Abstract

Second-harmonic generation (SHG) studies have been carried out on Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosyl-amino-5-nitropyridine that were transferred by two different dipping techniques: vertical y-type and horizontal x-type depositions. The SHG behavior of horizontally transferred films is remarkably different from that of the vertically transferred films. In y-type films the SHG is due mainly to the in-plane component χyyy(2) (which is along the dipping axis) of the second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility tensor and χxxx(2) is negligible. In the case of x-type films, the SHG is due to the in-plane χ(2) tensor components but χyyy(2) and χxxx(2) have comparable magnitudes. In both films the nonlinear optical chromophores lie almost flat with respect to the plane of the substrate. The cancellation of χxxx(2) in y-type films is due to the preferential orientation of molecular domains along the dipping axis. In horizontally transferred films, molecular domains seem to be randomly distributed on the surface.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. N. Prasad and D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers(Wiley, New York, 1991).
  2. A. Ulman, An Introduction to Ultra Thin Organic Films from Langmuir–Blodgett to Self-Assemblies (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1991).
  3. G. Roberts, ed., Langmuir–Blodgett Films (Plenum, New York, 1990).
  4. R. A. Hann and D. Bloor, eds., Organic Materials for Nonlinear Optics (Royal Society of Chemistry, London, 1989), Publ. 69.
  5. D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds., Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals (Academic, New York, 1987), Vols. I and II.
  6. N. Bloembergen and P. S. Pershan, “Light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. 128, 106 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. Ledoux, D. Josse, P. Vidakovic, J. Zyss, R. A. Hann, P. F. Gorden, B. D. Bothwel, S. K. Gupta, S. Allen, P. Robin, E. Chastaing, and C. Dubois, “Second-harmonic generation by Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of an organic azo dye,” Euro. Phys. Lett. 3, 803 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Structure of Langmuir–Blodgett films by second harmonic generation,” JETP Lett. 37, 207 (1983).
  9. Y. R. Shen, Principles of Nonlinear Optics(Wiley, New York, 1984).
  10. G. Decher, B. Tieke, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, “Optical second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 933 (1988).
  11. Ch. Bosshard, G. Decher, B. Tieke, and P. Gunter, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Y-type Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials, G. Roosen, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1017, 141 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, B. Asgharian, P. N. Prasad, T. Giesler, and S. Resenkilde, “Linear and nonlinear optical studies of mono- and multilayer Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosanoyl-para-nitroaniline,” Thin Solid Films 208, 137 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Yasuo Miyamoto, Katsuaki Kaifu, Takeshi Koyano, Minoru Saito, and Masakazu Kato, “Second harmonic generation from Y-type deposition of N-acyl-p-nitroaniline Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1647 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Miyamoto, K. Kaifu, T. Koyano, M. Saito, M. Kato, and K. Kawamura, “Molecular rearrangement in heat-treated Langmuir–Blodgett films of mixtures of N-acyl-p-nitroaniline and fatty acid monitored by second-harmonic generation,” Thin Solid Films 208, 62 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Giesler, S. Rosenkilde, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, P. N. Prasad, and P. Ramanujam, “Second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” in Frontiers of Polymer Research, P. N. Prasad and J. K. Nigam, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1992), p. 157.
  16. T. Giesler, S. Rosenkilde, P. S. Ramanujam, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, and P. N. Prasad, “Second harmonic generation in anisotropic Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Scr. 46, 127 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Decher, F. Klinkhammer, I. R. Peterson, and R. Steitz, “Structural investigations of Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new type of noncentrosymmetric multilayers for use in nonlinear optics,” Thin Solid Film 178, 445 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Pochi Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, 1988).
  19. J. D. Swalen, “Optical properties of Langmuir–Blodgett films,” J. Mol. Electron. 2, 155 (1986).
  20. I. Pockrand, J. D. Swalen, J. G. Gorden, and M. R. Philpott, “Surface plasmon spectroscopy of organic monolayer assemblies,” Surf. Sci. 74, 237 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Girlando, M. R. Philpott, D. Heitmann, J. D. Swalen, and R. Santo, “Raman spectra of thin organic films enhanced by plasmon surface polaritons on holographic metal gratings,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 5187 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. Duschl and W. Knoll, “Structural characterization of Langmuir–Blodgett multilayer assemblies by plasmon surface polariton field-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 88, 4062 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  23. E. Kretschmann, “The determination of the optical constants of metals by excitation of surface plasmons,” Z. Phys. 241, 313 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, B. Asgharian, M. Casstevens, M. Samoc, G. B. Talapatra, P. N. Prasad, T. Giesler, and S. Rosenkilde, “Electrooptic effect in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine probed by surface plasmon waves,” Langmuir 8, 135 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Ch. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, P. Gunter, C. Pasquier, S. Zahir, and M. Seifert, “Optical waveguiding and nonlinear optics in high quality 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1204 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Ch. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, M. Florsheimer, and P. Gunter, “Guided-wave frequency-doubling in Langmuir–Blodgett film waveguides,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 153 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  27. C. C. Busby and J. A. Creighton, “Factors influencing the enhancement of Raman spectral intensity from a roughened silver surface. The adsorption and surface Raman scattering of 2-amino-5-nitropyridine,” Electroanal. Chem. 133, 183 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  28. T. F. Heinz, H. W. K. Tom, and Y. R. Shen, “Determination of molecular orientation of monolayer adsorbates by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 1883 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, Mahn Won Kim, P. Valint, and J. Bock, “Orientation of surfactant molecules at a liquid–air interface measured by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 537 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. V. Mizrahi and J. E. Sipe, “Phenomenological treatment of surface second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 660 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  31. F. Kajzar, J. Messier, J. Zyss, and I. Ledoux, “Nonlinear interferometry in Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of polydiacetylenes,” Opt. Commun. 45, 133 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  32. D. Lupo, W. Prass, U. Scheunemann, A. Laschewsky, H. Ringsdrof, and I. Ledoux, “Second-harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer of stilbazonium salt and phenylhydrozone dyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 5, 300 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  33. K. Kajikawa, K. Kigata, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Second-harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett films in various optical geometries,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182A, 91 (1990).
  34. P. Guyot-Sionnest, Y. R. Shen, and T. F. Heinz, “Comments on determination of the nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(2) of surface layers,” Appl. Phys. B 42, 237 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  35. B. Dick, A. Gierulski, G. Marowsky, and A. Reider, “Determination of the nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(2) of surface layers by sum and difference frequency generation in reflection and transmission,” Appl. Phys. B 38, 107 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  36. K. Kajikawa, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Symmetry and second-order susceptibility of hemicyanine monolayer studied by surface second-harmonic generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 1050 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  37. J. L. Oudar, “Optical nonlinearities of conjugated molecules. Stilbene derivatives and highly polar aromatic compounds,” J. Chem. Phys. 67, 446 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  38. P. Stroeve, D. D. Saperstein, and J. F. Rabolt, “The role of spacer layer on the orientation of a hemicyanine dye in Langmuir–Blodgett films,” J. Chem. Phys. 29, 6958 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  39. Ch. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, M. Florsheimer, T. Borer, P. Gunter, Q. Tang, and S. Zahir, “Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1992 (6)

