Abstract

Using an optical heterodyne technique, we have measured the phase evolution of nanosecond laser pulses produced by several different dye-amplifier configurations. Considerable frequency chirping is observed as well as average frequency shifts of a few parts in 108. We investigate the dependence of this chirping on the amplifier design and the pump laser to identify the best arrangement for precision measurements. We also report calculations of nonlinear phase shifts in frequency-doubling crystals, which can significantly perturb the laser frequency. Finally, we compare the measured phase evolution of second-harmonic radiation with predictions made from the squared electric field of the fundamental.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

S. Gangopadhyay, N. Melikechi, and E. E. Eyler, "Optical phase perturbations in nanosecond pulsed amplification and second-harmonic generation: errata," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2314-2314 (1994)
https://www.osapublishing.org/josab/abstract.cfm?uri=josab-11-11-2314

References

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  2. K. Danzmann, M. S. Fee, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. A 39, 6072 (1989).
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  4. D. Shiner, J. M. Gilligan, B. M. Cook, and W. Lichten, Phys. Rev. A 47, 4042 (1993).
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  5. R. G. Beausoleil, D. H. McIntyre, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hildum, B. Couillard, and T. W. Hänsen, Phys. Rev. A 35, 4878 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. M. G. Boshier, P. E. G. Baird, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hinds, M. D. Plimmer, D. N. Stacey, J. B. Swan, D. A. Tate, D. M. Warrington, and G. K. Woodgate, Phys. Rev. A 40, 6169 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. D. H. McIntyre, R. G. Beausoleil, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hildum, B. Couillaud, and T. W. Hansen, Phys. Rev. A 39, 4591 (1989).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  13. J. R. M. Barr, J. M. Girkin, J. M. Tolchard, and A. I. Ferguson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 580 (1986).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  30. R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 922 (1990).
    [Crossref]

1993 (4)

D. Shiner, J. M. Gilligan, B. M. Cook, and W. Lichten, Phys. Rev. A 47, 4042 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Fee, A. P. Mills, S. Chu, E. D. Shaw, K. Danzmann, R. J. Chichester, and D. M. Zuckerman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1397 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Danielius, P. DiTrapani, A. Dubietis, A. Piskarskas, D. Podenas, and G. P. Banfi, Opt. Lett. 18, 574 (1993).
[Crossref]

G. W. Faris and M. J. Dyer, Opt. Lett. 18, 382 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (7)

M. Sheik-Bahae, R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, G. Asanto, G. Stegeman, and E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Photon. News 3(12), 11 (1992).
[Crossref]

A. Balakrishnan, V. Smith, and B. P. Stoicheff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2149 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Balakrishnan and B. P. Stoicheff, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 156, 517 (1992).
[Crossref]

R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. Stegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, and H. Vanherzelle, Opt. Lett. 17, 28 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Fee, K. Danzmann, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. A 45, 4911 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Gilligan and E. E. Eyler, Phys. Rev. A 46, 3676 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Andreae, W. König, R. Wynands, D. Leibfried, F. Schmidt-Kaler, C. Zimmermann, D. Meschede, and T. W. Hänsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1923 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 922 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (5)

E. Cromwell, T. Trickl, Y. T. Lee, and A. H. Kung, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2888 (1989).
[Crossref]

M. G. Boshier, P. E. G. Baird, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hinds, M. D. Plimmer, D. N. Stacey, J. B. Swan, D. A. Tate, D. M. Warrington, and G. K. Woodgate, Phys. Rev. A 40, 6169 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. McIntyre, R. G. Beausoleil, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hildum, B. Couillaud, and T. W. Hansen, Phys. Rev. A 39, 4591 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Danzmann, M. S. Fee, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. A 39, 6072 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. Wall, R. L. Aggarwal, M. D. Sciacca, H. J. Zeiger, R. E. Fahey, and A. J. Strauss, Opt. Lett. 14, 180 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

S. Chu, A. P. Mills, A. G. Yodh, K. Nagamine, Y. Miyake, and T. Kuga, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 101 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

R. G. Beausoleil, D. H. McIntyre, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hildum, B. Couillard, and T. W. Hänsen, Phys. Rev. A 35, 4878 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (2)

E. A. Hildum, U. Boesl, D. H. McIntyre, R. G. Beausoleil, and T. W. Hänsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 576 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. M. Barr, J. M. Girkin, J. M. Tolchard, and A. I. Ferguson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 580 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

S. Chu, A. P. Mills, and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1689 (1984).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

C. Wieman and T. W. Hänsen, Phys. Rev. A 22, 192 (1980).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

L. A. Ostrovskij, JETP Lett. 10, 281 (1967).

Aggarwal, R. L.

