Abstract

The electro-optic properties of 2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine and 2-(N-prolinol)-5-nitropyridine single crystals have been evaluated. The dependence of the electro-optic coefficients on the optical wavelength and the frequency of the applied electric field was determined. Enhancements of these coefficients near acoustic resonances were observed and are discussed in terms of elasto-optic contributions. We propose a simple expression for estimation of the limiting values of electro-optic and nonlinear-optical coefficients. In addition, the wavelength dependence of the electro-optic figure of merit for organic and inorganic materials is estimated.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. R. T. Bailey, G. H. Bourhill, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, and K. B. R. Varma, “Linear electro-optic effect and temperature coefficient of birefringence in 4-nitro-4′-methylbenzylidene aniline single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2012–2014 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Günter, Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, H. Arend, G. Chapuis, R. J. Twieg, and D. Dobrowolski, “2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new nonlinear optical crystal with orthorhombic symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 486–488 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Ch. Bosshard, G. Knöpfle, P. Prêtre, and P. Günter, “Second-order polarizabilities of nitropyridine derivatives determined with electric field induced second-harmonic generation and a solvatochromic method: a comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1594–1605 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. J. Twieg and C. W. Dirk, “Molecular and crystal structure of the nonlinear optical material: 2-(N-prolinol)-5-nitropyridine (PNP),” J. Chem. Phys. 85, 3537–3543 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, L. Baraldi, and P. Günter, “Nonlinear optical and electro-optic properties of 2-(N-prolinol)-5-nitropyridine (PNP) crystals,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Materials for Non-linear and Electro-optics, M.-H. Lyons, ed. (Cambridge, 1989), pp. 127–132.
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  24. J. G. Bergman and G. R. Crane, “Structural aspects of nonlinear optics: optical properties of KIO2F2and its related iodates,” J. Chem. Phys. 60, 2470–2474 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Zyss and J. L. Oudar, “Relation between microscopic and macroscopic low-order optical nonlinearities of molecular crystals with one- or two-dimensional units,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 2028–2048 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. J. Boettcher, Theory of Electric Polarization (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1952).
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  29. B. Zysset, I. Biaggio, and P. Günter, “Refractive indices of orthorhombic KNbO3. I: Dispersion and temperature dependence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 379–386 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  35. L. T. Cheng, W. Tam, G. R. Meredith, G. L. J. A. Rikken, and E. W. Meijer, “Nonresonant EFISH and THG studies of nonlinear optical property and molecular structure relations of benzene, stilbene, and other arene derivatives,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials II, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. Vol. 1147, 61–72 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  36. J. Hulliger, B. Brezina, and M. Ehrensperger, “Growth of organic nonlinear optical crystals from supercooled melts: 2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine (COANP),” J. Cryst. Growth 106, 605–610 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  37. J. Hulliger, W. S. Wang, and M. Ehrensperger, “2-(N-(L)-prolinol)-5-nitropyridine (PNP): solution growth of a new nonlinear organic crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 100, 640–642 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  38. Ch. Bosshard, “Optical and nonlinear optical properties of 2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine and 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine molecules, crystals, and Langmuir–Blodgett Films,” Dissertation 9407 (Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zurich, 1991). The results will be published.
  39. G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, R. Schlesser, and P. Günter, “Optical, nonlinear optical, and electro-optical properties of 4′-nitrobenzylidene-3-acetamino-4-methoxyaniline (MNBA) crystals,” submitted to IEEE J. Quantum Electron.
  40. J. Sapriel, R. Hierle, and J. Zyss, “Acoustic and acousto-optic properties of 3-methyl 4-nitropyridine 1-oxide—a Brillouin scatterng study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2594–2596 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  41. S. Allen, “Electrooptic properties of a new organic pyrazole crystal,” in Organic Materials for Non-linear Optics, R. A. Hann and D. Bloor, eds. (Royal Society of Chemistry, London, 1989), pp. 137–150.
  42. A. Harada, Y. Okazaki, K. Kamiyama, and S. Umegaki, “Generation of blue coherent light from a continuous-wave semiconductor laser using an organic crystal-cored fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1535–1537 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  43. I. Ledoux, C. Lepers, A. Perigaud, J. Badan J., and J. Zyss, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of N-4-nitrophenyl L-prolinol single crystals,” Opt. Commun. 80, 149–154 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  44. A. Paturle, H. Graafsma, H.-S. Sheu, P. Coppens, and P. Becker, “Measurement of the piezoelectric tensor of an organic crystal by the x-ray method: the nonlinear optical crystal 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 14,683–14,691 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

1992 (3)

R. T. Bailey, G. H. Bourhill, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, and K. B. R. Varma, “Linear electro-optic effect and temperature coefficient of birefringence in 4-nitro-4′-methylbenzylidene aniline single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2012–2014 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Bosshard, G. Knöpfle, P. Prêtre, and P. Günter, “Second-order polarizabilities of nitropyridine derivatives determined with electric field induced second-harmonic generation and a solvatochromic method: a comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1594–1605 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Zysset, I. Biaggio, and P. Günter, “Refractive indices of orthorhombic KNbO3. I: Dispersion and temperature dependence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 379–386 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

A. Harada, Y. Okazaki, K. Kamiyama, and S. Umegaki, “Generation of blue coherent light from a continuous-wave semiconductor laser using an organic crystal-cored fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1535–1537 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Paturle, H. Graafsma, H.-S. Sheu, P. Coppens, and P. Becker, “Measurement of the piezoelectric tensor of an organic crystal by the x-ray method: the nonlinear optical crystal 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 14,683–14,691 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (4)

I. Ledoux, C. Lepers, A. Perigaud, J. Badan J., and J. Zyss, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of N-4-nitrophenyl L-prolinol single crystals,” Opt. Commun. 80, 149–154 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Hulliger, B. Brezina, and M. Ehrensperger, “Growth of organic nonlinear optical crystals from supercooled melts: 2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine (COANP),” J. Cryst. Growth 106, 605–610 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Hulliger, W. S. Wang, and M. Ehrensperger, “2-(N-(L)-prolinol)-5-nitropyridine (PNP): solution growth of a new nonlinear organic crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 100, 640–642 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bierlein, L. K. Cheng, Y. Wang, and W. Tam, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of 3-methyl-4-methoxy-4′-nitrostilbene single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 423–425 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

