Abstract

The mode-locking features of a series of Nd3+-doped solid solutions of aluminum and gallium garnets are investigated, and the influence of multiline gain spectra on mode-locking performance is discussed. With an additive-pulse nonlinear Michelson interferometer used to mode lock the laser passively, pulses as short as 260 fs are obtained. The effect of interferometer detuning on the pulse characteristics is studied.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. F. Mollenauer and R. H. Stolen, “The soliton laser,” Opt. Lett. 9, 13–15 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. F. Ouellette and M. Piché, “Pulse shaping and passive mode-locking with a nonlinear Michelson interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 60, 99–103 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. J. Blow and B. P. Nelson, “Improved mode locking of an F-center laser with a nonlinear nonsoliton external cavity,” Opt. Lett. 13, 1026–1028 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. N. Kean, X. Zhu, D. W. Crust, R. S. Grant, N. Langford, and W. Sibbett, “Enhanced mode locking of color-center lasers,” Opt. Lett. 14, 39–41 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Mark, L. Y. Liu, K. L. Hall, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Femtosecond pulse generation in a laser wih a nonlinear external resonator,” Opt. Lett. 14, 48–50 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, and L. Y. Liu, “Additive pulse mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1736–1745 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. E. Spence, P. N. Kean, and W. Sibbett, “60-fsec pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 42–44 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Piché, “Beam reshaping and self-mode-locking in nonlinear laser resonators,” Opt. Commun. 86, 156–158 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. U. Keller, G. W. ’tHooft, W. H. Knox, and J. E. Cunningham, “Femtosecond pulses from a continuously self-starting passively mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1022–1024 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. Brabec, Ch. Spielmann, P. F. Curley, and F. Kausz, “Kerr lens mode locking,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1292–1294 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. H. Ober, Ch. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Femtosecond solid state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2097–2122 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Goodberlet, J. Jacobson, J. G. Fujimoto, P. A. Schulz, and T. Y. Fan, “Self-starting additive-pulse mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 15, 504–506 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. P. A. Malcolm, P. F. Curley, and A. I. Ferguson, “Additive-pulse mode locking of a diode-pumped Nd:YLF laser,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1303–1305 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. H. Ober, E. Sorokin, I. Sorokina, F. Krausz, E. Wintner, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Subpicosecond mode locking of a Nd3+-doped garnet laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1364–1366 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Femtosecond passive mode-locking of a solid-state laser by a dispersively balanced nonlinear interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2470–2472 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. V. Zharikov, A. I. Zagumennyi, G. B. Lutts, V. A. Smirnov, I. T. Sorokina, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “New laser crystals: solid solutions based on scandium containing aluminum-gallium garnets, doped with chromium and neodymium,” Laser Phys. 1, 216–219 (1991).
  17. G. Huber, “Festköpelaser—neue Entwicklungen,” Phys. Bl. 47, 365–370 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  18. V. A. Smirnov and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Rare-earth scandium chromium garnets as active media for solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 949–959 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. B. Lutts, A. L. Denisov, E. V. Zharikov, A. I. Zagumennyi, S. N. Kozlikin, S. V. Lavrishchev, and S. A. Samoilova, “GSAG and YSAG: a study of isomorphism and crystal growth,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, S269–S281 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  20. W. F. Krupke, M. D. Shinn, J. E. Marion, J. A. Gaird, and S. E. Stokowski, “Spectroscopic, optical, and thermomechanical properties of neodymium- and chromium-doped gadolinium scandium gallium garnet,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 102–113 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  21. V. G. Ostroumov, E. V. Zharikov, I. A. Shcherbakov, G. B. Loutts, A. I. Zagumenny, C. Pfistner, P. Albers, and H. P. Weber, “Spectroscopic and laser properties of Sc garnet mixtures doped by Cr3+and Nd3+ions,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), 13, 310–314.
  22. W. Koechner, Solid-State laser Engineering (Springer, New York, 1976).
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  23. T. T. Basiev, N. A. Es’kov, A. Ya. Karasik, V. V. Osiko, A. A. Sobol, S. N. Ushakov, and M. Helbig, “Disordered garnets Ca3(Nb, Ga)5O12:Nd3+—prospective crystals for powerful ultrashort-pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 17, 201–203 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. A. Popov, N. N. Sirota, E. V. Zharikov, A. I. Zagumennyi, I. A. Ivanov, and G. B. Loutts, “Thermal conductivity of rare-earth scandium garnets and their solid solutions,” Laser Phys. 1, 437–440 (1991).
  25. R. S. Grant and W. Sibbett, “Cavity configurations for coupled-cavity mode-locking,” Opt. Commun. 86, 177–182 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  26. F. M. Mitschke and L. F. Mollenauer, “Stabilizing the soliton laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 2242–2250 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Experimental study of additive-pulse mode locking in an Nd:glass laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1207–1213 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  28. F. Krausz, T. Brabec, and Ch. Spielmann, “Self-starting passive mode locking,” Opt. Lett. 16, 235–237 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. G. P. AgrawalNonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, New York, 1989).
  30. J. K. Chee, J.-M. Liu, and M. N. Kong, “Cavity-detuning characteristics of cw additive-pulse mode-locked Nd:YLF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 700–709 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1992 (5)