Y. Miyamoto, K. Kaifu, T. Koyano, M. Saito, M. Kato, and K. Kawamura, “Molecular rearrangement in heat-treated Langmuir–Blodgett films of mixtures of N-acyl-p-nitroaniline and fatty acid monitored by second-harmonic generation,” Thin Solid Films 208, 62 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Giesler, S. Rosenkilde, P. S. Ramanujam, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, and P. N. Prasad, “Second harmonic generation in anisotropic Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Scr. 46, 127 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, B. Asgharian, P. N. Prasad, T. Giesler, and S. Resenkilde, “Linear and nonlinear optical studies of mono- and multilayer Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosanoyl-para-nitroaniline,” Thin Solid Films 208, 137 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, B. Asgharian, M. Casstevens, M. Samoc, G. B. Talapatra, P. N. Prasad, T. Giesler, and S. Rosenkilde, “Electrooptic effect in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine probed by surface plasmon waves,” Langmuir 8, 135 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, M. Florsheimer, and P. Gunter, “Guided-wave frequency-doubling in Langmuir–Blodgett film waveguides,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 153 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, M. Florsheimer, T. Borer, P. Gunter, Q. Tang, and S. Zahir, “Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

K. Kajikawa, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Symmetry and second-order susceptibility of hemicyanine monolayer studied by surface second-harmonic generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 1050 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yasuo Miyamoto, Katsuaki Kaifu, Takeshi Koyano, Minoru Saito, and Masakazu Kato, “Second harmonic generation from Y-type deposition of N-acyl-p-nitroaniline Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1647 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

Ch. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, P. Gunter, C. Pasquier, S. Zahir, and M. Seifert, “Optical waveguiding and nonlinear optics in high quality 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Kajikawa, K. Kigata, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Second-harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett films in various optical geometries,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182A, 91 (1990).

P. Stroeve, D. D. Saperstein, and J. F. Rabolt, “The role of spacer layer on the orientation of a hemicyanine dye in Langmuir–Blodgett films,” J. Chem. Phys. 29, 6958 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

G. Decher, F. Klinkhammer, I. R. Peterson, and R. Steitz, “Structural investigations of Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new type of noncentrosymmetric multilayers for use in nonlinear optics,” Thin Solid Film 178, 445 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (4)

G. Decher, B. Tieke, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, “Optical second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 933 (1988).

C. Duschl and W. Knoll, “Structural characterization of Langmuir–Blodgett multilayer assemblies by plasmon surface polariton field-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 88, 4062 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Lupo, W. Prass, U. Scheunemann, A. Laschewsky, H. Ringsdrof, and I. Ledoux, “Second-harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer of stilbazonium salt and phenylhydrozone dyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 5, 300 (1988).
[CrossRef]

V. Mizrahi and J. E. Sipe, “Phenomenological treatment of surface second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 660 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

P. Guyot-Sionnest, Y. R. Shen, and T. F. Heinz, “Comments on determination of the nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(2) of surface layers,” Appl. Phys. B 42, 237 (1987).
[CrossRef]

I. Ledoux, D. Josse, P. Vidakovic, J. Zyss, R. A. Hann, P. F. Gorden, B. D. Bothwel, S. K. Gupta, S. Allen, P. Robin, E. Chastaing, and C. Dubois, “Second-harmonic generation by Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of an organic azo dye,” Euro. Phys. Lett. 3, 803 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. D. Swalen, “Optical properties of Langmuir–Blodgett films,” J. Mol. Electron. 2, 155 (1986).

1985 (2)

B. Dick, A. Gierulski, G. Marowsky, and A. Reider, “Determination of the nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(2) of surface layers by sum and difference frequency generation in reflection and transmission,” Appl. Phys. B 38, 107 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, Mahn Won Kim, P. Valint, and J. Bock, “Orientation of surfactant molecules at a liquid–air interface measured by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 537 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (3)

F. Kajzar, J. Messier, J. Zyss, and I. Ledoux, “Nonlinear interferometry in Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of polydiacetylenes,” Opt. Commun. 45, 133 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Heinz, H. W. K. Tom, and Y. R. Shen, “Determination of molecular orientation of monolayer adsorbates by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 1883 (1983).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Structure of Langmuir–Blodgett films by second harmonic generation,” JETP Lett. 37, 207 (1983).

1982 (1)

C. C. Busby and J. A. Creighton, “Factors influencing the enhancement of Raman spectral intensity from a roughened silver surface. The adsorption and surface Raman scattering of 2-amino-5-nitropyridine,” Electroanal. Chem. 133, 183 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. Girlando, M. R. Philpott, D. Heitmann, J. D. Swalen, and R. Santo, “Raman spectra of thin organic films enhanced by plasmon surface polaritons on holographic metal gratings,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 5187 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

J. L. Oudar, “Optical nonlinearities of conjugated molecules. Stilbene derivatives and highly polar aromatic compounds,” J. Chem. Phys. 67, 446 (1977).
[CrossRef]

I. Pockrand, J. D. Swalen, J. G. Gorden, and M. R. Philpott, “Surface plasmon spectroscopy of organic monolayer assemblies,” Surf. Sci. 74, 237 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

E. Kretschmann, “The determination of the optical constants of metals by excitation of surface plasmons,” Z. Phys. 241, 313 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

N. Bloembergen and P. S. Pershan, “Light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. 128, 106 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Akhmediev, N. N.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Structure of Langmuir–Blodgett films by second harmonic generation,” JETP Lett. 37, 207 (1983).

Aktsipetrov, O. A.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Structure of Langmuir–Blodgett films by second harmonic generation,” JETP Lett. 37, 207 (1983).

Allen, S.

I. Ledoux, D. Josse, P. Vidakovic, J. Zyss, R. A. Hann, P. F. Gorden, B. D. Bothwel, S. K. Gupta, S. Allen, P. Robin, E. Chastaing, and C. Dubois, “Second-harmonic generation by Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of an organic azo dye,” Euro. Phys. Lett. 3, 803 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Asgharian, B.