P. Kerkoc, M. Zgonik, K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical and nonlinear optical properties of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2062–2064 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Günter, and G. Chapuis, “Linear-and nonlinear-optical properties of 2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 721–725 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Sapriel, R. Hierle, and J. Zyss, “Acoustic and acousto-optic properties of 3-methyl 4-nitropyridine 1-oxide—a Brillouin scatterng study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2594–2596 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, W. S. Wang, G. Surmely, and P. Günter, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of 2-(N-prolinol)-5-nitropyridine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1779–1781 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Allen, T. D. McLean, P. F. Gordon, B. D. Bothwell, M. B. Hursthouse, and S. A. Karaulov, “A novel organic electro-optic crystal: 3-(1,1-dicyanoethenyl)-1-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 2583–2590 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (4)

T. Yoshimura, “Characterization of the electro-optic effect in styrylpyridinium cyanine dye thin-film crystals by an ac modulation method,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 2028–2032 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Morita, N. Ogasawara, S. Umegaki, and R. Ito, “Refractive indices of 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26, L1711–L1713 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. Günter, Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, H. Arend, G. Chapuis, R. J. Twieg, and D. Dobrowolski, “2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new nonlinear optical crystal with orthorhombic symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 486–488 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Electrooptic and piezoelectric measurements in photorefractive barium titanate and strontium barium niobate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2116–2121 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

R. J. Twieg and C. W. Dirk, “Molecular and crystal structure of the nonlinear optical material: 2-(N-prolinol)-5-nitropyridine (PNP),” J. Chem. Phys. 85, 3537–3543 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

C. C. Teng and A. F. Garito, “Dispersion of the nonlinear optical susceptibility of organic systems,” Phys. Rev. B 28, 6766–6773 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. Zyss and J. L. Oudar, “Relation between microscopic and macroscopic low-order optical nonlinearities of molecular crystals with one- or two-dimensional units,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 2028–2048 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

M. Sigelle and R. Hierle, “Determination of the electrooptic coefficients of 3-methyl-4-nitropyridine-1-oxide by an interferometric phase-modulation technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4199–4204 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Lipscomb, A. F. Garito, and R. S. Narang, “A large linear electro-optic effect in a polar organic crystal 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 663–665 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

P. Günter, “Electro-optical and nonlinear-optical materials,” Ferroelectrics 24, 35–42 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

J. Fousek, “Refractive indices and electro-optics at ferroelectric and structural phase transitions,” Ferroelectrics 20, 11–20 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

J. L. Oudar, “Optical nonlinearities of conjugated molecules. Stilbene derivatives and highly polar aromatics,” J. Chem. Phys. 67, 446–457 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. G. Bergman and G. R. Crane, “Structural aspects of nonlinear optics: optical properties of KIO2F2and its related iodates,” J. Chem. Phys. 60, 2470–2474 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

J. L. Stevenson, “The linear electro-optic coefficient of meta-nitroaniline,” J. Phys. D 6, L13–L16 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

Allen, S.

S. Allen, T. D. McLean, P. F. Gordon, B. D. Bothwell, M. B. Hursthouse, and S. A. Karaulov, “A novel organic electro-optic crystal: 3-(1,1-dicyanoethenyl)-1-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 2583–2590 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Allen, “Electrooptic properties of a new organic pyrazole crystal,” in Organic Materials for Non-linear Optics, R. A. Hann and D. Bloor, eds. (Royal Society of Chemistry, London, 1989), pp. 137–150.

Arend, H.

P. Günter, Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, H. Arend, G. Chapuis, R. J. Twieg, and D. Dobrowolski, “2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new nonlinear optical crystal with orthorhombic symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 486–488 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Badan J., J.

I. Ledoux, C. Lepers, A. Perigaud, J. Badan J., and J. Zyss, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of N-4-nitrophenyl L-prolinol single crystals,” Opt. Commun. 80, 149–154 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, R. T.

R. T. Bailey, G. H. Bourhill, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, and K. B. R. Varma, “Linear electro-optic effect and temperature coefficient of birefringence in 4-nitro-4′-methylbenzylidene aniline single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2012–2014 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Baraldi, L.

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, L. Baraldi, and P. Günter, “Nonlinear optical and electro-optic properties of 2-(N-prolinol)-5-nitropyridine (PNP) crystals,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Materials for Non-linear and Electro-optics, M.-H. Lyons, ed. (Cambridge, 1989), pp. 127–132.

Becker, P.

A. Paturle, H. Graafsma, H.-S. Sheu, P. Coppens, and P. Becker, “Measurement of the piezoelectric tensor of an organic crystal by the x-ray method: the nonlinear optical crystal 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 14,683–14,691 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, J. G.

J. G. Bergman and G. R. Crane, “Structural aspects of nonlinear optics: optical properties of KIO2F2and its related iodates,” J. Chem. Phys. 60, 2470–2474 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Biaggio, I.

B. Zysset, I. Biaggio, and P. Günter, “Refractive indices of orthorhombic KNbO3. I: Dispersion and temperature dependence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 379–386 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bierlein, J. D.

J. D. Bierlein, L. K. Cheng, Y. Wang, and W. Tam, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of 3-methyl-4-methoxy-4′-nitrostilbene single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 423–425 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Boden, E. P.

J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, E. T. Sleva, C. P. Yakymyshyn, K. R. Stewart, and E. P. Boden, “Organic salts with large electro-optic coefficients,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. Vol. 1560, 302–309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Boettcher, C. J.

C. J. Boettcher, Theory of Electric Polarization (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1952).

Bosshard, Ch.

Ch. Bosshard, G. Knöpfle, P. Prêtre, and P. Günter, “Second-order polarizabilities of nitropyridine derivatives determined with electric field induced second-harmonic generation and a solvatochromic method: a comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1594–1605 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Kerkoc, M. Zgonik, K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical and nonlinear optical properties of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2062–2064 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Günter, and G. Chapuis, “Linear-and nonlinear-optical properties of 2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 721–725 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, W. S. Wang, G. Surmely, and P. Günter, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of 2-(N-prolinol)-5-nitropyridine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1779–1781 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Günter, Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, H. Arend, G. Chapuis, R. J. Twieg, and D. Dobrowolski, “2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new nonlinear optical crystal with orthorhombic symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 486–488 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, L. Baraldi, and P. Günter, “Nonlinear optical and electro-optic properties of 2-(N-prolinol)-5-nitropyridine (PNP) crystals,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Materials for Non-linear and Electro-optics, M.-H. Lyons, ed. (Cambridge, 1989), pp. 127–132.