1991 (9)

Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Experimental study of additive-pulse mode locking in an Nd:glass laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1207–1213 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Krausz, T. Brabec, and Ch. Spielmann, “Self-starting passive mode locking,” Opt. Lett. 16, 235–237 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Popov, N. N. Sirota, E. V. Zharikov, A. I. Zagumennyi, I. A. Ivanov, and G. B. Loutts, “Thermal conductivity of rare-earth scandium garnets and their solid solutions,” Laser Phys. 1, 437–440 (1991).

R. S. Grant and W. Sibbett, “Cavity configurations for coupled-cavity mode-locking,” Opt. Commun. 86, 177–182 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Spence, P. N. Kean, and W. Sibbett, “60-fsec pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 42–44 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Piché, “Beam reshaping and self-mode-locking in nonlinear laser resonators,” Opt. Commun. 86, 156–158 (1991).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, G. W. ’tHooft, W. H. Knox, and J. E. Cunningham, “Femtosecond pulses from a continuously self-starting passively mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1022–1024 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. V. Zharikov, A. I. Zagumennyi, G. B. Lutts, V. A. Smirnov, I. T. Sorokina, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “New laser crystals: solid solutions based on scandium containing aluminum-gallium garnets, doped with chromium and neodymium,” Laser Phys. 1, 216–219 (1991).

G. Huber, “Festköpelaser—neue Entwicklungen,” Phys. Bl. 47, 365–370 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (4)

G. B. Lutts, A. L. Denisov, E. V. Zharikov, A. I. Zagumennyi, S. N. Kozlikin, S. V. Lavrishchev, and S. A. Samoilova, “GSAG and YSAG: a study of isomorphism and crystal growth,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, S269–S281 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Femtosecond passive mode-locking of a solid-state laser by a dispersively balanced nonlinear interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2470–2472 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Goodberlet, J. Jacobson, J. G. Fujimoto, P. A. Schulz, and T. Y. Fan, “Self-starting additive-pulse mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 15, 504–506 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. A. Malcolm, P. F. Curley, and A. I. Ferguson, “Additive-pulse mode locking of a diode-pumped Nd:YLF laser,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1303–1305 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (3)

1988 (2)

V. A. Smirnov and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Rare-earth scandium chromium garnets as active media for solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 949–959 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Blow and B. P. Nelson, “Improved mode locking of an F-center laser with a nonlinear nonsoliton external cavity,” Opt. Lett. 13, 1026–1028 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (3)

F. M. Mitschke and L. F. Mollenauer, “Stabilizing the soliton laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 2242–2250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Krupke, M. D. Shinn, J. E. Marion, J. A. Gaird, and S. E. Stokowski, “Spectroscopic, optical, and thermomechanical properties of neodymium- and chromium-doped gadolinium scandium gallium garnet,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 102–113 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. Ouellette and M. Piché, “Pulse shaping and passive mode-locking with a nonlinear Michelson interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 60, 99–103 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

’tHooft, G. W.

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. AgrawalNonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, New York, 1989).

Albers, P.