W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, B. Asgharian, P. N. Prasad, T. Giesler, and S. Resenkilde, “Linear and nonlinear optical studies of mono- and multilayer Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosanoyl-para-nitroaniline,” Thin Solid Films 208, 137 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, B. Asgharian, M. Casstevens, M. Samoc, G. B. Talapatra, P. N. Prasad, T. Giesler, and S. Rosenkilde, “Electrooptic effect in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine probed by surface plasmon waves,” Langmuir 8, 135 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen and P. S. Pershan, “Light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. 128, 106 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Bock, J.

Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, Mahn Won Kim, P. Valint, and J. Bock, “Orientation of surfactant molecules at a liquid–air interface measured by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 537 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borer, T.

Ch. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, M. Florsheimer, T. Borer, P. Gunter, Q. Tang, and S. Zahir, “Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bosshard, Ch.

Ch. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, M. Florsheimer, T. Borer, P. Gunter, Q. Tang, and S. Zahir, “Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, M. Florsheimer, and P. Gunter, “Guided-wave frequency-doubling in Langmuir–Blodgett film waveguides,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 153 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, P. Gunter, C. Pasquier, S. Zahir, and M. Seifert, “Optical waveguiding and nonlinear optics in high quality 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. Decher, B. Tieke, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, “Optical second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 933 (1988).

Ch. Bosshard, G. Decher, B. Tieke, and P. Gunter, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Y-type Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials, G. Roosen, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1017, 141 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bothwel, B. D.

I. Ledoux, D. Josse, P. Vidakovic, J. Zyss, R. A. Hann, P. F. Gorden, B. D. Bothwel, S. K. Gupta, S. Allen, P. Robin, E. Chastaing, and C. Dubois, “Second-harmonic generation by Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of an organic azo dye,” Euro. Phys. Lett. 3, 803 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Busby, C. C.

C. C. Busby and J. A. Creighton, “Factors influencing the enhancement of Raman spectral intensity from a roughened silver surface. The adsorption and surface Raman scattering of 2-amino-5-nitropyridine,” Electroanal. Chem. 133, 183 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Casstevens, M.

W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, B. Asgharian, M. Casstevens, M. Samoc, G. B. Talapatra, P. N. Prasad, T. Giesler, and S. Rosenkilde, “Electrooptic effect in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine probed by surface plasmon waves,” Langmuir 8, 135 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chastaing, E.

I. Ledoux, D. Josse, P. Vidakovic, J. Zyss, R. A. Hann, P. F. Gorden, B. D. Bothwel, S. K. Gupta, S. Allen, P. Robin, E. Chastaing, and C. Dubois, “Second-harmonic generation by Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of an organic azo dye,” Euro. Phys. Lett. 3, 803 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Creighton, J. A.

C. C. Busby and J. A. Creighton, “Factors influencing the enhancement of Raman spectral intensity from a roughened silver surface. The adsorption and surface Raman scattering of 2-amino-5-nitropyridine,” Electroanal. Chem. 133, 183 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Decher, G.

G. Decher, F. Klinkhammer, I. R. Peterson, and R. Steitz, “Structural investigations of Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new type of noncentrosymmetric multilayers for use in nonlinear optics,” Thin Solid Film 178, 445 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Decher, B. Tieke, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, “Optical second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 933 (1988).

Ch. Bosshard, G. Decher, B. Tieke, and P. Gunter, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Y-type Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials, G. Roosen, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1017, 141 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dick, B.

B. Dick, A. Gierulski, G. Marowsky, and A. Reider, “Determination of the nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(2) of surface layers by sum and difference frequency generation in reflection and transmission,” Appl. Phys. B 38, 107 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Dubois, C.

I. Ledoux, D. Josse, P. Vidakovic, J. Zyss, R. A. Hann, P. F. Gorden, B. D. Bothwel, S. K. Gupta, S. Allen, P. Robin, E. Chastaing, and C. Dubois, “Second-harmonic generation by Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of an organic azo dye,” Euro. Phys. Lett. 3, 803 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Duschl, C.

C. Duschl and W. Knoll, “Structural characterization of Langmuir–Blodgett multilayer assemblies by plasmon surface polariton field-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 88, 4062 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Florsheimer, M.

Ch. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, M. Florsheimer, and P. Gunter, “Guided-wave frequency-doubling in Langmuir–Blodgett film waveguides,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 153 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, M. Florsheimer, T. Borer, P. Gunter, Q. Tang, and S. Zahir, “Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, A.

K. Kajikawa, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Symmetry and second-order susceptibility of hemicyanine monolayer studied by surface second-harmonic generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 1050 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Kajikawa, K. Kigata, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Second-harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett films in various optical geometries,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182A, 91 (1990).

Gierulski, A.

B. Dick, A. Gierulski, G. Marowsky, and A. Reider, “Determination of the nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(2) of surface layers by sum and difference frequency generation in reflection and transmission,” Appl. Phys. B 38, 107 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Giesler, T.

W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, B. Asgharian, M. Casstevens, M. Samoc, G. B. Talapatra, P. N. Prasad, T. Giesler, and S. Rosenkilde, “Electrooptic effect in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine probed by surface plasmon waves,” Langmuir 8, 135 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, B. Asgharian, P. N. Prasad, T. Giesler, and S. Resenkilde, “Linear and nonlinear optical studies of mono- and multilayer Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosanoyl-para-nitroaniline,” Thin Solid Films 208, 137 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Giesler, S. Rosenkilde, P. S. Ramanujam, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, and P. N. Prasad, “Second harmonic generation in anisotropic Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Scr. 46, 127 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Giesler, S. Rosenkilde, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, P. N. Prasad, and P. Ramanujam, “Second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” in Frontiers of Polymer Research, P. N. Prasad and J. K. Nigam, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1992), p. 157.

Girlando, A.

A. Girlando, M. R. Philpott, D. Heitmann, J. D. Swalen, and R. Santo, “Raman spectra of thin organic films enhanced by plasmon surface polaritons on holographic metal gratings,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 5187 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Gorden, J. G.

I. Pockrand, J. D. Swalen, J. G. Gorden, and M. R. Philpott, “Surface plasmon spectroscopy of organic monolayer assemblies,” Surf. Sci. 74, 237 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Gorden, P. F.

I. Ledoux, D. Josse, P. Vidakovic, J. Zyss, R. A. Hann, P. F. Gorden, B. D. Bothwel, S. K. Gupta, S. Allen, P. Robin, E. Chastaing, and C. Dubois, “Second-harmonic generation by Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of an organic azo dye,” Euro. Phys. Lett. 3, 803 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gunter, P.