Ch. Bosshard, “Optical and nonlinear optical properties of 2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine and 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine molecules, crystals, and Langmuir–Blodgett Films,” Dissertation 9407 (Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zurich, 1991). The results will be published.

G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, R. Schlesser, and P. Günter, “Optical, nonlinear optical, and electro-optical properties of 4′-nitrobenzylidene-3-acetamino-4-methoxyaniline (MNBA) crystals,” submitted to IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

Bothwell, B. D.

S. Allen, T. D. McLean, P. F. Gordon, B. D. Bothwell, M. B. Hursthouse, and S. A. Karaulov, “A novel organic electro-optic crystal: 3-(1,1-dicyanoethenyl)-1-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 2583–2590 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bourhill, G. H.

R. T. Bailey, G. H. Bourhill, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, and K. B. R. Varma, “Linear electro-optic effect and temperature coefficient of birefringence in 4-nitro-4′-methylbenzylidene aniline single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2012–2014 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Brezina, B.

J. Hulliger, B. Brezina, and M. Ehrensperger, “Growth of organic nonlinear optical crystals from supercooled melts: 2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine (COANP),” J. Cryst. Growth 106, 605–610 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chapuis, G.

Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Günter, and G. Chapuis, “Linear-and nonlinear-optical properties of 2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 721–725 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Günter, Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, H. Arend, G. Chapuis, R. J. Twieg, and D. Dobrowolski, “2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new nonlinear optical crystal with orthorhombic symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 486–488 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, L. K.

J. D. Bierlein, L. K. Cheng, Y. Wang, and W. Tam, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of 3-methyl-4-methoxy-4′-nitrostilbene single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 423–425 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, L. T.

L. T. Cheng, W. Tam, G. R. Meredith, G. L. J. A. Rikken, and E. W. Meijer, “Nonresonant EFISH and THG studies of nonlinear optical property and molecular structure relations of benzene, stilbene, and other arene derivatives,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials II, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. Vol. 1147, 61–72 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Coppens, P.

A. Paturle, H. Graafsma, H.-S. Sheu, P. Coppens, and P. Becker, “Measurement of the piezoelectric tensor of an organic crystal by the x-ray method: the nonlinear optical crystal 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 14,683–14,691 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Crane, G. R.

J. G. Bergman and G. R. Crane, “Structural aspects of nonlinear optics: optical properties of KIO2F2and its related iodates,” J. Chem. Phys. 60, 2470–2474 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Cruickshank, F. R.

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R. J. Twieg and C. W. Dirk, “Molecular and crystal structure of the nonlinear optical material: 2-(N-prolinol)-5-nitropyridine (PNP),” J. Chem. Phys. 85, 3537–3543 (1986).
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P. Günter, Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, H. Arend, G. Chapuis, R. J. Twieg, and D. Dobrowolski, “2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new nonlinear optical crystal with orthorhombic symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 486–488 (1987).
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S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Electrooptic and piezoelectric measurements in photorefractive barium titanate and strontium barium niobate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2116–2121 (1987).
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J. Hulliger, B. Brezina, and M. Ehrensperger, “Growth of organic nonlinear optical crystals from supercooled melts: 2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine (COANP),” J. Cryst. Growth 106, 605–610 (1990).
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J. Hulliger, W. S. Wang, and M. Ehrensperger, “2-(N-(L)-prolinol)-5-nitropyridine (PNP): solution growth of a new nonlinear organic crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 100, 640–642 (1990).
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S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Electrooptic and piezoelectric measurements in photorefractive barium titanate and strontium barium niobate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2116–2121 (1987).
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C. C. Teng and A. F. Garito, “Dispersion of the nonlinear optical susceptibility of organic systems,” Phys. Rev. B 28, 6766–6773 (1983).
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G. F. Lipscomb, A. F. Garito, and R. S. Narang, “A large linear electro-optic effect in a polar organic crystal 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 663–665 (1981).
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S. Allen, T. D. McLean, P. F. Gordon, B. D. Bothwell, M. B. Hursthouse, and S. A. Karaulov, “A novel organic electro-optic crystal: 3-(1,1-dicyanoethenyl)-1-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 2583–2590 (1988).
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Graafsma, H.

A. Paturle, H. Graafsma, H.-S. Sheu, P. Coppens, and P. Becker, “Measurement of the piezoelectric tensor of an organic crystal by the x-ray method: the nonlinear optical crystal 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 14,683–14,691 (1991).
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Ch. Bosshard, G. Knöpfle, P. Prêtre, and P. Günter, “Second-order polarizabilities of nitropyridine derivatives determined with electric field induced second-harmonic generation and a solvatochromic method: a comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1594–1605 (1992).
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Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Günter, and G. Chapuis, “Linear-and nonlinear-optical properties of 2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 721–725 (1989).
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P. Kerkoc, M. Zgonik, K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical and nonlinear optical properties of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2062–2064 (1989).
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K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, W. S. Wang, G. Surmely, and P. Günter, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of 2-(N-prolinol)-5-nitropyridine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1779–1781 (1988).
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P. Günter, Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, H. Arend, G. Chapuis, R. J. Twieg, and D. Dobrowolski, “2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new nonlinear optical crystal with orthorhombic symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 486–488 (1987).
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G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, R. Schlesser, and P. Günter, “Optical, nonlinear optical, and electro-optical properties of 4′-nitrobenzylidene-3-acetamino-4-methoxyaniline (MNBA) crystals,” submitted to IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

P. Günter, “Electro-optical properties of KNbO3,” in Proceedings of Electro-optics/Laser International ’76, H. G. Jerrard, ed. (IPC Science and Technology, Surrey, England, 1976), pp. 121–130.

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, L. Baraldi, and P. Günter, “Nonlinear optical and electro-optic properties of 2-(N-prolinol)-5-nitropyridine (PNP) crystals,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Materials for Non-linear and Electro-optics, M.-H. Lyons, ed. (Cambridge, 1989), pp. 127–132.

