 18, 1126–1128 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, and D. C. Johnson, "Birefringent photosensitivity in monomode optical fibre: application to external writing of rocking filters," Electron. Lett. 27, 1548–1550 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kajrys, G.

Lacroix, S.

Lapierre, J.

LaRochelle, S.

Lauzon, J.

Lemaire, P. J.

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, and R. M. Atkins, "Ultraviolet laser fabrication of ultrastrong optical fiber gratings and germania-doped channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727–1729 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High-pressure H2-loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2-doped optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, "Mechanisms of enhanced photosensitivity via hydrogen loading in germanosilicate glasses," Electron. Lett. 29, 1234–1235 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Malo, B.

J. Albert, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, J. L. Brebner, and G. Kajrys, "Dichroism in the absorption spectrum of photobleached ion-implanted silica," Opt. Lett. 18, 1126–1128 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, and D. C. Johnson, "Birefringent photosensitivity in monomode optical fibre: application to external writing of rocking filters," Electron. Lett. 27, 1548–1550 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Meltz, G.

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, and W. H. Glenn, "Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method," Opt. Lett. 14, 823–825 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Meltz and W. W. Morey, "Bragg grating formation and germanosilicate fiber photosensitivity," in International Workshop on Photoinduced Self-Organization Effects in Optical Fiber, F. Ouellette, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1516, 185–199 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mizrahi, V.

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, and R. M. Atkins, "Ultraviolet laser fabrication of ultrastrong optical fiber gratings and germania-doped channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727–1729 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Mizrahi, D. J. D. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, S. G. Grubb, Y. K. Park, and J. M. P. Delavaux, "Stable single-mode erbium fiber-grating laser for digital communications," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2021–2025 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, "Mechanisms of enhanced photosensitivity via hydrogen loading in germanosilicate glasses," Electron. Lett. 29, 1234–1235 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and T. Erdogan, "248 nm induced vacuum UV spectral changes in optical fibre preform cores: support for a colour centre model of photosensitivity," Electron. Lett. 29, 385–387 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Mizrahi and J. E. Sipe, "Optical properties of photosensitive fiber phase gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1513–1517 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, "Production of in-fibre gratings using a diffractive optical element," Electron. Lett. 29, 566–568 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High-pressure H2-loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2-doped optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Morey, W. W.

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, and W. H. Glenn, "Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method," Opt. Lett. 14, 823–825 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Meltz and W. W. Morey, "Bragg grating formation and germanosilicate fiber photosensitivity," in International Workshop on Photoinduced Self-Organization Effects in Optical Fiber, F. Ouellette, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1516, 185–199 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ouellette, F.

Parent, M.

Park, Y. K.

V. Mizrahi, D. J. D. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, S. G. Grubb, Y. K. Park, and J. M. P. Delavaux, "Stable single-mode erbium fiber-grating laser for digital communications," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2021–2025 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Poirier, M.

Reed, W. A.

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, and R. M. Atkins, "Ultraviolet laser fabrication of ultrastrong optical fiber gratings and germania-doped channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727–1729 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High-pressure H2-loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2-doped optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

P. St. J. Russell and D. P. Hand, "Rocking filter formation in photosensitive high birefringence optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 26, 1846–1848 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, B. E. A.

See, for example, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), p. 202.

Sipe, J. E.

V. Mizrahi and J. E. Sipe, "Optical properties of photosensitive fiber phase gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1513–1517 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Teich, M. C.

See, for example, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), p. 202.

Thibault, S.

White, A. E.

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, "Production of in-fibre gratings using a diffractive optical element," Electron. Lett. 29, 566–568 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

F. Ouellette, D. Gagnon, and M. Poirier, "Permanent photoinduced birefringence in a Ge-doped fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1813–1815 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, and R. M. Atkins, "Ultraviolet laser fabrication of ultrastrong optical fiber gratings and germania-doped channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727–1729 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (6)

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High-pressure H2-loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2-doped optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, "Production of in-fibre gratings using a diffractive optical element," Electron. Lett. 29, 566–568 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, "Mechanisms of enhanced photosensitivity via hydrogen loading in germanosilicate glasses," Electron. Lett. 29, 1234–1235 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and T. Erdogan, "248 nm induced vacuum UV spectral changes in optical fibre preform cores: support for a colour centre model of photosensitivity," Electron. Lett. 29, 385–387 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, and D. C. Johnson, "Birefringent photosensitivity in monomode optical fibre: application to external writing of rocking filters," Electron. Lett. 27, 1548–1550 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. St. J. Russell and D. P. Hand, "Rocking filter formation in photosensitive high birefringence optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 26, 1846–1848 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

B. L. Heffner, "Deterministic, analytically complete measurement of polarization-dependent transmission through optical devices," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 451–454 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

V. Mizrahi, D. J. D. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, S. G. Grubb, Y. K. Park, and J. M. P. Delavaux, "Stable single-mode erbium fiber-grating laser for digital communications," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2021–2025 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Mizrahi and J. E. Sipe, "Optical properties of photosensitive fiber phase gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1513–1517 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (2)

See, for example, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), p. 202.

G. Meltz and W. W. Morey, "Bragg grating formation and germanosilicate fiber photosensitivity," in International Workshop on Photoinduced Self-Organization Effects in Optical Fiber, F. Ouellette, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1516, 185–199 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup used for measuring UV-induced birefringence. The fiber is exposed between points B and C with either a single, Gaussian-profile, normally incident UV beam or a pair of intersecting beams from an interferometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured birefringence and estimated delay as a function of UV exposure time for fibers a and b irradiated by a single UV beam. The solid curves are theoretical fits to the data with the use of the power law described in the text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured birefringence and estimated delay for fiber c irradiated by a single UV beam with both s and p polarizations. (b) Transmission spectra for light polarized along the two orthogonal birefringent axes of a grating written in fiber c that exhibits Fabry–Perot-like resonances. The inset shows an expanded transmission spectrum for clarity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured birefringence as a function of UV exposure time for actual gratings written in (a) fiber a and (b) fiber b with both s- and p-polarized UV irradiation.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Properties of the Three Fibers Measureda

Equations (5)

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T DA ( t ) = T DC T CB ( t ) T BA ,
T DA ( t ) T DA - 1 ( 0 ) = T DC T CB ( t ) T DC - 1 .
det [ T DA ( t ) T DA - 1 ( 0 ) - Λ I ] = 0 ,
Δ n = λ 2 π L phase ( Λ 1 ) - phase ( Λ 2 ) ,
η Δ n δ n UV × 100 % .

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