Abstract

The UV laser properties of trivalent cerium-doped LiSrAlF6 (Ce:LiSAF) and LiCaAlF6 (Ce:LiCAF) are reported. The polarized absorption, emission, and excited-state absorption cross sections for both Ce:LiSAF and Ce:LiCAF were determined for the 266-nm pump and 290-nm laser emission wavelengths. The single-exponential emission lifetime was measured to be 28 ± 2 and 25 ± 2 ns for Ce:LiSAF and Ce:LiCAF, respectively. The gain was found to be highest when the probe was polarized parallel to the optical axis of the crystal, owing to the anisotropic nature of the excited-state absorption. The excited-state absorption was ascribed to a transition from the 5d orbital of Ce3+ to the conduction band of the host. Laser slope efficiencies as high as 29% and 21%, respectively, were measured for Ce:LiSAF and Ce:LiCAF when the 266-nm pulsed pump beam was polarized parallel to the optical or the c axis. These are the highest laser slope efficiencies yet observed to our knowledge for any known solid-state UV laser material. When the pump beam was polarized perpendicular to the optical axis of the crystals, the gain and the laser efficiencies dropped by as much as an order of magnitude. The magnitude of pump-induced solarization was found to be highly variable for different crystals and to have an insignificant effect on the laser performance when favorable crystals were used.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. A. Dubinskii, V. V. Semashko, A. K. Naumov, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, J. Mod. Opt. 40, 1 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. A. Dubinskii, V. V. Semashko, A. K. Naumov, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, Laser Phys. 3, 216 (1993).
  3. S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, L. D. DeLoach, and J. B. Tassano, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1188 (1992); Cr:LiSAF is available from Lightning Optical Corporation, Tarpon Springs, Fla.
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. E. Huffman, Atmospheric Ultraviolet Remote Sensing (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1992).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  10. J. K. Lawson and S. A. Payne, "Excited-state absorption of Pr3+-doped fluoride crystals," submitted to J. Opt. Mater.
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  16. D. S. Hamilton, S. K. Gayen, G. J. Pogatshinik, and R. D. Ghen, Phys. Rev. B 39, 8807 (1989).
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  17. R. W. Waynant and P. H. Klein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 14 (1985).
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  25. L. J. Lyu and D. S. Hamilton, J. Lumin. 48-49, 251 (1991).
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  26. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, H. W. Newkirk, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2243 (1988).
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  27. K. I. Schaffers and D. A. Kessler, Acta Cryst. C 47, 18 (1991).
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  28. R. D. Shanon and C. T. Prewitt, Acta Cryst. 4, 925 (1969).
  29. B. W. Woods, S. A. Payne, J. E. Marion, R. S. Hughes, and L. E. Davis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 970 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  30. C. Jensen, "Pulsed dye laser gain analysis and amplifier design," in High Power Dye Lasers, F. J. Duarte, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), Chap. 3.
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  31. J. Owen, P. B. Durain, and T. Kobayasi, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1216 (1981).
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  32. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. B. Gellert and U. Kogelschatz, Appl. Phys. B 52, 14 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

Abdulsabirov, R. Y.

M. A. Dubinskii, V. V. Semashko, A. K. Naumov, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, J. Mod. Opt. 40, 1 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Dubinskii, V. V. Semashko, A. K. Naumov, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, Laser Phys. 3, 216 (1993).

M. A. Dubinskii, A. C. Cefalas, E. Sarantopoulou, S. M. Spyrou, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, and V. V. Semashko, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ancellet, G.

G. Megie, G. Ancellet, and J. Pelon, Appl. Opt. 24, 3545 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Blasse, G.

G. Blasse, W. Schipper, and J. J. Hamelink, Inorgan. Chim. Acta 189, 77 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cefalas, A. C.

M. A. Dubinskii, A. C. Cefalas, E. Sarantopoulou, S. M. Spyrou, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, and V. V. Semashko, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chase, L. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, H. W. Newkirk, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2243 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Davis, L. E.