Harada, A.

A. Harada, Y. Okazaki, K. Kamiyama, and S. Umegaki, “Generation of blue coherent light from a continuous-wave semiconductor laser using an organic crystal-cored fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1535–1537 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hierle, R.

J. Sapriel, R. Hierle, and J. Zyss, “Acoustic and acousto-optic properties of 3-methyl 4-nitropyridine 1-oxide—a Brillouin scatterng study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2594–2596 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Sigelle and R. Hierle, “Determination of the electrooptic coefficients of 3-methyl-4-nitropyridine-1-oxide by an interferometric phase-modulation technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4199–4204 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hulliger, J.

J. Hulliger, B. Brezina, and M. Ehrensperger, “Growth of organic nonlinear optical crystals from supercooled melts: 2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine (COANP),” J. Cryst. Growth 106, 605–610 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Hulliger, W. S. Wang, and M. Ehrensperger, “2-(N-(L)-prolinol)-5-nitropyridine (PNP): solution growth of a new nonlinear organic crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 100, 640–642 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hursthouse, M. B.

S. Allen, T. D. McLean, P. F. Gordon, B. D. Bothwell, M. B. Hursthouse, and S. A. Karaulov, “A novel organic electro-optic crystal: 3-(1,1-dicyanoethenyl)-1-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 2583–2590 (1988).
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Ito, R.

R. Morita, N. Ogasawara, S. Umegaki, and R. Ito, “Refractive indices of 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26, L1711–L1713 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kamiyama, K.

A. Harada, Y. Okazaki, K. Kamiyama, and S. Umegaki, “Generation of blue coherent light from a continuous-wave semiconductor laser using an organic crystal-cored fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1535–1537 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Karaulov, S. A.

S. Allen, T. D. McLean, P. F. Gordon, B. D. Bothwell, M. B. Hursthouse, and S. A. Karaulov, “A novel organic electro-optic crystal: 3-(1,1-dicyanoethenyl)-1-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 2583–2590 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kerkoc, P.

P. Kerkoc, M. Zgonik, K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical and nonlinear optical properties of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2062–2064 (1989).
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Ch. Bosshard, G. Knöpfle, P. Prêtre, and P. Günter, “Second-order polarizabilities of nitropyridine derivatives determined with electric field induced second-harmonic generation and a solvatochromic method: a comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1594–1605 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, R. Schlesser, and P. Günter, “Optical, nonlinear optical, and electro-optical properties of 4′-nitrobenzylidene-3-acetamino-4-methoxyaniline (MNBA) crystals,” submitted to IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

Kubota, Y.

T. Yoshimura and Y. Kubota, “Pockels effect in organic thin films,” in Nonlinear Optics in Organics and Semiconductors, Vol. 6 of Springer Proceedings in Physics, T. Kobayashi, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 222–226.
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I. Ledoux, C. Lepers, A. Perigaud, J. Badan J., and J. Zyss, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of N-4-nitrophenyl L-prolinol single crystals,” Opt. Commun. 80, 149–154 (1990).
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Lepers, C.

I. Ledoux, C. Lepers, A. Perigaud, J. Badan J., and J. Zyss, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of N-4-nitrophenyl L-prolinol single crystals,” Opt. Commun. 80, 149–154 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lipscomb, G. F.

G. F. Lipscomb, A. F. Garito, and R. S. Narang, “A large linear electro-optic effect in a polar organic crystal 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 663–665 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Marder, S. R.

J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, E. T. Sleva, C. P. Yakymyshyn, K. R. Stewart, and E. P. Boden, “Organic salts with large electro-optic coefficients,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. Vol. 1560, 302–309 (1991).
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McLean, T. D.

S. Allen, T. D. McLean, P. F. Gordon, B. D. Bothwell, M. B. Hursthouse, and S. A. Karaulov, “A novel organic electro-optic crystal: 3-(1,1-dicyanoethenyl)-1-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 2583–2590 (1988).
[CrossRef]

McQuaid, R. W.

Meijer, E. W.

L. T. Cheng, W. Tam, G. R. Meredith, G. L. J. A. Rikken, and E. W. Meijer, “Nonresonant EFISH and THG studies of nonlinear optical property and molecular structure relations of benzene, stilbene, and other arene derivatives,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials II, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. Vol. 1147, 61–72 (1989).
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L. T. Cheng, W. Tam, G. R. Meredith, G. L. J. A. Rikken, and E. W. Meijer, “Nonresonant EFISH and THG studies of nonlinear optical property and molecular structure relations of benzene, stilbene, and other arene derivatives,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials II, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. Vol. 1147, 61–72 (1989).
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R. Morita, N. Ogasawara, S. Umegaki, and R. Ito, “Refractive indices of 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26, L1711–L1713 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Narang, R. S.

G. F. Lipscomb, A. F. Garito, and R. S. Narang, “A large linear electro-optic effect in a polar organic crystal 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 663–665 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Electrooptic and piezoelectric measurements in photorefractive barium titanate and strontium barium niobate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2116–2121 (1987).
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J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Clarendon, Oxford, 1967).

Ogasawara, N.

R. Morita, N. Ogasawara, S. Umegaki, and R. Ito, “Refractive indices of 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26, L1711–L1713 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Okazaki, Y.

A. Harada, Y. Okazaki, K. Kamiyama, and S. Umegaki, “Generation of blue coherent light from a continuous-wave semiconductor laser using an organic crystal-cored fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1535–1537 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Oudar, J. L.

J. Zyss and J. L. Oudar, “Relation between microscopic and macroscopic low-order optical nonlinearities of molecular crystals with one- or two-dimensional units,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 2028–2048 (1982).
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A. Paturle, H. Graafsma, H.-S. Sheu, P. Coppens, and P. Becker, “Measurement of the piezoelectric tensor of an organic crystal by the x-ray method: the nonlinear optical crystal 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 14,683–14,691 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Perigaud, A.

I. Ledoux, C. Lepers, A. Perigaud, J. Badan J., and J. Zyss, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of N-4-nitrophenyl L-prolinol single crystals,” Opt. Commun. 80, 149–154 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, E. T. Sleva, C. P. Yakymyshyn, K. R. Stewart, and E. P. Boden, “Organic salts with large electro-optic coefficients,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. Vol. 1560, 302–309 (1991).
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Perry, K. J.