Andreae, T.

T. Andreae, W. König, R. Wynands, D. Leibfried, F. Schmidt-Kaler, C. Zimmermann, D. Meschede, and T. W. Hänsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1923 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asanto, G.

M. Sheik-Bahae, R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, G. Asanto, G. Stegeman, and E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Photon. News 3(12), 11 (1992).
[Crossref]

Baird, P. E. G.

M. G. Boshier, P. E. G. Baird, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hinds, M. D. Plimmer, D. N. Stacey, J. B. Swan, D. A. Tate, D. M. Warrington, and G. K. Woodgate, Phys. Rev. A 40, 6169 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balakrishnan, A.

A. Balakrishnan, V. Smith, and B. P. Stoicheff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2149 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Balakrishnan and B. P. Stoicheff, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 156, 517 (1992).
[Crossref]

Banfi, G. P.

Barr, J. R. M.

J. R. M. Barr, J. M. Girkin, J. M. Tolchard, and A. I. Ferguson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 580 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beausoleil, R. G.

D. H. McIntyre, R. G. Beausoleil, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hildum, B. Couillaud, and T. W. Hansen, Phys. Rev. A 39, 4591 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. G. Beausoleil, D. H. McIntyre, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hildum, B. Couillard, and T. W. Hänsen, Phys. Rev. A 35, 4878 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Hildum, U. Boesl, D. H. McIntyre, R. G. Beausoleil, and T. W. Hänsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 576 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bethune, D. S.

Boesl, U.

E. A. Hildum, U. Boesl, D. H. McIntyre, R. G. Beausoleil, and T. W. Hänsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 576 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boshier, M. G.

M. G. Boshier, P. E. G. Baird, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hinds, M. D. Plimmer, D. N. Stacey, J. B. Swan, D. A. Tate, D. M. Warrington, and G. K. Woodgate, Phys. Rev. A 40, 6169 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1992), pp. 159–164, 275–277.

Byer, R. L.

R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 922 (1990).
[Crossref]

Chichester, R. J.

M. S. Fee, A. P. Mills, S. Chu, E. D. Shaw, K. Danzmann, R. J. Chichester, and D. M. Zuckerman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1397 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

M. S. Fee, A. P. Mills, S. Chu, E. D. Shaw, K. Danzmann, R. J. Chichester, and D. M. Zuckerman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1397 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Fee, K. Danzmann, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. A 45, 4911 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Danzmann, M. S. Fee, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. A 39, 6072 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chu, A. P. Mills, A. G. Yodh, K. Nagamine, Y. Miyake, and T. Kuga, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 101 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chu, A. P. Mills, and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1689 (1984).
[Crossref]

K. Danzmann, M. S. Fee, and S. Chu, Laser Spectroscopy IX: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1989), p. 328.

Cook, B. M.

D. Shiner, J. M. Gilligan, B. M. Cook, and W. Lichten, Phys. Rev. A 47, 4042 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Couillard, B.

R. G. Beausoleil, D. H. McIntyre, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hildum, B. Couillard, and T. W. Hänsen, Phys. Rev. A 35, 4878 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Couillaud, B.

D. H. McIntyre, R. G. Beausoleil, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hildum, B. Couillaud, and T. W. Hansen, Phys. Rev. A 39, 4591 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cromwell, E.

E. Cromwell, T. Trickl, Y. T. Lee, and A. H. Kung, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2888 (1989).
[Crossref]

Danielius, R.

Danzmann, K.

M. S. Fee, A. P. Mills, S. Chu, E. D. Shaw, K. Danzmann, R. J. Chichester, and D. M. Zuckerman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1397 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Fee, K. Danzmann, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. A 45, 4911 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Danzmann, M. S. Fee, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. A 39, 6072 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Danzmann, M. S. Fee, and S. Chu, Laser Spectroscopy IX: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1989), p. 328.

DeSalvo, R.

M. Sheik-Bahae, R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, G. Asanto, G. Stegeman, and E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Photon. News 3(12), 11 (1992).
[Crossref]

R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. Stegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, and H. Vanherzelle, Opt. Lett. 17, 28 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DiTrapani, P.