V. G. Ostroumov, E. V. Zharikov, I. A. Shcherbakov, G. B. Loutts, A. I. Zagumenny, C. Pfistner, P. Albers, and H. P. Weber, “Spectroscopic and laser properties of Sc garnet mixtures doped by Cr3+and Nd3+ions,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), 13, 310–314.

Basiev, T. T.

Blow, K. J.

Brabec, T.

T. Brabec, Ch. Spielmann, P. F. Curley, and F. Kausz, “Kerr lens mode locking,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1292–1294 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. H. Ober, Ch. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Femtosecond solid state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2097–2122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Experimental study of additive-pulse mode locking in an Nd:glass laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1207–1213 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Krausz, T. Brabec, and Ch. Spielmann, “Self-starting passive mode locking,” Opt. Lett. 16, 235–237 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Femtosecond passive mode-locking of a solid-state laser by a dispersively balanced nonlinear interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2470–2472 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chee, J. K.

J. K. Chee, J.-M. Liu, and M. N. Kong, “Cavity-detuning characteristics of cw additive-pulse mode-locked Nd:YLF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 700–709 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Crust, D. W.

Cunningham, J. E.

Curley, P. F.

Denisov, A. L.

G. B. Lutts, A. L. Denisov, E. V. Zharikov, A. I. Zagumennyi, S. N. Kozlikin, S. V. Lavrishchev, and S. A. Samoilova, “GSAG and YSAG: a study of isomorphism and crystal growth,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, S269–S281 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Es’kov, N. A.

Fan, T. Y.

Ferguson, A. I.

Fermann, M. E.

F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. H. Ober, Ch. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Femtosecond solid state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2097–2122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gaird, J. A.

Goodberlet, J.

Grant, R. S.

R. S. Grant and W. Sibbett, “Cavity configurations for coupled-cavity mode-locking,” Opt. Commun. 86, 177–182 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Kean, X. Zhu, D. W. Crust, R. S. Grant, N. Langford, and W. Sibbett, “Enhanced mode locking of color-center lasers,” Opt. Lett. 14, 39–41 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, K. L.

Haus, H. A.

Helbig, M.

Hofer, M.

F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. H. Ober, Ch. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Femtosecond solid state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2097–2122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

G. Huber, “Festköpelaser—neue Entwicklungen,” Phys. Bl. 47, 365–370 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Ivanov, I. A.

P. A. Popov, N. N. Sirota, E. V. Zharikov, A. I. Zagumennyi, I. A. Ivanov, and G. B. Loutts, “Thermal conductivity of rare-earth scandium garnets and their solid solutions,” Laser Phys. 1, 437–440 (1991).

Jacobson, J.

Karasik, A. Ya.

Kausz, F.

Kean, P. N.

Keller, U.

Knox, W. H.

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid-State laser Engineering (Springer, New York, 1976).
[CrossRef]

Kong, M. N.

J. K. Chee, J.-M. Liu, and M. N. Kong, “Cavity-detuning characteristics of cw additive-pulse mode-locked Nd:YLF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 700–709 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kozlikin, S. N.

G. B. Lutts, A. L. Denisov, E. V. Zharikov, A. I. Zagumennyi, S. N. Kozlikin, S. V. Lavrishchev, and S. A. Samoilova, “GSAG and YSAG: a study of isomorphism and crystal growth,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, S269–S281 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. H. Ober, Ch. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Femtosecond solid state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2097–2122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Ober, E. Sorokin, I. Sorokina, F. Krausz, E. Wintner, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Subpicosecond mode locking of a Nd3+-doped garnet laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1364–1366 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Krausz, T. Brabec, and Ch. Spielmann, “Self-starting passive mode locking,” Opt. Lett. 16, 235–237 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Experimental study of additive-pulse mode locking in an Nd:glass laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1207–1213 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Femtosecond passive mode-locking of a solid-state laser by a dispersively balanced nonlinear interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2470–2472 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W. F.

Langford, N.

Lavrishchev, S. V.

G. B. Lutts, A. L. Denisov, E. V. Zharikov, A. I. Zagumennyi, S. N. Kozlikin, S. V. Lavrishchev, and S. A. Samoilova, “GSAG and YSAG: a study of isomorphism and crystal growth,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, S269–S281 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.-M.