J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, E. T. Sleva, C. P. Yakymyshyn, K. R. Stewart, and E. P. Boden, “Organic salts with large electro-optic coefficients,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. Vol. 1560, 302–309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Prêtre, P.

Ch. Bosshard, G. Knöpfle, P. Prêtre, and P. Günter, “Second-order polarizabilities of nitropyridine derivatives determined with electric field induced second-harmonic generation and a solvatochromic method: a comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1594–1605 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pugh, D.

R. T. Bailey, G. H. Bourhill, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, and K. B. R. Varma, “Linear electro-optic effect and temperature coefficient of birefringence in 4-nitro-4′-methylbenzylidene aniline single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2012–2014 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rikken, G. L. J. A.

L. T. Cheng, W. Tam, G. R. Meredith, G. L. J. A. Rikken, and E. W. Meijer, “Nonresonant EFISH and THG studies of nonlinear optical property and molecular structure relations of benzene, stilbene, and other arene derivatives,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials II, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. Vol. 1147, 61–72 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sapriel, J.

J. Sapriel, R. Hierle, and J. Zyss, “Acoustic and acousto-optic properties of 3-methyl 4-nitropyridine 1-oxide—a Brillouin scatterng study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2594–2596 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schlesser, R.

G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, R. Schlesser, and P. Günter, “Optical, nonlinear optical, and electro-optical properties of 4′-nitrobenzylidene-3-acetamino-4-methoxyaniline (MNBA) crystals,” submitted to IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

Sherwood, J. N.

R. T. Bailey, G. H. Bourhill, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, and K. B. R. Varma, “Linear electro-optic effect and temperature coefficient of birefringence in 4-nitro-4′-methylbenzylidene aniline single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2012–2014 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, H.-S.

A. Paturle, H. Graafsma, H.-S. Sheu, P. Coppens, and P. Becker, “Measurement of the piezoelectric tensor of an organic crystal by the x-ray method: the nonlinear optical crystal 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 14,683–14,691 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sigelle, M.

M. Sigelle and R. Hierle, “Determination of the electrooptic coefficients of 3-methyl-4-nitropyridine-1-oxide by an interferometric phase-modulation technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4199–4204 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, G. S.

R. T. Bailey, G. H. Bourhill, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, and K. B. R. Varma, “Linear electro-optic effect and temperature coefficient of birefringence in 4-nitro-4′-methylbenzylidene aniline single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2012–2014 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, E. T. Sleva, C. P. Yakymyshyn, K. R. Stewart, and E. P. Boden, “Organic salts with large electro-optic coefficients,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. Vol. 1560, 302–309 (1991).
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J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, E. T. Sleva, C. P. Yakymyshyn, K. R. Stewart, and E. P. Boden, “Organic salts with large electro-optic coefficients,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. Vol. 1560, 302–309 (1991).
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Surmely, G.

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, W. S. Wang, G. Surmely, and P. Günter, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of 2-(N-prolinol)-5-nitropyridine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1779–1781 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sutter, K.

P. Kerkoc, M. Zgonik, K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical and nonlinear optical properties of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2062–2064 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Günter, and G. Chapuis, “Linear-and nonlinear-optical properties of 2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 721–725 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, W. S. Wang, G. Surmely, and P. Günter, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of 2-(N-prolinol)-5-nitropyridine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1779–1781 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Günter, Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, H. Arend, G. Chapuis, R. J. Twieg, and D. Dobrowolski, “2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new nonlinear optical crystal with orthorhombic symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 486–488 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, L. Baraldi, and P. Günter, “Nonlinear optical and electro-optic properties of 2-(N-prolinol)-5-nitropyridine (PNP) crystals,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Materials for Non-linear and Electro-optics, M.-H. Lyons, ed. (Cambridge, 1989), pp. 127–132.

Tam, W.

J. D. Bierlein, L. K. Cheng, Y. Wang, and W. Tam, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of 3-methyl-4-methoxy-4′-nitrostilbene single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 423–425 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Cheng, W. Tam, G. R. Meredith, G. L. J. A. Rikken, and E. W. Meijer, “Nonresonant EFISH and THG studies of nonlinear optical property and molecular structure relations of benzene, stilbene, and other arene derivatives,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials II, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. Vol. 1147, 61–72 (1989).
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C. C. Teng and A. F. Garito, “Dispersion of the nonlinear optical susceptibility of organic systems,” Phys. Rev. B 28, 6766–6773 (1983).
[CrossRef]

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P. Günter, Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, H. Arend, G. Chapuis, R. J. Twieg, and D. Dobrowolski, “2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new nonlinear optical crystal with orthorhombic symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 486–488 (1987).
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R. J. Twieg and C. W. Dirk, “Molecular and crystal structure of the nonlinear optical material: 2-(N-prolinol)-5-nitropyridine (PNP),” J. Chem. Phys. 85, 3537–3543 (1986).
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Umegaki, S.

A. Harada, Y. Okazaki, K. Kamiyama, and S. Umegaki, “Generation of blue coherent light from a continuous-wave semiconductor laser using an organic crystal-cored fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1535–1537 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Morita, N. Ogasawara, S. Umegaki, and R. Ito, “Refractive indices of 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26, L1711–L1713 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Varma, K. B. R.

R. T. Bailey, G. H. Bourhill, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, and K. B. R. Varma, “Linear electro-optic effect and temperature coefficient of birefringence in 4-nitro-4′-methylbenzylidene aniline single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2012–2014 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. S.

J. Hulliger, W. S. Wang, and M. Ehrensperger, “2-(N-(L)-prolinol)-5-nitropyridine (PNP): solution growth of a new nonlinear organic crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 100, 640–642 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, W. S. Wang, G. Surmely, and P. Günter, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of 2-(N-prolinol)-5-nitropyridine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1779–1781 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

J. D. Bierlein, L. K. Cheng, Y. Wang, and W. Tam, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of 3-methyl-4-methoxy-4′-nitrostilbene single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 423–425 (1990).
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J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, E. T. Sleva, C. P. Yakymyshyn, K. R. Stewart, and E. P. Boden, “Organic salts with large electro-optic coefficients,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. Vol. 1560, 302–309 (1991).
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T. Yoshimura, “Characterization of the electro-optic effect in styrylpyridinium cyanine dye thin-film crystals by an ac modulation method,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 2028–2032 (1987).
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T. Yoshimura and Y. Kubota, “Pockels effect in organic thin films,” in Nonlinear Optics in Organics and Semiconductors, Vol. 6 of Springer Proceedings in Physics, T. Kobayashi, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 222–226.
[CrossRef]

Zgonik, M.