Dubietis, A.

Dyer, M. J.

Eckardt, R. C.

R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 922 (1990).
[Crossref]

Eyler, E. E.

J. M. Gilligan and E. E. Eyler, Phys. Rev. A 46, 3676 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fahey, R. E.

Fan, Y. X.

R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 922 (1990).
[Crossref]

Faris, G. W.

Fee, M. S.

M. S. Fee, A. P. Mills, S. Chu, E. D. Shaw, K. Danzmann, R. J. Chichester, and D. M. Zuckerman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1397 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Fee, K. Danzmann, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. A 45, 4911 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Danzmann, M. S. Fee, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. A 39, 6072 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Danzmann, M. S. Fee, and S. Chu, Laser Spectroscopy IX: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1989), p. 328.

Ferguson, A. I.

J. R. M. Barr, J. M. Girkin, J. M. Tolchard, and A. I. Ferguson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 580 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foot, C. J.

D. H. McIntyre, R. G. Beausoleil, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hildum, B. Couillaud, and T. W. Hansen, Phys. Rev. A 39, 4591 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Boshier, P. E. G. Baird, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hinds, M. D. Plimmer, D. N. Stacey, J. B. Swan, D. A. Tate, D. M. Warrington, and G. K. Woodgate, Phys. Rev. A 40, 6169 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. G. Beausoleil, D. H. McIntyre, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hildum, B. Couillard, and T. W. Hänsen, Phys. Rev. A 35, 4878 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gilligan, J. M.

D. Shiner, J. M. Gilligan, B. M. Cook, and W. Lichten, Phys. Rev. A 47, 4042 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Gilligan and E. E. Eyler, Phys. Rev. A 46, 3676 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Girkin, J. M.

J. R. M. Barr, J. M. Girkin, J. M. Tolchard, and A. I. Ferguson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 580 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hagan, D. J.

R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. Stegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, and H. Vanherzelle, Opt. Lett. 17, 28 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, G. Asanto, G. Stegeman, and E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Photon. News 3(12), 11 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hall, J. L.

S. Chu, A. P. Mills, and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1689 (1984).
[Crossref]

Hansen, T. W.

D. H. McIntyre, R. G. Beausoleil, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hildum, B. Couillaud, and T. W. Hansen, Phys. Rev. A 39, 4591 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hänsen, T. W.

T. Andreae, W. König, R. Wynands, D. Leibfried, F. Schmidt-Kaler, C. Zimmermann, D. Meschede, and T. W. Hänsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1923 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. G. Beausoleil, D. H. McIntyre, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hildum, B. Couillard, and T. W. Hänsen, Phys. Rev. A 35, 4878 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Hildum, U. Boesl, D. H. McIntyre, R. G. Beausoleil, and T. W. Hänsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 576 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wieman and T. W. Hänsen, Phys. Rev. A 22, 192 (1980).
[Crossref]

Hildum, E. A.

D. H. McIntyre, R. G. Beausoleil, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hildum, B. Couillaud, and T. W. Hansen, Phys. Rev. A 39, 4591 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. G. Beausoleil, D. H. McIntyre, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hildum, B. Couillard, and T. W. Hänsen, Phys. Rev. A 35, 4878 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Hildum, U. Boesl, D. H. McIntyre, R. G. Beausoleil, and T. W. Hänsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 576 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hinds, E. A.

M. G. Boshier, P. E. G. Baird, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hinds, M. D. Plimmer, D. N. Stacey, J. B. Swan, D. A. Tate, D. M. Warrington, and G. K. Woodgate, Phys. Rev. A 40, 6169 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kleinman, D. A.

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968).
[Crossref]

König, W.

T. Andreae, W. König, R. Wynands, D. Leibfried, F. Schmidt-Kaler, C. Zimmermann, D. Meschede, and T. W. Hänsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1923 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuga, T.

S. Chu, A. P. Mills, A. G. Yodh, K. Nagamine, Y. Miyake, and T. Kuga, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 101 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kung, A. H.

E. Cromwell, T. Trickl, Y. T. Lee, and A. H. Kung, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2888 (1989).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. T.

E. Cromwell, T. Trickl, Y. T. Lee, and A. H. Kung, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2888 (1989).
[Crossref]

Leibfried, D.