Ch. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, M. Florsheimer, and P. Gunter, “Guided-wave frequency-doubling in Langmuir–Blodgett film waveguides,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 153 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, M. Florsheimer, T. Borer, P. Gunter, Q. Tang, and S. Zahir, “Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, P. Gunter, C. Pasquier, S. Zahir, and M. Seifert, “Optical waveguiding and nonlinear optics in high quality 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. Decher, B. Tieke, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, “Optical second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 933 (1988).

Ch. Bosshard, G. Decher, B. Tieke, and P. Gunter, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Y-type Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials, G. Roosen, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1017, 141 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, S. K.

I. Ledoux, D. Josse, P. Vidakovic, J. Zyss, R. A. Hann, P. F. Gorden, B. D. Bothwel, S. K. Gupta, S. Allen, P. Robin, E. Chastaing, and C. Dubois, “Second-harmonic generation by Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of an organic azo dye,” Euro. Phys. Lett. 3, 803 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Guyot-Sionnest, P.

P. Guyot-Sionnest, Y. R. Shen, and T. F. Heinz, “Comments on determination of the nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(2) of surface layers,” Appl. Phys. B 42, 237 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hann, R. A.

I. Ledoux, D. Josse, P. Vidakovic, J. Zyss, R. A. Hann, P. F. Gorden, B. D. Bothwel, S. K. Gupta, S. Allen, P. Robin, E. Chastaing, and C. Dubois, “Second-harmonic generation by Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of an organic azo dye,” Euro. Phys. Lett. 3, 803 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

P. Guyot-Sionnest, Y. R. Shen, and T. F. Heinz, “Comments on determination of the nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(2) of surface layers,” Appl. Phys. B 42, 237 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Heinz, H. W. K. Tom, and Y. R. Shen, “Determination of molecular orientation of monolayer adsorbates by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 1883 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Heitmann, D.

A. Girlando, M. R. Philpott, D. Heitmann, J. D. Swalen, and R. Santo, “Raman spectra of thin organic films enhanced by plasmon surface polaritons on holographic metal gratings,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 5187 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Josse, D.

I. Ledoux, D. Josse, P. Vidakovic, J. Zyss, R. A. Hann, P. F. Gorden, B. D. Bothwel, S. K. Gupta, S. Allen, P. Robin, E. Chastaing, and C. Dubois, “Second-harmonic generation by Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of an organic azo dye,” Euro. Phys. Lett. 3, 803 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kaifu, K.

Y. Miyamoto, K. Kaifu, T. Koyano, M. Saito, M. Kato, and K. Kawamura, “Molecular rearrangement in heat-treated Langmuir–Blodgett films of mixtures of N-acyl-p-nitroaniline and fatty acid monitored by second-harmonic generation,” Thin Solid Films 208, 62 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kaifu, Katsuaki

Yasuo Miyamoto, Katsuaki Kaifu, Takeshi Koyano, Minoru Saito, and Masakazu Kato, “Second harmonic generation from Y-type deposition of N-acyl-p-nitroaniline Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1647 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kajikawa, K.

K. Kajikawa, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Symmetry and second-order susceptibility of hemicyanine monolayer studied by surface second-harmonic generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 1050 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Kajikawa, K. Kigata, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Second-harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett films in various optical geometries,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182A, 91 (1990).

Kajzar, F.

F. Kajzar, J. Messier, J. Zyss, and I. Ledoux, “Nonlinear interferometry in Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of polydiacetylenes,” Opt. Commun. 45, 133 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kato, M.

Y. Miyamoto, K. Kaifu, T. Koyano, M. Saito, M. Kato, and K. Kawamura, “Molecular rearrangement in heat-treated Langmuir–Blodgett films of mixtures of N-acyl-p-nitroaniline and fatty acid monitored by second-harmonic generation,” Thin Solid Films 208, 62 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kato, Masakazu

Yasuo Miyamoto, Katsuaki Kaifu, Takeshi Koyano, Minoru Saito, and Masakazu Kato, “Second harmonic generation from Y-type deposition of N-acyl-p-nitroaniline Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1647 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, K.

Y. Miyamoto, K. Kaifu, T. Koyano, M. Saito, M. Kato, and K. Kawamura, “Molecular rearrangement in heat-treated Langmuir–Blodgett films of mixtures of N-acyl-p-nitroaniline and fatty acid monitored by second-harmonic generation,” Thin Solid Films 208, 62 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kigata, K.

K. Kajikawa, K. Kigata, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Second-harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett films in various optical geometries,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182A, 91 (1990).

Klinkhammer, F.

G. Decher, F. Klinkhammer, I. R. Peterson, and R. Steitz, “Structural investigations of Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new type of noncentrosymmetric multilayers for use in nonlinear optics,” Thin Solid Film 178, 445 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, W.

C. Duschl and W. Knoll, “Structural characterization of Langmuir–Blodgett multilayer assemblies by plasmon surface polariton field-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 88, 4062 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Koyano, T.

Y. Miyamoto, K. Kaifu, T. Koyano, M. Saito, M. Kato, and K. Kawamura, “Molecular rearrangement in heat-treated Langmuir–Blodgett films of mixtures of N-acyl-p-nitroaniline and fatty acid monitored by second-harmonic generation,” Thin Solid Films 208, 62 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Koyano, Takeshi

Yasuo Miyamoto, Katsuaki Kaifu, Takeshi Koyano, Minoru Saito, and Masakazu Kato, “Second harmonic generation from Y-type deposition of N-acyl-p-nitroaniline Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1647 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann, “The determination of the optical constants of metals by excitation of surface plasmons,” Z. Phys. 241, 313 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kupfer, M.

Ch. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, M. Florsheimer, and P. Gunter, “Guided-wave frequency-doubling in Langmuir–Blodgett film waveguides,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 153 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, M. Florsheimer, T. Borer, P. Gunter, Q. Tang, and S. Zahir, “Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, P. Gunter, C. Pasquier, S. Zahir, and M. Seifert, “Optical waveguiding and nonlinear optics in high quality 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Laschewsky, A.

D. Lupo, W. Prass, U. Scheunemann, A. Laschewsky, H. Ringsdrof, and I. Ledoux, “Second-harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer of stilbazonium salt and phenylhydrozone dyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 5, 300 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ledoux, I.

D. Lupo, W. Prass, U. Scheunemann, A. Laschewsky, H. Ringsdrof, and I. Ledoux, “Second-harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer of stilbazonium salt and phenylhydrozone dyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 5, 300 (1988).
[CrossRef]

I. Ledoux, D. Josse, P. Vidakovic, J. Zyss, R. A. Hann, P. F. Gorden, B. D. Bothwel, S. K. Gupta, S. Allen, P. Robin, E. Chastaing, and C. Dubois, “Second-harmonic generation by Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of an organic azo dye,” Euro. Phys. Lett. 3, 803 (1987).
[CrossRef]

F. Kajzar, J. Messier, J. Zyss, and I. Ledoux, “Nonlinear interferometry in Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of polydiacetylenes,” Opt. Commun. 45, 133 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lupo, D.