J. K. Chee, J.-M. Liu, and M. N. Kong, “Cavity-detuning characteristics of cw additive-pulse mode-locked Nd:YLF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 700–709 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L. Y.

Loutts, G. B.

P. A. Popov, N. N. Sirota, E. V. Zharikov, A. I. Zagumennyi, I. A. Ivanov, and G. B. Loutts, “Thermal conductivity of rare-earth scandium garnets and their solid solutions,” Laser Phys. 1, 437–440 (1991).

V. G. Ostroumov, E. V. Zharikov, I. A. Shcherbakov, G. B. Loutts, A. I. Zagumenny, C. Pfistner, P. Albers, and H. P. Weber, “Spectroscopic and laser properties of Sc garnet mixtures doped by Cr3+and Nd3+ions,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), 13, 310–314.

Lutts, G. B.

E. V. Zharikov, A. I. Zagumennyi, G. B. Lutts, V. A. Smirnov, I. T. Sorokina, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “New laser crystals: solid solutions based on scandium containing aluminum-gallium garnets, doped with chromium and neodymium,” Laser Phys. 1, 216–219 (1991).

G. B. Lutts, A. L. Denisov, E. V. Zharikov, A. I. Zagumennyi, S. N. Kozlikin, S. V. Lavrishchev, and S. A. Samoilova, “GSAG and YSAG: a study of isomorphism and crystal growth,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, S269–S281 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Malcolm, G. P. A.

Marion, J. E.

Mark, J.

Mitschke, F. M.

F. M. Mitschke and L. F. Mollenauer, “Stabilizing the soliton laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 2242–2250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mollenauer, L. F.

F. M. Mitschke and L. F. Mollenauer, “Stabilizing the soliton laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 2242–2250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Mollenauer and R. H. Stolen, “The soliton laser,” Opt. Lett. 9, 13–15 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, B. P.

Ober, M. H.

M. H. Ober, E. Sorokin, I. Sorokina, F. Krausz, E. Wintner, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Subpicosecond mode locking of a Nd3+-doped garnet laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1364–1366 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. H. Ober, Ch. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Femtosecond solid state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2097–2122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Osiko, V. V.

Ostroumov, V. G.

V. G. Ostroumov, E. V. Zharikov, I. A. Shcherbakov, G. B. Loutts, A. I. Zagumenny, C. Pfistner, P. Albers, and H. P. Weber, “Spectroscopic and laser properties of Sc garnet mixtures doped by Cr3+and Nd3+ions,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), 13, 310–314.

Ouellette, F.

F. Ouellette and M. Piché, “Pulse shaping and passive mode-locking with a nonlinear Michelson interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 60, 99–103 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pfistner, C.

V. G. Ostroumov, E. V. Zharikov, I. A. Shcherbakov, G. B. Loutts, A. I. Zagumenny, C. Pfistner, P. Albers, and H. P. Weber, “Spectroscopic and laser properties of Sc garnet mixtures doped by Cr3+and Nd3+ions,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), 13, 310–314.

Piché, M.

M. Piché, “Beam reshaping and self-mode-locking in nonlinear laser resonators,” Opt. Commun. 86, 156–158 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Ouellette and M. Piché, “Pulse shaping and passive mode-locking with a nonlinear Michelson interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 60, 99–103 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Popov, P. A.

P. A. Popov, N. N. Sirota, E. V. Zharikov, A. I. Zagumennyi, I. A. Ivanov, and G. B. Loutts, “Thermal conductivity of rare-earth scandium garnets and their solid solutions,” Laser Phys. 1, 437–440 (1991).

Samoilova, S. A.

G. B. Lutts, A. L. Denisov, E. V. Zharikov, A. I. Zagumennyi, S. N. Kozlikin, S. V. Lavrishchev, and S. A. Samoilova, “GSAG and YSAG: a study of isomorphism and crystal growth,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, S269–S281 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, A. J.

F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. H. Ober, Ch. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Femtosecond solid state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2097–2122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Experimental study of additive-pulse mode locking in an Nd:glass laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1207–1213 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Femtosecond passive mode-locking of a solid-state laser by a dispersively balanced nonlinear interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2470–2472 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, P. A.