T. Andreae, W. König, R. Wynands, D. Leibfried, F. Schmidt-Kaler, C. Zimmermann, D. Meschede, and T. W. Hänsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1923 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lichten, W.

D. Shiner, J. M. Gilligan, B. M. Cook, and W. Lichten, Phys. Rev. A 47, 4042 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Masuda, H.

R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 922 (1990).
[Crossref]

McIntyre, D. H.

D. H. McIntyre, R. G. Beausoleil, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hildum, B. Couillaud, and T. W. Hansen, Phys. Rev. A 39, 4591 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. G. Beausoleil, D. H. McIntyre, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hildum, B. Couillard, and T. W. Hänsen, Phys. Rev. A 35, 4878 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Hildum, U. Boesl, D. H. McIntyre, R. G. Beausoleil, and T. W. Hänsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 576 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mcllrath, T. J.

Such efforts are under way in our laboratory at University of Delaware and the National Institute for Standards and Technology (T. J. Mcllrath, Institute for Physical Sciences and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742; personal communication, 1993). Laser excitation of 1 1S–2 1P has been reported by K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1690 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meschede, D.

T. Andreae, W. König, R. Wynands, D. Leibfried, F. Schmidt-Kaler, C. Zimmermann, D. Meschede, and T. W. Hänsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1923 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mills, A. P.

M. S. Fee, A. P. Mills, S. Chu, E. D. Shaw, K. Danzmann, R. J. Chichester, and D. M. Zuckerman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1397 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chu, A. P. Mills, A. G. Yodh, K. Nagamine, Y. Miyake, and T. Kuga, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 101 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chu, A. P. Mills, and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1689 (1984).
[Crossref]

Miyake, Y.

S. Chu, A. P. Mills, A. G. Yodh, K. Nagamine, Y. Miyake, and T. Kuga, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 101 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagamine, K.

S. Chu, A. P. Mills, A. G. Yodh, K. Nagamine, Y. Miyake, and T. Kuga, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 101 (1988).
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Ostrovskij, L. A.

L. A. Ostrovskij, JETP Lett. 10, 281 (1967).

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M. G. Boshier, P. E. G. Baird, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hinds, M. D. Plimmer, D. N. Stacey, J. B. Swan, D. A. Tate, D. M. Warrington, and G. K. Woodgate, Phys. Rev. A 40, 6169 (1989).
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Schmidt-Kaler, F.

T. Andreae, W. König, R. Wynands, D. Leibfried, F. Schmidt-Kaler, C. Zimmermann, D. Meschede, and T. W. Hänsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1923 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Shaw, E. D.

M. S. Fee, A. P. Mills, S. Chu, E. D. Shaw, K. Danzmann, R. J. Chichester, and D. M. Zuckerman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1397 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. Stegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, and H. Vanherzelle, Opt. Lett. 17, 28 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, G. Asanto, G. Stegeman, and E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Photon. News 3(12), 11 (1992).
[Crossref]

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D. Shiner, J. M. Gilligan, B. M. Cook, and W. Lichten, Phys. Rev. A 47, 4042 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), pp. 376–386, 388.

Smith, V.

A. Balakrishnan, V. Smith, and B. P. Stoicheff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2149 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stacey, D. N.

M. G. Boshier, P. E. G. Baird, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hinds, M. D. Plimmer, D. N. Stacey, J. B. Swan, D. A. Tate, D. M. Warrington, and G. K. Woodgate, Phys. Rev. A 40, 6169 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stegeman, G.

M. Sheik-Bahae, R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, G. Asanto, G. Stegeman, and E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Photon. News 3(12), 11 (1992).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. Balakrishnan, V. Smith, and B. P. Stoicheff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2149 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Balakrishnan and B. P. Stoicheff, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 156, 517 (1992).
[Crossref]

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M. G. Boshier, P. E. G. Baird, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hinds, M. D. Plimmer, D. N. Stacey, J. B. Swan, D. A. Tate, D. M. Warrington, and G. K. Woodgate, Phys. Rev. A 40, 6169 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tate, D. A.