D. Lupo, W. Prass, U. Scheunemann, A. Laschewsky, H. Ringsdrof, and I. Ledoux, “Second-harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer of stilbazonium salt and phenylhydrozone dyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 5, 300 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Marowsky, G.

B. Dick, A. Gierulski, G. Marowsky, and A. Reider, “Determination of the nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(2) of surface layers by sum and difference frequency generation in reflection and transmission,” Appl. Phys. B 38, 107 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Messier, J.

F. Kajzar, J. Messier, J. Zyss, and I. Ledoux, “Nonlinear interferometry in Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of polydiacetylenes,” Opt. Commun. 45, 133 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mishina, E. D.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Structure of Langmuir–Blodgett films by second harmonic generation,” JETP Lett. 37, 207 (1983).

Miyamoto, Y.

Y. Miyamoto, K. Kaifu, T. Koyano, M. Saito, M. Kato, and K. Kawamura, “Molecular rearrangement in heat-treated Langmuir–Blodgett films of mixtures of N-acyl-p-nitroaniline and fatty acid monitored by second-harmonic generation,” Thin Solid Films 208, 62 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, Yasuo

Yasuo Miyamoto, Katsuaki Kaifu, Takeshi Koyano, Minoru Saito, and Masakazu Kato, “Second harmonic generation from Y-type deposition of N-acyl-p-nitroaniline Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1647 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mizrahi, V.

Novak, V. R.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Structure of Langmuir–Blodgett films by second harmonic generation,” JETP Lett. 37, 207 (1983).

Oudar, J. L.

J. L. Oudar, “Optical nonlinearities of conjugated molecules. Stilbene derivatives and highly polar aromatic compounds,” J. Chem. Phys. 67, 446 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Pasquier, C.

Ch. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, P. Gunter, C. Pasquier, S. Zahir, and M. Seifert, “Optical waveguiding and nonlinear optics in high quality 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pershan, P. S.

N. Bloembergen and P. S. Pershan, “Light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. 128, 106 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, I. R.

G. Decher, F. Klinkhammer, I. R. Peterson, and R. Steitz, “Structural investigations of Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new type of noncentrosymmetric multilayers for use in nonlinear optics,” Thin Solid Film 178, 445 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Philpott, M. R.

A. Girlando, M. R. Philpott, D. Heitmann, J. D. Swalen, and R. Santo, “Raman spectra of thin organic films enhanced by plasmon surface polaritons on holographic metal gratings,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 5187 (1980).
[CrossRef]

I. Pockrand, J. D. Swalen, J. G. Gorden, and M. R. Philpott, “Surface plasmon spectroscopy of organic monolayer assemblies,” Surf. Sci. 74, 237 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Pockrand, I.

I. Pockrand, J. D. Swalen, J. G. Gorden, and M. R. Philpott, “Surface plasmon spectroscopy of organic monolayer assemblies,” Surf. Sci. 74, 237 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

T. Giesler, S. Rosenkilde, P. S. Ramanujam, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, and P. N. Prasad, “Second harmonic generation in anisotropic Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Scr. 46, 127 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, B. Asgharian, P. N. Prasad, T. Giesler, and S. Resenkilde, “Linear and nonlinear optical studies of mono- and multilayer Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosanoyl-para-nitroaniline,” Thin Solid Films 208, 137 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, B. Asgharian, M. Casstevens, M. Samoc, G. B. Talapatra, P. N. Prasad, T. Giesler, and S. Rosenkilde, “Electrooptic effect in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine probed by surface plasmon waves,” Langmuir 8, 135 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Prasad and D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers(Wiley, New York, 1991).

T. Giesler, S. Rosenkilde, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, P. N. Prasad, and P. Ramanujam, “Second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” in Frontiers of Polymer Research, P. N. Prasad and J. K. Nigam, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1992), p. 157.

Prass, W.

D. Lupo, W. Prass, U. Scheunemann, A. Laschewsky, H. Ringsdrof, and I. Ledoux, “Second-harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer of stilbazonium salt and phenylhydrozone dyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 5, 300 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rabolt, J. F.

P. Stroeve, D. D. Saperstein, and J. F. Rabolt, “The role of spacer layer on the orientation of a hemicyanine dye in Langmuir–Blodgett films,” J. Chem. Phys. 29, 6958 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ramanujam, P.

T. Giesler, S. Rosenkilde, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, P. N. Prasad, and P. Ramanujam, “Second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” in Frontiers of Polymer Research, P. N. Prasad and J. K. Nigam, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1992), p. 157.

Ramanujam, P. S.

T. Giesler, S. Rosenkilde, P. S. Ramanujam, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, and P. N. Prasad, “Second harmonic generation in anisotropic Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Scr. 46, 127 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rasing, Th.

Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, Mahn Won Kim, P. Valint, and J. Bock, “Orientation of surfactant molecules at a liquid–air interface measured by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 537 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reider, A.

B. Dick, A. Gierulski, G. Marowsky, and A. Reider, “Determination of the nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(2) of surface layers by sum and difference frequency generation in reflection and transmission,” Appl. Phys. B 38, 107 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Resenkilde, S.

W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, B. Asgharian, P. N. Prasad, T. Giesler, and S. Resenkilde, “Linear and nonlinear optical studies of mono- and multilayer Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosanoyl-para-nitroaniline,” Thin Solid Films 208, 137 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ringsdrof, H.

D. Lupo, W. Prass, U. Scheunemann, A. Laschewsky, H. Ringsdrof, and I. Ledoux, “Second-harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer of stilbazonium salt and phenylhydrozone dyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 5, 300 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Robin, P.

I. Ledoux, D. Josse, P. Vidakovic, J. Zyss, R. A. Hann, P. F. Gorden, B. D. Bothwel, S. K. Gupta, S. Allen, P. Robin, E. Chastaing, and C. Dubois, “Second-harmonic generation by Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of an organic azo dye,” Euro. Phys. Lett. 3, 803 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rosenkilde, S.