Shcherbakov, I. A.

M. H. Ober, E. Sorokin, I. Sorokina, F. Krausz, E. Wintner, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Subpicosecond mode locking of a Nd3+-doped garnet laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1364–1366 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, A. I. Zagumennyi, G. B. Lutts, V. A. Smirnov, I. T. Sorokina, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “New laser crystals: solid solutions based on scandium containing aluminum-gallium garnets, doped with chromium and neodymium,” Laser Phys. 1, 216–219 (1991).

V. A. Smirnov and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Rare-earth scandium chromium garnets as active media for solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 949–959 (1988).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Ostroumov, E. V. Zharikov, I. A. Shcherbakov, G. B. Loutts, A. I. Zagumenny, C. Pfistner, P. Albers, and H. P. Weber, “Spectroscopic and laser properties of Sc garnet mixtures doped by Cr3+and Nd3+ions,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), 13, 310–314.

Shinn, M. D.

Sibbett, W.

Sirota, N. N.

P. A. Popov, N. N. Sirota, E. V. Zharikov, A. I. Zagumennyi, I. A. Ivanov, and G. B. Loutts, “Thermal conductivity of rare-earth scandium garnets and their solid solutions,” Laser Phys. 1, 437–440 (1991).

Smirnov, V. A.

E. V. Zharikov, A. I. Zagumennyi, G. B. Lutts, V. A. Smirnov, I. T. Sorokina, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “New laser crystals: solid solutions based on scandium containing aluminum-gallium garnets, doped with chromium and neodymium,” Laser Phys. 1, 216–219 (1991).

V. A. Smirnov and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Rare-earth scandium chromium garnets as active media for solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 949–959 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sobol, A. A.

Sorokin, E.

Sorokina, I.

Sorokina, I. T.

E. V. Zharikov, A. I. Zagumennyi, G. B. Lutts, V. A. Smirnov, I. T. Sorokina, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “New laser crystals: solid solutions based on scandium containing aluminum-gallium garnets, doped with chromium and neodymium,” Laser Phys. 1, 216–219 (1991).

Spence, D. E.

Spielmann, Ch.

T. Brabec, Ch. Spielmann, P. F. Curley, and F. Kausz, “Kerr lens mode locking,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1292–1294 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. H. Ober, Ch. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Femtosecond solid state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2097–2122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Experimental study of additive-pulse mode locking in an Nd:glass laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1207–1213 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Krausz, T. Brabec, and Ch. Spielmann, “Self-starting passive mode locking,” Opt. Lett. 16, 235–237 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Femtosecond passive mode-locking of a solid-state laser by a dispersively balanced nonlinear interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2470–2472 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stokowski, S. E.

Stolen, R. H.

Ushakov, S. N.

Weber, H. P.

V. G. Ostroumov, E. V. Zharikov, I. A. Shcherbakov, G. B. Loutts, A. I. Zagumenny, C. Pfistner, P. Albers, and H. P. Weber, “Spectroscopic and laser properties of Sc garnet mixtures doped by Cr3+and Nd3+ions,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), 13, 310–314.

Wintner, E.

F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. H. Ober, Ch. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Femtosecond solid state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2097–2122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Ober, E. Sorokin, I. Sorokina, F. Krausz, E. Wintner, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Subpicosecond mode locking of a Nd3+-doped garnet laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1364–1366 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Experimental study of additive-pulse mode locking in an Nd:glass laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1207–1213 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Femtosecond passive mode-locking of a solid-state laser by a dispersively balanced nonlinear interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2470–2472 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zagumenny, A. I.

V. G. Ostroumov, E. V. Zharikov, I. A. Shcherbakov, G. B. Loutts, A. I. Zagumenny, C. Pfistner, P. Albers, and H. P. Weber, “Spectroscopic and laser properties of Sc garnet mixtures doped by Cr3+and Nd3+ions,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), 13, 310–314.

Zagumennyi, A. I.