P. Kerkoc, M. Zgonik, K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical and nonlinear optical properties of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2062–2064 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zyss, J.

I. Ledoux, C. Lepers, A. Perigaud, J. Badan J., and J. Zyss, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of N-4-nitrophenyl L-prolinol single crystals,” Opt. Commun. 80, 149–154 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Sapriel, R. Hierle, and J. Zyss, “Acoustic and acousto-optic properties of 3-methyl 4-nitropyridine 1-oxide—a Brillouin scatterng study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2594–2596 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Zyss and J. L. Oudar, “Relation between microscopic and macroscopic low-order optical nonlinearities of molecular crystals with one- or two-dimensional units,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 2028–2048 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Zysset, B.

B. Zysset, I. Biaggio, and P. Günter, “Refractive indices of orthorhombic KNbO3. I: Dispersion and temperature dependence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 379–386 (1992).
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[CrossRef]

J. D. Bierlein, L. K. Cheng, Y. Wang, and W. Tam, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of 3-methyl-4-methoxy-4′-nitrostilbene single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 423–425 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, W. S. Wang, G. Surmely, and P. Günter, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of 2-(N-prolinol)-5-nitropyridine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1779–1781 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Kerkoc, M. Zgonik, K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical and nonlinear optical properties of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2062–2064 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Günter, Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, H. Arend, G. Chapuis, R. J. Twieg, and D. Dobrowolski, “2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new nonlinear optical crystal with orthorhombic symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 486–488 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Sapriel, R. Hierle, and J. Zyss, “Acoustic and acousto-optic properties of 3-methyl 4-nitropyridine 1-oxide—a Brillouin scatterng study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2594–2596 (1989).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

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[CrossRef]

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M. Sigelle and R. Hierle, “Determination of the electrooptic coefficients of 3-methyl-4-nitropyridine-1-oxide by an interferometric phase-modulation technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4199–4204 (1981).
[CrossRef]

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Ch. Bosshard, G. Knöpfle, P. Prêtre, and P. Günter, “Second-order polarizabilities of nitropyridine derivatives determined with electric field induced second-harmonic generation and a solvatochromic method: a comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1594–1605 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Allen, T. D. McLean, P. F. Gordon, B. D. Bothwell, M. B. Hursthouse, and S. A. Karaulov, “A novel organic electro-optic crystal: 3-(1,1-dicyanoethenyl)-1-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 2583–2590 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Bailey, G. H. Bourhill, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, and K. B. R. Varma, “Linear electro-optic effect and temperature coefficient of birefringence in 4-nitro-4′-methylbenzylidene aniline single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2012–2014 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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R. J. Twieg and C. W. Dirk, “Molecular and crystal structure of the nonlinear optical material: 2-(N-prolinol)-5-nitropyridine (PNP),” J. Chem. Phys. 85, 3537–3543 (1986).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. Hulliger, W. S. Wang, and M. Ehrensperger, “2-(N-(L)-prolinol)-5-nitropyridine (PNP): solution growth of a new nonlinear organic crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 100, 640–642 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

B. Zysset, I. Biaggio, and P. Günter, “Refractive indices of orthorhombic KNbO3. I: Dispersion and temperature dependence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 379–386 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Günter, and G. Chapuis, “Linear-and nonlinear-optical properties of 2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 721–725 (1989).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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R. Morita, N. Ogasawara, S. Umegaki, and R. Ito, “Refractive indices of 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26, L1711–L1713 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

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A. Paturle, H. Graafsma, H.-S. Sheu, P. Coppens, and P. Becker, “Measurement of the piezoelectric tensor of an organic crystal by the x-ray method: the nonlinear optical crystal 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 14,683–14,691 (1991).
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L. T. Cheng, W. Tam, G. R. Meredith, G. L. J. A. Rikken, and E. W. Meijer, “Nonresonant EFISH and THG studies of nonlinear optical property and molecular structure relations of benzene, stilbene, and other arene derivatives,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials II, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. Vol. 1147, 61–72 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Allen, “Electrooptic properties of a new organic pyrazole crystal,” in Organic Materials for Non-linear Optics, R. A. Hann and D. Bloor, eds. (Royal Society of Chemistry, London, 1989), pp. 137–150.

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A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1975), pp. 327–370.

P. Günter, “Electro-optical properties of KNbO3,” in Proceedings of Electro-optics/Laser International ’76, H. G. Jerrard, ed. (IPC Science and Technology, Surrey, England, 1976), pp. 121–130.

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Ch. Bosshard, “Optical and nonlinear optical properties of 2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine and 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine molecules, crystals, and Langmuir–Blodgett Films,” Dissertation 9407 (Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zurich, 1991). The results will be published.

G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, R. Schlesser, and P. Günter, “Optical, nonlinear optical, and electro-optical properties of 4′-nitrobenzylidene-3-acetamino-4-methoxyaniline (MNBA) crystals,” submitted to IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

T. Yoshimura and Y. Kubota, “Pockels effect in organic thin films,” in Nonlinear Optics in Organics and Semiconductors, Vol. 6 of Springer Proceedings in Physics, T. Kobayashi, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 222–226.
[CrossRef]

J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, E. T. Sleva, C. P. Yakymyshyn, K. R. Stewart, and E. P. Boden, “Organic salts with large electro-optic coefficients,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. Vol. 1560, 302–309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Kerkoc, Ph.D. thesis No. 9413 (Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zurich, Switzerland, 1991).