T. Giesler, S. Rosenkilde, P. S. Ramanujam, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, and P. N. Prasad, “Second harmonic generation in anisotropic Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Scr. 46, 127 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, B. Asgharian, M. Casstevens, M. Samoc, G. B. Talapatra, P. N. Prasad, T. Giesler, and S. Rosenkilde, “Electrooptic effect in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine probed by surface plasmon waves,” Langmuir 8, 135 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Giesler, S. Rosenkilde, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, P. N. Prasad, and P. Ramanujam, “Second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” in Frontiers of Polymer Research, P. N. Prasad and J. K. Nigam, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1992), p. 157.

Saito, M.

Y. Miyamoto, K. Kaifu, T. Koyano, M. Saito, M. Kato, and K. Kawamura, “Molecular rearrangement in heat-treated Langmuir–Blodgett films of mixtures of N-acyl-p-nitroaniline and fatty acid monitored by second-harmonic generation,” Thin Solid Films 208, 62 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Saito, Minoru

Yasuo Miyamoto, Katsuaki Kaifu, Takeshi Koyano, Minoru Saito, and Masakazu Kato, “Second harmonic generation from Y-type deposition of N-acyl-p-nitroaniline Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1647 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Samoc, M.

W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, B. Asgharian, M. Casstevens, M. Samoc, G. B. Talapatra, P. N. Prasad, T. Giesler, and S. Rosenkilde, “Electrooptic effect in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine probed by surface plasmon waves,” Langmuir 8, 135 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Santo, R.

A. Girlando, M. R. Philpott, D. Heitmann, J. D. Swalen, and R. Santo, “Raman spectra of thin organic films enhanced by plasmon surface polaritons on holographic metal gratings,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 5187 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Saperstein, D. D.

P. Stroeve, D. D. Saperstein, and J. F. Rabolt, “The role of spacer layer on the orientation of a hemicyanine dye in Langmuir–Blodgett films,” J. Chem. Phys. 29, 6958 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Scheunemann, U.

D. Lupo, W. Prass, U. Scheunemann, A. Laschewsky, H. Ringsdrof, and I. Ledoux, “Second-harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer of stilbazonium salt and phenylhydrozone dyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 5, 300 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Seifert, M.

Ch. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, P. Gunter, C. Pasquier, S. Zahir, and M. Seifert, “Optical waveguiding and nonlinear optics in high quality 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

P. Guyot-Sionnest, Y. R. Shen, and T. F. Heinz, “Comments on determination of the nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(2) of surface layers,” Appl. Phys. B 42, 237 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, Mahn Won Kim, P. Valint, and J. Bock, “Orientation of surfactant molecules at a liquid–air interface measured by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 537 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. F. Heinz, H. W. K. Tom, and Y. R. Shen, “Determination of molecular orientation of monolayer adsorbates by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 1883 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Shen, Principles of Nonlinear Optics(Wiley, New York, 1984).

Sipe, J. E.

Steitz, R.

G. Decher, F. Klinkhammer, I. R. Peterson, and R. Steitz, “Structural investigations of Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new type of noncentrosymmetric multilayers for use in nonlinear optics,” Thin Solid Film 178, 445 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stroeve, P.

P. Stroeve, D. D. Saperstein, and J. F. Rabolt, “The role of spacer layer on the orientation of a hemicyanine dye in Langmuir–Blodgett films,” J. Chem. Phys. 29, 6958 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Swalen, J. D.

J. D. Swalen, “Optical properties of Langmuir–Blodgett films,” J. Mol. Electron. 2, 155 (1986).

A. Girlando, M. R. Philpott, D. Heitmann, J. D. Swalen, and R. Santo, “Raman spectra of thin organic films enhanced by plasmon surface polaritons on holographic metal gratings,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 5187 (1980).
[CrossRef]

I. Pockrand, J. D. Swalen, J. G. Gorden, and M. R. Philpott, “Surface plasmon spectroscopy of organic monolayer assemblies,” Surf. Sci. 74, 237 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Takezoe, H.

K. Kajikawa, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Symmetry and second-order susceptibility of hemicyanine monolayer studied by surface second-harmonic generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 1050 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Kajikawa, K. Kigata, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Second-harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett films in various optical geometries,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182A, 91 (1990).

Talapatra, G. B.

W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, B. Asgharian, M. Casstevens, M. Samoc, G. B. Talapatra, P. N. Prasad, T. Giesler, and S. Rosenkilde, “Electrooptic effect in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine probed by surface plasmon waves,” Langmuir 8, 135 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Q.

Ch. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, M. Florsheimer, T. Borer, P. Gunter, Q. Tang, and S. Zahir, “Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tieke, B.

G. Decher, B. Tieke, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, “Optical second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 933 (1988).

Ch. Bosshard, G. Decher, B. Tieke, and P. Gunter, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Y-type Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials, G. Roosen, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1017, 141 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tom, H. W. K.

T. F. Heinz, H. W. K. Tom, and Y. R. Shen, “Determination of molecular orientation of monolayer adsorbates by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 1883 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ulman, A.

A. Ulman, An Introduction to Ultra Thin Organic Films from Langmuir–Blodgett to Self-Assemblies (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1991).

Valint, P.

Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, Mahn Won Kim, P. Valint, and J. Bock, “Orientation of surfactant molecules at a liquid–air interface measured by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 537 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vidakovic, P.

I. Ledoux, D. Josse, P. Vidakovic, J. Zyss, R. A. Hann, P. F. Gorden, B. D. Bothwel, S. K. Gupta, S. Allen, P. Robin, E. Chastaing, and C. Dubois, “Second-harmonic generation by Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of an organic azo dye,” Euro. Phys. Lett. 3, 803 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wijekoon, W. M. K. P.

W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, B. Asgharian, P. N. Prasad, T. Giesler, and S. Resenkilde, “Linear and nonlinear optical studies of mono- and multilayer Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosanoyl-para-nitroaniline,” Thin Solid Films 208, 137 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Giesler, S. Rosenkilde, P. S. Ramanujam, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, and P. N. Prasad, “Second harmonic generation in anisotropic Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Scr. 46, 127 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, B. Asgharian, M. Casstevens, M. Samoc, G. B. Talapatra, P. N. Prasad, T. Giesler, and S. Rosenkilde, “Electrooptic effect in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine probed by surface plasmon waves,” Langmuir 8, 135 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Giesler, S. Rosenkilde, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, P. N. Prasad, and P. Ramanujam, “Second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” in Frontiers of Polymer Research, P. N. Prasad and J. K. Nigam, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1992), p. 157.

Williams, D. J.

P. N. Prasad and D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers(Wiley, New York, 1991).

Won Kim, Mahn

Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, Mahn Won Kim, P. Valint, and J. Bock, “Orientation of surfactant molecules at a liquid–air interface measured by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 537 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeh, Pochi

Pochi Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, 1988).

Zahir, S.