P. A. Popov, N. N. Sirota, E. V. Zharikov, A. I. Zagumennyi, I. A. Ivanov, and G. B. Loutts, “Thermal conductivity of rare-earth scandium garnets and their solid solutions,” Laser Phys. 1, 437–440 (1991).

E. V. Zharikov, A. I. Zagumennyi, G. B. Lutts, V. A. Smirnov, I. T. Sorokina, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “New laser crystals: solid solutions based on scandium containing aluminum-gallium garnets, doped with chromium and neodymium,” Laser Phys. 1, 216–219 (1991).

G. B. Lutts, A. L. Denisov, E. V. Zharikov, A. I. Zagumennyi, S. N. Kozlikin, S. V. Lavrishchev, and S. A. Samoilova, “GSAG and YSAG: a study of isomorphism and crystal growth,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, S269–S281 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zharikov, E. V.

E. V. Zharikov, A. I. Zagumennyi, G. B. Lutts, V. A. Smirnov, I. T. Sorokina, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “New laser crystals: solid solutions based on scandium containing aluminum-gallium garnets, doped with chromium and neodymium,” Laser Phys. 1, 216–219 (1991).

P. A. Popov, N. N. Sirota, E. V. Zharikov, A. I. Zagumennyi, I. A. Ivanov, and G. B. Loutts, “Thermal conductivity of rare-earth scandium garnets and their solid solutions,” Laser Phys. 1, 437–440 (1991).

G. B. Lutts, A. L. Denisov, E. V. Zharikov, A. I. Zagumennyi, S. N. Kozlikin, S. V. Lavrishchev, and S. A. Samoilova, “GSAG and YSAG: a study of isomorphism and crystal growth,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, S269–S281 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Ostroumov, E. V. Zharikov, I. A. Shcherbakov, G. B. Loutts, A. I. Zagumenny, C. Pfistner, P. Albers, and H. P. Weber, “Spectroscopic and laser properties of Sc garnet mixtures doped by Cr3+and Nd3+ions,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), 13, 310–314.

Zhu, X.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Femtosecond passive mode-locking of a solid-state laser by a dispersively balanced nonlinear interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2470–2472 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

V. A. Smirnov and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Rare-earth scandium chromium garnets as active media for solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 949–959 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. H. Ober, Ch. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Femtosecond solid state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2097–2122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Mitschke and L. F. Mollenauer, “Stabilizing the soliton laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 2242–2250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Experimental study of additive-pulse mode locking in an Nd:glass laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1207–1213 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Chee, J.-M. Liu, and M. N. Kong, “Cavity-detuning characteristics of cw additive-pulse mode-locked Nd:YLF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 700–709 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Laser Phys. (2)

E. V. Zharikov, A. I. Zagumennyi, G. B. Lutts, V. A. Smirnov, I. T. Sorokina, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “New laser crystals: solid solutions based on scandium containing aluminum-gallium garnets, doped with chromium and neodymium,” Laser Phys. 1, 216–219 (1991).

P. A. Popov, N. N. Sirota, E. V. Zharikov, A. I. Zagumennyi, I. A. Ivanov, and G. B. Loutts, “Thermal conductivity of rare-earth scandium garnets and their solid solutions,” Laser Phys. 1, 437–440 (1991).

Opt. Commun. (3)

R. S. Grant and W. Sibbett, “Cavity configurations for coupled-cavity mode-locking,” Opt. Commun. 86, 177–182 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Piché, “Beam reshaping and self-mode-locking in nonlinear laser resonators,” Opt. Commun. 86, 156–158 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Ouellette and M. Piché, “Pulse shaping and passive mode-locking with a nonlinear Michelson interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 60, 99–103 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (12)