K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, L. Baraldi, and P. Günter, “Nonlinear optical and electro-optic properties of 2-(N-prolinol)-5-nitropyridine (PNP) crystals,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Materials for Non-linear and Electro-optics, M.-H. Lyons, ed. (Cambridge, 1989), pp. 127–132.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The electro-optic figure of merit as a function of wavelength of different organic and inorganic compounds. The curves are drawn over the transmission ranges of the respective materials.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a, Logarithmic plot of β versus λc = λeg + 100 + Δλ for p-disubstituted benzenes (Δλ = 40 nm) and 4-4′-disubstituted stilbenes (Δλ = 60 nm) for electro-optics [using data points from Ref. 35, in SI units (βmax in 10−40 m4/V, λ in nanometers)]. b, Logarithmic plot of β versus 2λc = 2(λeg + 100 + Δλ) for p-disubstituted benzenes (Δλ = 40 nm) and 4-4′-disubstituted stilbenes (Δλ = 60 nm) for frequency-doubling [using data points from Ref. 35, in SI units (βmax in 10−40 m4/V, λ in nanometers)].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a, Logarithmic plot of rmax versus λc = λeg + 100 + Δλ for p-disubstituted benzenes (Δλ = 40 nm) and 4-4′-disubstituted stilbenes (Δλ = 60 nm) for electro-optics [using data points from Ref. 35, in SI units (rmax in pm/V, λ in nanometers)]. Examples of electro-optic coefficients of different organic compounds are also marked. b, Logarithmic plot of dmax versus 2λc = 2(λeg + 100 + Δλ) for p-disubstituted benzenes (Δλ = 40 nm) and 4-4′-disubstituted stilbenes (Δλ = 60 nm) for frequency-doubling [using data points from Ref. 35, in SI units (dmax in pm/V, λ in nanometers)].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Molecular and crystalline structure of (a) COANP and (b) PNP. Projections along the crystallographic b axis (COANP) and the dielectric z axis (PNP) are shown.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Michelson interferometer used for the determination of the electro-optic coefficients of COANP and PNP.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Intensity at the output of the interferometer. The modulator is biased to the point I1 + I2 with a mirror mounted on a piezoelectric crystal. A small applied sinusoidal voltage modulates the light intensity about the bias point.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Wavelength dispersion of the electro-optic coefficients of a, COANP and b, PNP. A theoretical fit using Eq. (11) is overlaid.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental setup for the determination of the field-induced birefringence.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Dependence of the effective electro-optic coefficient |n33r33n23r23| on the modulation frequency ν measured at λ = 514.5 nm [applied voltage: 7 V (rms), electric field |E|rms = 4.1 kV/m] for COANP (crystal COANP 1). The dashed line shows the value of |n33r33n23r23| calculated from r33 and r23 (interferometric measurement at 1 kHz). The crystal was mounted between metal plates. (Inset) First resonance with a better resolution.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Dependence of the effective electro-optic coefficient |n33r33n23r23| on the modulation frequency ν measured at λ = 514.5 nm [applied voltage: 7 V (rms)] for COANP 1, COANP 2, and COANP 3, where the length of the b axis was varied. The horizontal axis is normalized to ν × (crystal width). Note the good correspondence of the resonance frequencies with the different crystal lengths (1:0.92:0.78). It can be clearly observed that the peak at ν1 = 140 kHz (COANP 1) is due to a standing longitudinal wave in the b direction {e.g., ν1[= 140 kHz (COANP 1)]/ν1 [= 156.5 kHz (COANP 2)] = 0.90}. The dotted line corresponds to the frequency of the peak of the crystal COANP 1.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Model for the explanation of acoustic phonon resonance frequencies for different boundary conditions along c for COANP.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Dependence of the effective electro-optic coefficient |n33r33n23r23| on the modulation voltage ν measured at λ = 514.5 nm [applied voltage, 7 V (rms)] for COANP 2 and COANP 3 (scaling according to the different lengths d along c, dividing of the modulation frequency by 2 in order to account for the different boundary conditions). The dotted lines correspond to the frequencies of the peaks of the crystal COANP 1.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Dependence of the effective electro-optic coefficient |n23r22n13r12| on the modulation frequency ν measured at λ = 514.5 nm [applied voltage: 7 V (rms)] for PNP (crystal PNP 2). The dashed line shows the value of |n23r22n13r12| calculated from r22 and r12 (at 1 kHz). Electrodes were made of silver paste.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Dependence of the dielectric constant c on the modulation frequency ν for COANP (crystal COANP 2). The dashed line shows the calculated value of c ~ nc2(0). The dotted curve at the left is a guide for the eye. The crystal was mounted between parallel metal plates.

Tables (14)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Examples of Organic Compounds Investigated for Their Electro-Optic Responsea

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Table 2 Parameters Used for the Calculations in Fig. 1 for the Inorganic Materials

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Table 3 Results from Fits of Molecular Second-Order Susceptibilities βmax, Electro-Optic and Nonlinear-Optical Coefficients rmax, dmax, and dmax||a

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Table 4 Examples for Selected Wavelengths

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Table 5 Crystal Data of COANP and PNP at Room Temperature

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Table 6 Dimensions of the Crystals Used for the Electro-Optic Experimentsa

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Table 7 Electro-Optic Coefficients (at a Modulation Frequency of 1 kHz and Corresponding Reduced Half-Wave Voltages for COANP)a

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Table 8 Electro-Optic Coefficients (at a Modulation Frequency of 1 kHz) and Corresponding Reduced Half-Wave Voltages for PNP

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Table 9 Comparison of the |nI3rIInJ3rJI| (at 1 kHz) with the Results Calculated from the Known rIJ (Interferometric Measurements) for COANPa

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Table 10 Comparison of the |nI3rIInJ3rJI| (at 1 kHz) with the Results Calculated from the Known rIJ (Interferometric Measurements) for PNPa

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Table 11 Comparison of Electro-Optic and Nonlinear Optical Coefficients of COANP at λ = 632.8 and 1064 nma

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Table 12 Comparison of Electro-Optic and Nonlinear Optical Coefficients of PNP at λ = 632.8 and 1064 nma

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Table 13 Dielectric Constants and Square of the Refractive Indices of COANP

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Table 14 Polarization Optical Coefficients of COANP at λ = 514.5, 632.8, and 1064 nm

Equations (38)