M. G. Boshier, P. E. G. Baird, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hinds, M. D. Plimmer, D. N. Stacey, J. B. Swan, D. A. Tate, D. M. Warrington, and G. K. Woodgate, Phys. Rev. A 40, 6169 (1989).
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J. R. M. Barr, J. M. Girkin, J. M. Tolchard, and A. I. Ferguson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 580 (1986).
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E. Cromwell, T. Trickl, Y. T. Lee, and A. H. Kung, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2888 (1989).
[Crossref]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, G. Asanto, G. Stegeman, and E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Photon. News 3(12), 11 (1992).
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M. G. Boshier, P. E. G. Baird, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hinds, M. D. Plimmer, D. N. Stacey, J. B. Swan, D. A. Tate, D. M. Warrington, and G. K. Woodgate, Phys. Rev. A 40, 6169 (1989).
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M. G. Boshier, P. E. G. Baird, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hinds, M. D. Plimmer, D. N. Stacey, J. B. Swan, D. A. Tate, D. M. Warrington, and G. K. Woodgate, Phys. Rev. A 40, 6169 (1989).
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T. Andreae, W. König, R. Wynands, D. Leibfried, F. Schmidt-Kaler, C. Zimmermann, D. Meschede, and T. W. Hänsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1923 (1992).
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Yodh, A. G.

S. Chu, A. P. Mills, A. G. Yodh, K. Nagamine, Y. Miyake, and T. Kuga, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 101 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeiger, H. J.

Zimmermann, C.

T. Andreae, W. König, R. Wynands, D. Leibfried, F. Schmidt-Kaler, C. Zimmermann, D. Meschede, and T. W. Hänsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1923 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zuckerman, D. M.

M. S. Fee, A. P. Mills, S. Chu, E. D. Shaw, K. Danzmann, R. J. Chichester, and D. M. Zuckerman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1397 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

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A. Balakrishnan and B. P. Stoicheff, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 156, 517 (1992).
[Crossref]

JETP Lett. (1)

L. A. Ostrovskij, JETP Lett. 10, 281 (1967).

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, G. Asanto, G. Stegeman, and E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Photon. News 3(12), 11 (1992).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (8)

M. S. Fee, K. Danzmann, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. A 45, 4911 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wieman and T. W. Hänsen, Phys. Rev. A 22, 192 (1980).
[Crossref]

K. Danzmann, M. S. Fee, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. A 39, 6072 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Gilligan and E. E. Eyler, Phys. Rev. A 46, 3676 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Shiner, J. M. Gilligan, B. M. Cook, and W. Lichten, Phys. Rev. A 47, 4042 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. G. Beausoleil, D. H. McIntyre, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hildum, B. Couillard, and T. W. Hänsen, Phys. Rev. A 35, 4878 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Boshier, P. E. G. Baird, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hinds, M. D. Plimmer, D. N. Stacey, J. B. Swan, D. A. Tate, D. M. Warrington, and G. K. Woodgate, Phys. Rev. A 40, 6169 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. McIntyre, R. G. Beausoleil, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hildum, B. Couillaud, and T. W. Hansen, Phys. Rev. A 39, 4591 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

T. Andreae, W. König, R. Wynands, D. Leibfried, F. Schmidt-Kaler, C. Zimmermann, D. Meschede, and T. W. Hänsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1923 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Fee, A. P. Mills, S. Chu, E. D. Shaw, K. Danzmann, R. J. Chichester, and D. M. Zuckerman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1397 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chu, A. P. Mills, A. G. Yodh, K. Nagamine, Y. Miyake, and T. Kuga, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 101 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chu, A. P. Mills, and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1689 (1984).
[Crossref]

E. A. Hildum, U. Boesl, D. H. McIntyre, R. G. Beausoleil, and T. W. Hänsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 576 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. M. Barr, J. M. Girkin, J. M. Tolchard, and A. I. Ferguson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 580 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Balakrishnan, V. Smith, and B. P. Stoicheff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2149 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

E. Cromwell, T. Trickl, Y. T. Lee, and A. H. Kung, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2888 (1989).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), pp. 376–386, 388.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1992), pp. 159–164, 275–277.