B. W. Woods, S. A. Payne, J. E. Marion, R. S. Hughes, and L. E. Davis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 970 (1991).
[CrossRef]

DeLoach, L. D.

S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, L. D. DeLoach, and J. B. Tassano, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1188 (1992); Cr:LiSAF is available from Lightning Optical Corporation, Tarpon Springs, Fla.
[CrossRef]

Dorain, P.

S. Mroczkowski and P. Dorain, J. Less-Common Met. 110, 259 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Dubinskii, M. A.

M. A. Dubinskii, V. V. Semashko, A. K. Naumov, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, J. Mod. Opt. 40, 1 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Dubinskii, V. V. Semashko, A. K. Naumov, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, Laser Phys. 3, 216 (1993).

M. A. Dubinskii, A. C. Cefalas, E. Sarantopoulou, S. M. Spyrou, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, and V. V. Semashko, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Dubinskii, R. Y. Korableva, S. L. Naumov, and V. V. Semashko, "LiLuF4:Ce3+ UV laser," presented at the International Quantum Electronics Conference, Vienna, June 14–19, 1992.

Durain, P. B.

J. Owen, P. B. Durain, and T. Kobayasi, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1216 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ehrlich, D. J.

D. J. Ehrlich, P. F. Moulton, and R. M. Osgood, Opt. Lett. 5, 339 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Ehrlich, P. F. Moulton, and R. M. Osgood, Opt. Lett. 4, 184 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esterowitz, L.

J. F. Pinto, G. F. Rosenblatt, L. Esterowitz, and G. J. Quarles, "Continuously tunable UV Ce3+:LiSrAlF6 laser," pre sented at the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Laser and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting, San Jose, Calif., November 15–18, 1993.

French, P. M. W.

N. H. Rizvi, P. M. W. French, and J. R. Taylor, Opt. Lett. 17, 1605 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gayen, S. K.

D. S. Hamilton, S. K. Gayen, G. J. Pogatshinik, and R. D. Ghen, Phys. Rev. B 39, 8807 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gellert, B.

B. Gellert and U. Kogelschatz, Appl. Phys. B 52, 14 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ghen, R. D.

D. S. Hamilton, S. K. Gayen, G. J. Pogatshinik, and R. D. Ghen, Phys. Rev. B 39, 8807 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gromov, V. V.

V. V. Gromov, N. Y. Konstantinov, W. Helmstreit, and L. G. Karaseva, Int. J. Radiat. Appl. Instrum. C 34, 629 (1989).

Hamelink, J. J.

G. Blasse, W. Schipper, and J. J. Hamelink, Inorgan. Chim. Acta 189, 77 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, D. S.

D. S. Hamilton, S. K. Gayen, G. J. Pogatshinik, and R. D. Ghen, Phys. Rev. B 39, 8807 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Lim and D. S. Hamilton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1401 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Pogatshnik and D. S. Hamilton, Phys. Rev. B 36, 8251 (1987).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Lyu and D. S. Hamilton, J. Lumin. 48-49, 251 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Helmstreit, W.

V. V. Gromov, N. Y. Konstantinov, W. Helmstreit, and L. G. Karaseva, Int. J. Radiat. Appl. Instrum. C 34, 629 (1989).

Huffman, R. E.

R. E. Huffman, Atmospheric Ultraviolet Remote Sensing (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1992).

Hughes, R. S.

B. W. Woods, S. A. Payne, J. E. Marion, R. S. Hughes, and L. E. Davis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 970 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, R. R.

R. R. Jacobs, W. F. Krupke, and M. J. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 410 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, C.

C. Jensen, "Pulsed dye laser gain analysis and amplifier design," in High Power Dye Lasers, F. J. Duarte, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), Chap. 3.
[CrossRef]

Karaseva, L. G.