Ch. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, M. Florsheimer, T. Borer, P. Gunter, Q. Tang, and S. Zahir, “Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, P. Gunter, C. Pasquier, S. Zahir, and M. Seifert, “Optical waveguiding and nonlinear optics in high quality 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zyss, J.

I. Ledoux, D. Josse, P. Vidakovic, J. Zyss, R. A. Hann, P. F. Gorden, B. D. Bothwel, S. K. Gupta, S. Allen, P. Robin, E. Chastaing, and C. Dubois, “Second-harmonic generation by Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of an organic azo dye,” Euro. Phys. Lett. 3, 803 (1987).
[CrossRef]

F. Kajzar, J. Messier, J. Zyss, and I. Ledoux, “Nonlinear interferometry in Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of polydiacetylenes,” Opt. Commun. 45, 133 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

P. Guyot-Sionnest, Y. R. Shen, and T. F. Heinz, “Comments on determination of the nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(2) of surface layers,” Appl. Phys. B 42, 237 (1987).
[CrossRef]

B. Dick, A. Gierulski, G. Marowsky, and A. Reider, “Determination of the nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(2) of surface layers by sum and difference frequency generation in reflection and transmission,” Appl. Phys. B 38, 107 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Ch. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, P. Gunter, C. Pasquier, S. Zahir, and M. Seifert, “Optical waveguiding and nonlinear optics in high quality 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Electroanal. Chem. (1)

C. C. Busby and J. A. Creighton, “Factors influencing the enhancement of Raman spectral intensity from a roughened silver surface. The adsorption and surface Raman scattering of 2-amino-5-nitropyridine,” Electroanal. Chem. 133, 183 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Euro. Phys. Lett. (1)

I. Ledoux, D. Josse, P. Vidakovic, J. Zyss, R. A. Hann, P. F. Gorden, B. D. Bothwel, S. K. Gupta, S. Allen, P. Robin, E. Chastaing, and C. Dubois, “Second-harmonic generation by Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of an organic azo dye,” Euro. Phys. Lett. 3, 803 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (4)

A. Girlando, M. R. Philpott, D. Heitmann, J. D. Swalen, and R. Santo, “Raman spectra of thin organic films enhanced by plasmon surface polaritons on holographic metal gratings,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 5187 (1980).
[CrossRef]

C. Duschl and W. Knoll, “Structural characterization of Langmuir–Blodgett multilayer assemblies by plasmon surface polariton field-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 88, 4062 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Oudar, “Optical nonlinearities of conjugated molecules. Stilbene derivatives and highly polar aromatic compounds,” J. Chem. Phys. 67, 446 (1977).
[CrossRef]

P. Stroeve, D. D. Saperstein, and J. F. Rabolt, “The role of spacer layer on the orientation of a hemicyanine dye in Langmuir–Blodgett films,” J. Chem. Phys. 29, 6958 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. (1)

G. Decher, B. Tieke, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, “Optical second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 933 (1988).

J. Mol. Electron. (1)

J. D. Swalen, “Optical properties of Langmuir–Blodgett films,” J. Mol. Electron. 2, 155 (1986).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (1)

D. Lupo, W. Prass, U. Scheunemann, A. Laschewsky, H. Ringsdrof, and I. Ledoux, “Second-harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer of stilbazonium salt and phenylhydrozone dyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 5, 300 (1988).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett. (1)

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Structure of Langmuir–Blodgett films by second harmonic generation,” JETP Lett. 37, 207 (1983).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Yasuo Miyamoto, Katsuaki Kaifu, Takeshi Koyano, Minoru Saito, and Masakazu Kato, “Second harmonic generation from Y-type deposition of N-acyl-p-nitroaniline Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1647 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Kajikawa, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Symmetry and second-order susceptibility of hemicyanine monolayer studied by surface second-harmonic generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 1050 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, B. Asgharian, M. Casstevens, M. Samoc, G. B. Talapatra, P. N. Prasad, T. Giesler, and S. Rosenkilde, “Electrooptic effect in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine probed by surface plasmon waves,” Langmuir 8, 135 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

K. Kajikawa, K. Kigata, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Second-harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett films in various optical geometries,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182A, 91 (1990).

Opt. Commun. (1)

F. Kajzar, J. Messier, J. Zyss, and I. Ledoux, “Nonlinear interferometry in Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of polydiacetylenes,” Opt. Commun. 45, 133 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

N. Bloembergen and P. S. Pershan, “Light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. 128, 106 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

T. F. Heinz, H. W. K. Tom, and Y. R. Shen, “Determination of molecular orientation of monolayer adsorbates by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 1883 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, Mahn Won Kim, P. Valint, and J. Bock, “Orientation of surfactant molecules at a liquid–air interface measured by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 537 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Scr. (1)

T. Giesler, S. Rosenkilde, P. S. Ramanujam, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, and P. N. Prasad, “Second harmonic generation in anisotropic Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” Phys. Scr. 46, 127 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (1)

I. Pockrand, J. D. Swalen, J. G. Gorden, and M. R. Philpott, “Surface plasmon spectroscopy of organic monolayer assemblies,” Surf. Sci. 74, 237 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Film (1)

G. Decher, F. Klinkhammer, I. R. Peterson, and R. Steitz, “Structural investigations of Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new type of noncentrosymmetric multilayers for use in nonlinear optics,” Thin Solid Film 178, 445 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (4)

W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, B. Asgharian, P. N. Prasad, T. Giesler, and S. Resenkilde, “Linear and nonlinear optical studies of mono- and multilayer Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosanoyl-para-nitroaniline,” Thin Solid Films 208, 137 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Miyamoto, K. Kaifu, T. Koyano, M. Saito, M. Kato, and K. Kawamura, “Molecular rearrangement in heat-treated Langmuir–Blodgett films of mixtures of N-acyl-p-nitroaniline and fatty acid monitored by second-harmonic generation,” Thin Solid Films 208, 62 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, M. Florsheimer, and P. Gunter, “Guided-wave frequency-doubling in Langmuir–Blodgett film waveguides,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 153 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Bosshard, M. Kupfer, M. Florsheimer, T. Borer, P. Gunter, Q. Tang, and S. Zahir, “Investigation of chromophore orientation of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine and derivatives by nonlinear optical techniques,” Thin Solid Films 210/211, 198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (1)

E. Kretschmann, “The determination of the optical constants of metals by excitation of surface plasmons,” Z. Phys. 241, 313 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

T. Giesler, S. Rosenkilde, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, P. N. Prasad, and P. Ramanujam, “Second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline,” in Frontiers of Polymer Research, P. N. Prasad and J. K. Nigam, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1992), p. 157.