Such efforts are under way in our laboratory at University of Delaware and the National Institute for Standards and Technology (T. J. Mcllrath, Institute for Physical Sciences and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742; personal communication, 1993). Laser excitation of 1 1S–2 1P has been reported by K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1690 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Danzmann, M. S. Fee, and S. Chu, Laser Spectroscopy IX: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1989), p. 328.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Steps in the frequency-extraction algorithm, shown here for a pulse from an excimer-pumped two-cell amplifier chain.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fourier transform of the beat signal, showing the positive portion of the spectrum. The negative frequency portion is a reflection about the Y axis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reconstruction of pulse envelope and instantaneous frequency from a synthetic beat signal with a predefined linear chirp. A 20-pulse average is shown. The rms deviation between the input and the reconstructed frequency profiles is 2.3 MHz, measured between the 10% intensity points.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Arrangement for optical heterodyning of the visible pulse and its second harmonic.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of amplifier alignment, (a) A three-cell transversely pumped chain shows high sensitivity to alignment, with frequency shifts of as much as 25 MHz. (b) A capillary-type amplifier chain is unaffected by minor misalignments. These amplifiers are excimer pumped. Averages of 20 pulses are shown.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of injection seeding: Fourier spectra of typical pulses from an amplifier chain pumped by a Nd:YAG laser with and without injection seeding; FFT, fast Fourier transform.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Shot-to-shot repeatability of amplified pulses from a transversely pumped amplifier chain pumped by (a) an unseeded Nd:YAG laser, (b) an injection-seeded Nd:YAG laser, and (c) an excimer laser.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Effect of heating: instan

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Behavior of two dyes. The rms deviation between the two waveforms is 34 MHz. Averages of 20 pulses are shown.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison of the second harmonic with the square of its fundamental (vis2) for a transversely pumped amplifier chain with an excimer pump laser, for a doubling efficiency η of (a) 8% and (b) 15%. The instantaneous frequencies for case (b) differ by an average of 10 MHz, or 1 part in 108, between the 10% intensity points. Averages of 20 pulses are shown.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Same comparison as in Fig. 10 but for pulses from a capillary-cell amplifier chain pumped with a seeded Nd:YAG laser, with a doubling efficiency of 36%. The error bars are relatively large because the pulses are short.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Effect of detuning of the KDP crystal. An average of 20 pulses is shown.

Equations (19)

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E 0 = E cw exp [ i ( ω 0 + ω m ) t ] + c . c .
E 1 = E p ( t ) exp { i [ ω 0 t + ϕ ( t ) ] } + c . c ,
V det | E 0 + E 1 | 2 = E c w 2 + E p 2 ( t ) + E c w E p ( t ) × ( exp { i [ ϕ ( t ) ω m t ] } + exp { i [ ϕ ( t ) ω m t ] } ) .
f inst = 1 2 π d ϕ d t .
V synth = I p ( t ) + I cw + 2 [ I p ( t ) I cw ] 1 / 2 × cos [ ω m t ϕ synth ( t ) ] .
d ϕ d t = 2 π f synth ( t ) .
V synth = I p ( t ) + I cw + 2 μ [ I p ( t ) I cw ] 1 / 2 × cos [ ω m t + ϕ synth ( t ) + ϕ const ] .
n = n 0 + n Kerr I .
ϕ m = 2 π L n Kerr I λ 1.0 × 10 2 rad .
d E 2 d z = i ω 2 c n ω χ ( 2 ) ( 2 ω ; ω , ω ) E 1 E 1 exp ( i Δ k z ) ,
d E 1 d z = i ω 4 c n ω χ ( 2 ) ( ω ; 2 ω , ω ) E 2 E 1 * exp ( i Δ k z ) .
Δ k = ( 2 ω / c ) S ( n 2 ω n ω ) .
d 2 E 2 d z 2 i Δ k d E 2 d z 2 α 2 | E 2 | 2 n ω 2 | E 0 | E 2 + 2 α 2 n ω n 2 ω E 2 = 0 ,
E 1 = | E 0 | exp ( i Δ ϕ ) , Δ ϕ = Δ k L 2 { 1 [ 1 + 4 α 2 n ω n 2 ω ( Δ k ) 2 ] } .
E 2 = α ( n ω n 2 ω ) 1 / 2 | E 0 | 2 exp ( i Δ k L / 2 ) exp ( i Δ ϕ L ) × sin [ ( Δ k / 2 Δ ϕ ) L ] Δ k / 2 Δ ϕ .
E 2 E 1 E 1 = 2 E p 2 ( t ) + ( E p 2 ( t ) exp { 2 i [ ω 0 t + ϕ ( t ) ] } + c . c . ) ,
η calc = u 2 ω u ω = u ω π ω 0 2 Δ t 2 ω Δ t ω 2 4 π 2 d eff 2 L l a λ ω 2 0 n 3 c .
d eff = 0.38 × 10 2 sin ( θ + ρ ) ,
η calc = η corrected 1 η corrected .

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