V. V. Gromov, N. Y. Konstantinov, W. Helmstreit, and L. G. Karaseva, Int. J. Radiat. Appl. Instrum. C 34, 629 (1989).

Kessler, D. A.

K. I. Schaffers and D. A. Kessler, Acta Cryst. C 47, 18 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Klein, P. H.

R. W. Waynant and P. H. Klein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 14 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kobayasi, T.

J. Owen, P. B. Durain, and T. Kobayasi, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1216 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kogelschatz, U.

B. Gellert and U. Kogelschatz, Appl. Phys. B 52, 14 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Konstantinov, N. Y.

V. V. Gromov, N. Y. Konstantinov, W. Helmstreit, and L. G. Karaseva, Int. J. Radiat. Appl. Instrum. C 34, 629 (1989).

Korableva, R. Y.

M. A. Dubinskii, R. Y. Korableva, S. L. Naumov, and V. V. Semashko, "LiLuF4:Ce3+ UV laser," presented at the International Quantum Electronics Conference, Vienna, June 14–19, 1992.

Korableva, S. L.

M. A. Dubinskii, A. C. Cefalas, E. Sarantopoulou, S. M. Spyrou, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, and V. V. Semashko, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Dubinskii, V. V. Semashko, A. K. Naumov, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, J. Mod. Opt. 40, 1 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Dubinskii, V. V. Semashko, A. K. Naumov, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, Laser Phys. 3, 216 (1993).

Krupke, W. F.

R. R. Jacobs, W. F. Krupke, and M. J. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 410 (1978).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, L. D. DeLoach, and J. B. Tassano, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1188 (1992); Cr:LiSAF is available from Lightning Optical Corporation, Tarpon Springs, Fla.
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, H. W. Newkirk, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2243 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kway, W. L.

S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, L. D. DeLoach, and J. B. Tassano, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1188 (1992); Cr:LiSAF is available from Lightning Optical Corporation, Tarpon Springs, Fla.
[CrossRef]

Lawson, J. K.

J. K. Lawson and S. A. Payne, "Excited-state absorption of Pr3+-doped fluoride crystals," submitted to J. Opt. Mater.

J. K. Lawson and S. A. Payne, Phys. Rev. B 47, 14003 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Lawson and S. A. Payne, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1404 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lim, K. S.

K. S. Lim and D. S. Hamilton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1401 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lyu, L. J.

L. J. Lyu and D. S. Hamilton, J. Lumin. 48-49, 251 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Marion, J. E.

B. W. Woods, S. A. Payne, J. E. Marion, R. S. Hughes, and L. E. Davis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 970 (1991).
[CrossRef]

McClure, D. S.

C. Pedrini, F. Rogemond, and D. S. McClure, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 1196 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Megie, G.

G. Megie, G. Ancellet, and J. Pelon, Appl. Opt. 24, 3545 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Miniscalco, W. J.

W. J. Miniscalco, J. M. Pellegrino, and W. M. Yen, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 6109 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Moulton, P. F.

D. J. Ehrlich, P. F. Moulton, and R. M. Osgood, Opt. Lett. 4, 184 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Ehrlich, P. F. Moulton, and R. M. Osgood, Opt. Lett. 5, 339 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Mroczkowski, S.

S. Mroczkowski and P. Dorain, J. Less-Common Met. 110, 259 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Naumov, A. K.

M. A. Dubinskii, V. V. Semashko, A. K. Naumov, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, J. Mod. Opt. 40, 1 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Dubinskii, V. V. Semashko, A. K. Naumov, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, Laser Phys. 3, 216 (1993).

Naumov, S. L.

M. A. Dubinskii, R. Y. Korableva, S. L. Naumov, and V. V. Semashko, "LiLuF4:Ce3+ UV laser," presented at the International Quantum Electronics Conference, Vienna, June 14–19, 1992.

Newkirk, H. W.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, H. W. Newkirk, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2243 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaides, C. A.