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Δ ( 1 n 2 ) I J = Δ ( 1 ) I J = r I J K E K .
Δ ( 1 n 2 ) I J = f I J K P K ,
r I J K = 0 f I J K ( K L - δ K L ) , δ K L = { 1 for K = L 0 otherwise ,
Δ n I = - ( n I 3 r I I K E ) / 2 ,             I = J .
V π = λ ( n 3 r ) eff d L = v π d L ,
FM = n 3 r I J K n = n I for I = J , n = 2 1 / 2 n I n J / ( n I 2 + n J ) 1 / 2 for I J .
β z z z ( - ω 3 , ω 1 , ω 2 ) = 1 2 0 2 ω e g 2 ( 3 ω e g 2 + ω 1 ω 2 - ω 3 2 ) ( ω e g 2 - ω 1 2 ) ( ω e g 2 - ω 2 2 ) ( ω e g 2 - ω 3 2 ) Δ μ μ e g 2 ,
β 0 = 3 2 0 2 Δ μ μ e g 2 ω e g 2 ,
β ( - 2 ω , ω , ω ) = ω e g 4 ( ω e g 2 - 4 ω 2 ) ( ω e g 2 - ω 2 ) β 0 ,
β ( - ω , ω , 0 ) = ω e g 2 ( 3 ω e g 2 - ω 2 ) 3 ( ω e g 2 - ω 2 ) 2 β 0 .
r I J K ( ω ) = K 1 1 n I 2 ( ω ) n J 2 ( ω ) n I 2 ( ω ) + 2 3 n J 2 ( ω ) + 2 3 3 ω e g 2 - ω 2 ( ω e g 2 - ω 2 ) 2 ,
d I J K = N 1 n ( g ) f I 2 ω f J ω f K ω s n ( g ) i j k 3 cos ( θ I i s ) cos ( θ J j s ) × cos ( θ K k s ) β i j k ( - 2 ω , ω , ω ) .
r I J K = - N 1 n ( g ) 4 n I 2 ( ω ) n J 2 ( ω ) f I ω f J ω f K 0 s n ( g ) i j k 3 cos ( θ I i s ) × cos ( θ J j s ) cos ( θ K k s ) β i j k ( - ω , ω , 0 ) ,
f ω , 2 ω , 0 = [ ( n ω , 2 ω , 0 ) 2 + 2 ] / 3 ,
r I J K e = - 4 / { [ n I ( ω ) n J ( ω ) ] 2 } d I J K EO .
d I J K EO = d I J K - ω , ω , 0 = f I ω f J ω f K 0 f K 2 ω f I ω f J ω ( 3 ω e g 2 - ω 2 ) ( ω e g 2 - ω 2 ) ( ω e g 2 - 4 ω 2 ) 3 ( ω e g 2 - ω 2 ) 2 ω e g 2 d K I J 2 ω ; ω , ω .
r I J K ( ω ) = K 2 - 4 n I 2 ( ω ) n J 2 ( ω ) f I ω f J ω f K 0 ω e g 2 ( 3 ω e g 2 - ω 2 ) ( ω e g 2 - ω 2 ) 2 = K 3 - 4 n I 2 ( ω ) n J 2 ( ω ) n I 2 ( ω ) + 2 3 n J 2 ( ω ) + 2 3 ω e g 2 ( 3 ω e g 2 - ω 2 ) ( ω e g 2 - ω 2 ) 2 ,
n I 3 r I I K ω = K 3 g ( ω ) ω e g 2 ( 3 ω e g 2 - ω 2 ) ( ω e g 2 - ω 2 ) 2             with             g ( ω ) = - 4 n I ( ω ) ( n I 2 ( ω ) + 2 3 ) 2 .
n I 3 r I I K ω F ω e g 2 ( 3 ω e g 2 - ω 2 ) ( ω e g 2 - ω 2 ) 2 ,
r = K ( 1 - n - 2 ) 2 [ ( 1 - K ) + ( 1 + K ) ( λ e g λ ) 2 ]             with             K = φ E d ( - 1 ) ,
r T = r e + r o + r a .
4 d I J K = d I J d E K = d I J d E K | Q = u = 0 + n d I J dQ n d Q n d E K + d I J d u L M d u L M d E K ,
4 d I J K = 4 d I J K E O + n ρ I J n Δ n χ L K e L n + p I J L M * a L M K ,
Δ ( 1 n 2 ) I J = p I J M N s M N .
Δ ( 1 n 2 ) I J = ( r I J K e + p I J M N a K M N ) E K = r I J K T E K .
Δ L J = a K J E K L J .
m m 2 r I J K = r M N = [ 0 0 r 13 0 0 r 23 0 0 r 33 0 r 42 0 r 51 0 0 0 0 0 ] , 2 r I J K = r M N = [ 0 r 12 0 0 r 22 0 0 r 32 0 r 41 0 r 43 0 r 52 0 r 61 0 r 63 ] .
m m 2 a M N = [ 0 0 0 0 a 15 0 0 0 0 a 24 0 0 a 31 a 32 a 33 0 0 0 ] , 2 a M N = [ 0 0 0 a 14 0 a 16 a 21 a 22 a 23 0 a 25 0 0 0 0 a 34 0 a 36 ] .
I = I 1 + I 2 + 2 ( I 1 I 2 ) 1 / 2 cos ( Δ Φ ) ,
Δ Φ = Δ Φ 0 + Δ Φ ( E ) = 2 π / λ [ Δ L + ( n I - 1 ) L ] - ( π / λ ) n I 3 r I J L E J .
U = U 0 sin ( 2 π ν t )             ( U 0 d λ π n I 3 r I J L = V π π )
I = I 1 + I 2 - 2 ( I 1 I 2 ) 1 / 2 ( π / λ ) n I 3 r I J ( L / d ) U 0 sin ( 2 π ν t ) .
Δ I I max - I min = 4 ( I 1 I 2 ) 1 / 2 ,
I eff = ( Δ I / 2 ) ( π / λ ) n I 3 r I J ( L / d ) U eff , U eff ( U 2 t ) 1 / 2 = U 0 / ( 2 ) 1 / 2 ,
r I J = 2 λ π I eff Δ I d L 1 n I 3 1 U eff .
p I = d P I 0 d T
n I 3 r I I - n J 3 r J I = 2 λ π I eff I max - I min d L 1 U eff .
= C - C 0 d A + 1 ,

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