K. J. Blow and B. P. Nelson, “Improved mode locking of an F-center laser with a nonlinear nonsoliton external cavity,” Opt. Lett. 13, 1026–1028 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. N. Kean, X. Zhu, D. W. Crust, R. S. Grant, N. Langford, and W. Sibbett, “Enhanced mode locking of color-center lasers,” Opt. Lett. 14, 39–41 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mark, L. Y. Liu, K. L. Hall, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Femtosecond pulse generation in a laser wih a nonlinear external resonator,” Opt. Lett. 14, 48–50 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, G. W. ’tHooft, W. H. Knox, and J. E. Cunningham, “Femtosecond pulses from a continuously self-starting passively mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1022–1024 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Brabec, Ch. Spielmann, P. F. Curley, and F. Kausz, “Kerr lens mode locking,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1292–1294 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Spence, P. N. Kean, and W. Sibbett, “60-fsec pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 42–44 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Goodberlet, J. Jacobson, J. G. Fujimoto, P. A. Schulz, and T. Y. Fan, “Self-starting additive-pulse mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 15, 504–506 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. A. Malcolm, P. F. Curley, and A. I. Ferguson, “Additive-pulse mode locking of a diode-pumped Nd:YLF laser,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1303–1305 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Ober, E. Sorokin, I. Sorokina, F. Krausz, E. Wintner, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Subpicosecond mode locking of a Nd3+-doped garnet laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1364–1366 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Mollenauer and R. H. Stolen, “The soliton laser,” Opt. Lett. 9, 13–15 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Basiev, N. A. Es’kov, A. Ya. Karasik, V. V. Osiko, A. A. Sobol, S. N. Ushakov, and M. Helbig, “Disordered garnets Ca3(Nb, Ga)5O12:Nd3+—prospective crystals for powerful ultrashort-pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 17, 201–203 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Krausz, T. Brabec, and Ch. Spielmann, “Self-starting passive mode locking,” Opt. Lett. 16, 235–237 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. B. Lutts, A. L. Denisov, E. V. Zharikov, A. I. Zagumennyi, S. N. Kozlikin, S. V. Lavrishchev, and S. A. Samoilova, “GSAG and YSAG: a study of isomorphism and crystal growth,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, S269–S281 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Bl. (1)

G. Huber, “Festköpelaser—neue Entwicklungen,” Phys. Bl. 47, 365–370 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

G. P. AgrawalNonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, New York, 1989).

V. G. Ostroumov, E. V. Zharikov, I. A. Shcherbakov, G. B. Loutts, A. I. Zagumenny, C. Pfistner, P. Albers, and H. P. Weber, “Spectroscopic and laser properties of Sc garnet mixtures doped by Cr3+and Nd3+ions,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), 13, 310–314.

W. Koechner, Solid-State laser Engineering (Springer, New York, 1976).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Effective emission cross sections of Nd3+ in mixed gar nets with the common formula YSAGxGSAG1−x.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluorescence spectrum of Nd3+ in crystal A (see Table 1) at 77 K.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the Michelson APM laser. M’s, mirrors.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical spectrum of the cw running laser (solid curve) and fluorescence spectrum of the laser crystal (dashed curve). The spectra are given for crystal A (see Table 1). The optical pump power is approximately 4Pcrit to 6Pcrit.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Shortest pulses obtained: a, intensity autocorrelation; b, interferometric autocorrelation. The pulse width is given for a sech2 pulse shape.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

a, Intensity autocorrelation of the pulse entering the fiber (solid curve); b, intensity autocorrelation of the pulse leaving the fiber; c, interferometric autocorrelation of the pulse leaving the fiber. Autocorrelation functions correspond to the spectra in Fig. 7.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

a, Output spectrum of mode-locked laser (solid curve); fluorescence spectrum of the laser crystal (dashed curve), b, Spectrum of the pulse entering the fiber; c, spectrum of the pulse leaving the fiber. The spectra correspond to pulse shapes shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

a, Change of pulse shape as a function of length mismatch of the nonlinear and dispersive arms; b, corresponding change of peak intensity ratio in the output spectrum.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Crystals Studied

Tables Icon

Table 2 Cw Lasing Data for TEM00 Operation

Tables Icon

Table 3 Mode-Locked Performance

Equations (5)

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σ ( λ ) = B τ I ( λ ) λ 5 8 π c n 2 I ( λ ) λdλ ,
1 τ c < κ P 0 ln ( m i ) T R ,
τ c = α 1 Δ ν 3 dB ,
κ = 4 γ l f L 3 r 2 ( 1 r 2 ) 2 sin ( ϕ ) ,
Δ Φ = 2 l f γ L ( 1 r 2 ) P ( t ) ,

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