M. A. Dubinskii, A. C. Cefalas, E. Sarantopoulou, S. M. Spyrou, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, and V. V. Semashko, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

D. J. Ehrlich, P. F. Moulton, and R. M. Osgood, Opt. Lett. 5, 339 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Ehrlich, P. F. Moulton, and R. M. Osgood, Opt. Lett. 4, 184 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Owen, J.

J. Owen, P. B. Durain, and T. Kobayasi, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1216 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

J. K. Lawson and S. A. Payne, "Excited-state absorption of Pr3+-doped fluoride crystals," submitted to J. Opt. Mater.

S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, L. D. DeLoach, and J. B. Tassano, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1188 (1992); Cr:LiSAF is available from Lightning Optical Corporation, Tarpon Springs, Fla.
[CrossRef]

J. K. Lawson and S. A. Payne, Phys. Rev. B 47, 14003 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, H. W. Newkirk, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2243 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Woods, S. A. Payne, J. E. Marion, R. S. Hughes, and L. E. Davis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 970 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Lawson and S. A. Payne, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1404 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pedrini, C.

C. Pedrini, F. Rogemond, and D. S. McClure, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 1196 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pellegrino, J. M.

W. J. Miniscalco, J. M. Pellegrino, and W. M. Yen, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 6109 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Pelon, J.

G. Megie, G. Ancellet, and J. Pelon, Appl. Opt. 24, 3545 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Pinto, J. F.

J. F. Pinto, G. F. Rosenblatt, L. Esterowitz, and G. J. Quarles, "Continuously tunable UV Ce3+:LiSrAlF6 laser," pre sented at the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Laser and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting, San Jose, Calif., November 15–18, 1993.

Pogatshinik, G. J.

D. S. Hamilton, S. K. Gayen, G. J. Pogatshinik, and R. D. Ghen, Phys. Rev. B 39, 8807 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pogatshnik, G. J.

G. J. Pogatshnik and D. S. Hamilton, Phys. Rev. B 36, 8251 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Prewitt, C. T.

R. D. Shanon and C. T. Prewitt, Acta Cryst. 4, 925 (1969).

Quarles, G. J.

J. F. Pinto, G. F. Rosenblatt, L. Esterowitz, and G. J. Quarles, "Continuously tunable UV Ce3+:LiSrAlF6 laser," pre sented at the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Laser and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting, San Jose, Calif., November 15–18, 1993.

Rizvi, N. H.

N. H. Rizvi, P. M. W. French, and J. R. Taylor, Opt. Lett. 17, 1605 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogemond, F.

C. Pedrini, F. Rogemond, and D. S. McClure, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 1196 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rosenblatt, G. F.

J. F. Pinto, G. F. Rosenblatt, L. Esterowitz, and G. J. Quarles, "Continuously tunable UV Ce3+:LiSrAlF6 laser," pre sented at the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Laser and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting, San Jose, Calif., November 15–18, 1993.

Sarantopoulou, E.

M. A. Dubinskii, A. C. Cefalas, E. Sarantopoulou, S. M. Spyrou, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, and V. V. Semashko, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schaffers, K. I.

K. I. Schaffers and D. A. Kessler, Acta Cryst. C 47, 18 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schipper, W.

G. Blasse, W. Schipper, and J. J. Hamelink, Inorgan. Chim. Acta 189, 77 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Semashko, V. V.

M. A. Dubinskii, R. Y. Korableva, S. L. Naumov, and V. V. Semashko, "LiLuF4:Ce3+ UV laser," presented at the International Quantum Electronics Conference, Vienna, June 14–19, 1992.

M. A. Dubinskii, A. C. Cefalas, E. Sarantopoulou, S. M. Spyrou, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, and V. V. Semashko, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Dubinskii, V. V. Semashko, A. K. Naumov, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, Laser Phys. 3, 216 (1993).