Pochi Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, 1988).

Y. R. Shen, Principles of Nonlinear Optics(Wiley, New York, 1984).

Ch. Bosshard, G. Decher, B. Tieke, and P. Gunter, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Y-type Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials, G. Roosen, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1017, 141 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Prasad and D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers(Wiley, New York, 1991).

A. Ulman, An Introduction to Ultra Thin Organic Films from Langmuir–Blodgett to Self-Assemblies (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1991).

G. Roberts, ed., Langmuir–Blodgett Films (Plenum, New York, 1990).

R. A. Hann and D. Bloor, eds., Organic Materials for Nonlinear Optics (Royal Society of Chemistry, London, 1989), Publ. 69.

D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds., Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals (Academic, New York, 1987), Vols. I and II.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The chemical structure of 2-docosylamino-5-nitro-pyridine (DCANP).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the apparatus used for horizontal x-type deposition.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plots, A, of the film thickness (calculated from the results of SP studies on x-type films on silver substrate) and, B, of the peak absorbance (λ = 381 nm) versus the number of DCANP LB layers. The absorbance measurements were made on films (both y-type and x-type) deposited onto Pyrex substrates, made hydrophobic with OTS.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SP resonance curves (at λ = 514.5 nm), A, of a bare silver film (thickness = 50 nm), B, of a silver film coated with a DCANP monolayer of DCANP (x-type), and C, of a silver film coated with six x-type LB layers of DCANP.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A, Raman spectrum of DCANP powder and B, SP-enhanced Raman spectrum of six DCANP layers (x-type) on silver. The spectra have been vertically offset for clarity. Spectrum A is a single scan, and spectrum B contains 80 scans.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental geometry adopted for describing the SHG behavior of DCANP films.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Variation of the SHG intensity from a y-type DCANP film as a function of the angle of incidence. Each side of the substrate contains six LB layers, and the film is rotated around an axis parallel to the dipping axis (y). Both the fundamental and the SHG beams are polarized along the dipping direction.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

SHG intensity from a DCANP film (six y-type LB layers deposited only upon one side of the substrate) as a function of the angle of rotation. The sample was rotated around an axis perpendicular to both the dipping direction and the direction of the beam propagation (pp). We rotated the sample around the y axis, keeping the x axis in the plane of incidence (ss). The input and output polarizations are indicated with the corresponding signals.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

SHG signal from six DCANP (y-type) layers as a function of the angle of polarization (ρ) of the input beam. The measurement was made at normal incidence, and the analyzer was kept aligned along the dipping direction. The sample was only on one side of the substrate. The theoretical fit is shown by the solid line.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Variation of the SHG intensity from an x-type DCANP film as a function of the angle of incidence and as a function of the input and output polarizations. Each side of the substrate contains six LB layers.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Variation of the SHG intensity from an x-type DCANP film (six layers) as a function of the angle of incidence. The sample is deposited only upon one side of the substrate. The input and output polarizations are indicated with the corresponding signals. The sample was rotated around the y axis.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Log–log plot of the SHG intensity versus the number of LB layers.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

SHG intensity from six LB layers of DCANP (the film contained only on one side of the substrate) as a function of the angle of rotation. We made the measurements at normal incidence by rotating the samples around an axis parallel to the surface normal. Both the fundamental and the SHG beams are polarized in a direction perpendicular to the surface normal (in the case of the y-type film it is the dipping direction).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

SHG intensity from six layers of the x-type DCANP film (contained only on one side of the substrate) as a function of the angle of rotation. The rotation was made around an axis in the plane of incidence (x) and perpendicular to the direction of beam propagation. The input and output polarizations are indicated with the corresponding signals.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Second-Order NLO Susceptibilities χ i j k ( 2 ) (in picometers per volt) and the Orientation Angles Θ and Φ (in degrees) for a Six-Layer DCANP Film

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I 2 ω χ eff ( 2 ) 2 sec 2 θ i ,
I 2 ω F χ eff ( 2 ) 2 E ω 4 × { 1 + cos [ 2 ω L c ( n s 2 ω cos θ θ 2 ω - n s ω cos θ s ω ) ] } .
I 2 ω p - p 2 χ x z x ( 2 ) cos 2 θ sin θ + χ x z z ( 2 ) cos θ sin 2 θ + χ z x x ( 2 ) cos 2 θ sin θ + 2 χ z z x ( 2 ) cos θ sin 2 θ + χ z z z ( 2 ) sin 3 θ + χ x x x ( 2 ) cos 3 θ 2 .
I 2 ω p - p 2 χ y z y ( 2 ) cos 2 θ sin θ + χ y z z ( 2 ) cos θ sin 2 θ + χ z y y ( 2 ) cos 2 θ sin θ + 2 χ z z y ( 2 ) cos θ sin 2 θ + χ z z z ( 2 ) sin 3 θ + χ y y y ( 2 ) cos 3 θ 2 .
χ ( 2 ) = ( 0 0 0 0 0 χ x x z ( 2 ) χ x z x ( 2 ) χ x x y ( 2 ) χ x y x ( 2 ) χ y x x ( 2 ) χ y y y ( 2 ) χ y z z ( 2 ) χ y y z ( 2 ) χ y z y ( 2 ) 0 0 0 0 χ z x x ( 2 ) χ z y y ( 2 ) χ z z z ( 2 ) χ z y z ( 2 ) χ z z y ( 2 ) 0 0 0 0 )
χ ( 2 ) = ( 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 χ x x y ( 2 ) χ x y x ( 2 ) χ y x x ( 2 ) χ y y y ( 2 ) χ y z z ( 2 ) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 χ z y z ( 2 ) χ z z y ( 2 ) 0 0 0 0 )
I 2 ω ( 2 ) ( χ y y y ( 2 ) cos 2 ρ + 2 χ y y z ( 2 ) cos ρ sin ρ + χ y x x ( 2 ) sin 2 ρ ) 2 .
δ θ = ( λ sec θ i ) / [ 2 L ( tan θ s ω - tan θ s 2 ω ) ] ,
χ y y y ( 2 ) sin 3 Θ cos 3 Φ ,
χ y x x ( 2 ) sin 3 Θ cos Φ sin 2 Φ ,
χ y z z ( 2 ) sin Θ cos 2 Θ cos Φ .
cos 2 Φ = χ y y y ( 2 ) / ( χ y y y ( 2 ) + χ y z z ( 2 ) ) ,
sin 2 Θ = ( χ y y y ( 2 ) + χ y x x ( 2 ) ) / ( χ y y y ( 2 ) + χ y x x ( 2 ) + χ y z z ( 2 ) ) .

Metrics