M. A. Dubinskii, V. V. Semashko, A. K. Naumov, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, J. Mod. Opt. 40, 1 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shanon, R. D.

R. D. Shanon and C. T. Prewitt, Acta Cryst. 4, 925 (1969).

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, L. D. DeLoach, and J. B. Tassano, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1188 (1992); Cr:LiSAF is available from Lightning Optical Corporation, Tarpon Springs, Fla.
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, H. W. Newkirk, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2243 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sorokin, P. P.

P. P. Sorokin and M. J. Stevenson, IBM J. Res. Devel. 5, 56 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Spyrou, S. M.

M. A. Dubinskii, A. C. Cefalas, E. Sarantopoulou, S. M. Spyrou, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, and V. V. Semashko, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, M. J.

P. P. Sorokin and M. J. Stevenson, IBM J. Res. Devel. 5, 56 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Tassano, J. B.

S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, L. D. DeLoach, and J. B. Tassano, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1188 (1992); Cr:LiSAF is available from Lightning Optical Corporation, Tarpon Springs, Fla.
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

N. H. Rizvi, P. M. W. French, and J. R. Taylor, Opt. Lett. 17, 1605 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waynant, R. W.

R. W. Waynant and P. H. Klein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 14 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

R. R. Jacobs, W. F. Krupke, and M. J. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 410 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Woods, B. W.

B. W. Woods, S. A. Payne, J. E. Marion, R. S. Hughes, and L. E. Davis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 970 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Polarized absorption and (b) emission spectra of Ce3+-doped LiSAF and LiCAF, respectively. Polarizations parallel and perpendicular to the optical axis of the host crystal are denoted π and σ, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(b) Emission intensity of Ce3+-doped LiSAF monitored from 280–340 nm as a function of time after excitation with an ~1 mJ/cm2 266-nm pulse 100 ps in duration. The solid curve is a 28 ± 2 ns single-exponential least-squares fit to the emission lifetime that was independent of excitation polarization or the particular sample under study. (a) Difference between the data and the fit given in (b). Under the same excitation conditions the measured Ce3+-doped LiCAF decays yielded a 25 ± 2 ns emission lifetime.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Small-signal gain spectra for (a) Ce3+-doped LiSAF (sample S1) and (b) Ce3+-doped LiCAF (sample C1) crystals. A 10-ns Gaussian pump beam at 266 nm was polarized parallel to the optical axis and focused to 0.9 J/cm2 with a flat-top diameter of 0.070 cm. The variable-wavelength probe beam was time delayed 10 ns after the pump beam, focused to a Gaussian 1/e2 diameter of 0.025 cm, and spatially overlapped with the pump. Probe polarizations parallel and perpendicular to the optical axis are denoted π and σ, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plots of the small-signal gains at a fixed 290-nm probe wavelength as a function of 266-nm pump fluence for four different pump-probe polarization combinations in (a) Ce3+-doped LiSAF (samples S1) and (b) Ce3+ -doped LiCAF (sample C1) crystals. The pump and the probe polarizations are denoted π and σ for polarizations parallel and perpendicular to the optical axis, respectively. The solid curves represent fits derived from Eqs. (2)(4) for the parameters in Tables 2 and 3 below.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of energy levels in Ce3+-doped LiSAF or LiCAF host crystals, where σABS, σEM, σESA, and σSOL, are the absorption, emission, ESA, and solarization cross sections, respectively. The conduction-band-to-impurity-trap branching ratio is denoted β.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Laser output energies at ~292 nm as a function of absorbed 266 nm pump energy in either (a) a Ce3+-doped LiSaF (sample S1) or (b) a Ce3+-doped LiCAF (sample C) crystal. An 11-cm-long oscillator cavity consisting of a 99% reflecting 10-cm-radius mirror and a 50% reflecting 10-cm-radius output coupler were used with a longitudinal pump polarization either parallel or perpendicular to the optical axis, denoted π and σ, respectively. The oscillator output was polarized along the optical axis because of the anisotropic gain as shown in Fig. 3. The solid lines are least squares fits to the laser slope efficiencies, which were as high as 29%.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Temporal shapes of 266-nm pump pulse (dashed curves), incoherent side emission from a Ce3+-doped LiSAF crystal with (solid curves) and without (dotted curves) an oscillator cavity aligned around it as described in Fig. 5, and laser oscillator emission (solid curves). The pump beam is polarized parallel to the optical axis and has a fluence of (a) 0.3 and (b) 1.5 J/cm2. In (c) the pump beam has a 1.5-J/cm2 fluence and is polarized perpendicular to the optical axis.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Ce3+-doped LiCAF and (b) LiSAF oscillator output energy as a function of time. Irradiation of the sample with ~1 J/cm2 of 266-nm pulses at 10 Hz starts at time 0. The contrast between samples C1 and S5 is attributed to differences in solarization magnitude that are position dependent; see Fig. 9. After the initial drop for 0.3 s in output energy per pulse for sample S5, the output energy per pulse was not observed to decrease any further.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Steady-state solarization spectra of Ce3+-doped LiSAF induced by ~1 J/cm2 266-nm pulses at 10 Hz. Samples S1 and S5 are representative of the variation in UV-induced absorption strengths that range from less than 10−3 to 1 cm−1 in different crystals and even locations within the same crystal that were studied.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Representative solarization relaxation measured in sample S5. All 10 samples studied that showed any detectable solarization had 1/e decay times that were 0.3 ± 0.1 s. These data were obtained with a 442-nm probe laser and then scaled to the absorption at 300 nm by use of this spectrum.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Absorption Properties and Cerium Concentrations of Laser Crystals Useda

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameters Used to Fit Ce:LiSAF Data in Fig. 4(a)

Tables Icon

Table 3 Parameters Used to Fit Ce:LiCAF Data in Fig. 4(b)

Tables Icon

Table 4 Laser Slope Efficiencies Observed for Ce3+-doped Ce:LiSAF and Ce:LiCAF for Several Output Couplers and 266-nm Pump Polarization Configurations

Tables Icon

Table 5 Parameters Used to Estimate Slope Efficiencies in Fig. 5 (%)

Tables Icon

Table 6 Parameters Used to Relate Small-Signal Gains to Cavity Buildup Times Shown in Fig. 8

Equations (9)

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σ i ( ν ¯ ) = 3 λ 2 I i ( ν ¯ ) 8 π c n 2 τ [ 2 I σ ( ν ¯ ) + I π ( ν ¯ ) ] d ν ¯ ,
d N 4 f ( z , t ) d t = - σ ABS ( ω ) N 4 f ( z , t ) I ( ω , z , t ) ω + N 5 d ( z , t ) τ 5 d ,
d N 5 d ( z , t ) d t = + σ ABS ( ω ) N 4 f ( z , t ) I ( ω , z , t ) ω - N 5 d ( z , t ) τ 5 d ,
d I ( ω , z , t ) d z = - [ σ ABS ( ω ) N 4 f ( z , t ) + σ ESA ( ω ) N 5 d ( z , t ) ] × I ( ω , z , t ) ,
G = exp { 0 d N 5 d ( z ) [ σ EM ( ω probe ) - σ ESA ( ω probe ) ] d z } .
η s 1 = ( h ν pump h ν osc ) η pump ( σ EM - σ ESA σ EM ) × [ ln ( 1 - T ) ln ( 1 - T ) + ln ( 1 - L ) ] ,
[ G 2 ( 1 - T ) ] N = E h ν .
τ cav = τ rt ln ( E / h ν ) 2 ln G + ln ( 1 - T ) .
I th = h ν p ( T + L ) [ 1 - exp ( - α p d ) ] 4 η p σ em τ f ,

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